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GENEALOGY COLLECTION 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



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PROCEEDINGS 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTOEICAL SOCIETY. 



Committee of Publication, 

CHARLES DEANE. 
SAMUEL A. GREEN. 
CHARLES C. SMITH. 



PROCEEDINGS 



assaejrasetis Historical ^aetg, 



e <°, 



1869-1870. 



^ubitsfjeti at tfje Cfjarge of tfje ^eacotij? JFunU. 




BOSTON : 
PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY. 

M.DCCC.LXXI. 



CAMBRIDGE : 
PRESS OF JOHN WILSON AND SON. 



PREFATOKY NOTE. 



112834 



2 



This volume contains a selection from the proceedings 
of the Massachusetts Historical Society, beginning 
with the Annual Meeting in April, 1869, and ending 
with the stated monthly meeting in December, 1870. 

The engraved portraits of the Hon. Levi Lincoln, 
LL.D., the Eev. Alvan Lamson, D.D., and the Rev. 
Nathaniel L. Frothingham, D.D., were furnished by 
their respective families, at the request of the Committee ; 
and that of Isaac P. Davis, Esq., by our associate Mr. 
George T. Davis. They were engraved from photo- 
graphs by the artists whose names they bear. 

CHARLES DEANE, 

For the Committee of Publication. 
Boston, March 15, 1871. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Prefatory Note v 

Officers elected April, 1870 xiii 

Resident Members xiv 

Honorary and Corresponding Members xvi 

Members Deceased xviii 

ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL, 1869. 

Letter from Dean Stanley 1 

Letter from Rev. W. H. Milman 2 

Announcement by the President of the Death of Hon. 

George Folsom 3 

Letter from Hon. J. Hammond Trumbull 5 

Journal of a Tour to Connecticut in the Autumn of 1789, by 

Samuel Davis 9 

Report of the Standing Committee 32 

Report of the Treasurer 34 

Report of the Librarian 41 

Report of the Cabinet- Keeper 44 

List of Officers elected 45 

Memoir of Hon. Levi Lincoln, by Hon. Emory Washburn. . 47 

MAY MEETING. 84 

Letter from Henry I. Bowditch, M.D 85 

Remarks on Cornell University, by Hon. John C. Gray ... 85 

Draft of Instructions to Agents of Massachusetts Colony ... 92 
Biographical Sketch of Isaac P. Davis, Esq., by Hon. George 

T. Davis 94 

JUNE MEETING. 100 

Remarks by the President 100 

Letter from Col. Brantz Mayer .103 



Viii CONTENTS. 

PAGTC 

Letter from Hon. Hugh B. Grigsby 105 

Remarks of Mr. Parkman on a Letter from Gen. Montcalm to 

M. deMole 112 

Copy of the Letter in French and in English 117 

Correspondence between Mr. Parkman and the Marquis de 

Montcalm 126 



JULY MEETING. 129 

Letters from J. Vernon to Joseph Williamson 131 

AUGUST MEETING. 135 

Letter from Capt. G. V. Fox 135 

Letter from Commodore John Rodgers 136 

Announcement of the Death of Hon. William Brigham, and 

Resolutions adopted by the Society ........ 138 

Letter from the President announcing the Death of William 

Winthrop, Esq 139 

Alphabetical List of the Sons of Liberty who dined at Dorches- 
ter, 1769 140 



SEPTEMBER MEETING. 143 



OCTOBER MEETING. 144 

Announcement by the President of the Death of Rev. Joseph 

B. Felt 145 

Resolution adopted by the Society 146 

Remarks by the President on the Death of Mr. William Win- 
throp 146 

Communication from Mr. Wiiitmore relative to Rev. John 

Hutchinson 143 

Remarks of Mr. Lawrence 151 

Letter of Father Druillettes to John Winthrop, Jr 152 

NOVEMBER MEETING. 155 

Announcement of the Death of George Peabody, and Resolution 

adopted by the Society 155 



CONTENTS. ix 



PAGE 

DECEMBER MEETING. 159 

Memorandum from Mr. Henry Gillman, accompanying a Gift 

to the Society 159 

"Cardiff Giant" Controversy 161 

Letter from Henry Pickering, Esq., to Hon. Charles W. Upham 162 

SPECIAL MEETING, DECEMBER 21. 164 

Letter from Mr. W. S. Appleton, noticing the Death of John 

Bruce, F.S.A 164 

Letters read by the President 165 

Paper on "The Forms used in issuing Letters-Patent by the 

Crown of England," by Mr. Deane 166 

Remarks on the same by Prof. Joel Parker 188 

JANUARY MEETING, 1870. 197 

Letter from Thomas Carlyle 198 

Gifts from Mr. H. A. S. D. Dudley 201 

Proclamation for a General Embargo, in 1711, by Gov. Joseph 

Dudley 206 

Life of Gov. Thomas Dudley 207 

FEBRUARY MEETING. 222 

Letter from Mr. Charles E. Norton 223 

Letter from Hon. Horace Binney to Hon. Hugh B. Grigsby . 224 

Letter relating to the Battle of Bunker Hill 226 

MARCH MEETING. 228 

Letter from Henry E. Pierrepont, Esq 229 

SPECIAL MEETING, MARCH 18. 231 

ANNUAL MEETING, APRIL, 1870. 233 

Remarks by the President on the Death of Hon. Gulian C. 

Verplanck, LL.D 233 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

On the Death of Nathaniel L. Frothingham, D.D 235 

Resolution adopted by the Society 238 

Remarks by Dr. Walker 238 

Account of Capt. F. Lahrbush 241 

List of Officers elected 243 

Report of the Standing Committee 244 

Report of the Treasurer 246 

Report of the Librarian 249 

Report of the Cabinet- Keeper 251 

Letter from William Alexander Hyrne to William Tilghman . 253 

Letter from J. Francis Fisher, Esq 256 

Memoir of Alvan Lamson, D.D., by Andrew P. Peabody, D.D. 258 
Memoir of Hon. Charles G. Loring, by Theophilus Parsons, 

LL.D 263 

SPECIAL MEETING, APRIL 28. 29] 

Letters read by the President 291 

Paper on " Medals and Coins relating to America," by Mr. W. S. 

Appleton 293 

Letter relating to the Battle of Lexington 306 

"Original Bank Circular, 1809" 307 

MAY MEETING. 308 

Letter relating to the Death of William Pynchon 309 

Paper by Hon. George T. Davis on the " St. Regis Bell" . . 311 

JUNE MEETING. 322 

Remarks by the President on announcing the Death of Win- 

throp Sargent, Esq 322 

Memorial to George Peabody in Westminster Abbey .... 325 

Letter from Benjamin Franklin to Edmund Quincy 326 

An early Paper of Daniel Webster on the Acquisition of the 

Floridas 329 

Lines to the Besieged Inhabitants of Boston 331 

JULY MEETING. 333 
Remarks by Mr. W. G. Brooks on exhibiting Specimens of 

Wall-coverings from the " Royal House " in Medford . . 333 



CONTENTS. XI 

PAGE 

AUGUST MEETING. 335 

Communication by the President on the Hutchinson Papers . 335 

Letter from Daniel Clark to John Winthrop, Jr 344 

SEPTEMBER MEETING. 345 

Paper by Lucius R. Paige, D.D 345 

Letter from Rev. Robert C. Waterston to Mr. Deane . . . . 347 

Tributes to Hon. John P. Kennedy, by the President . . . 354 

Prof. James Russell Lowell 365 

Hon. George S. Hillard 367 

Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D 369 

Act for the Preservation of Ancient Town Records 370 

Memoir of Nathaniel L. Frothingham, D.D., by Frederic 

H. Hedge, D.D 371 

OCTOBER MEETING. 388 

Anecdote of Governor Brooks 389 

Extracts from Col. Paul Revere's Day-book 390 

List of Protesters against the Solemn League and Covenant, 

and Addressers to Governor Hutchinson . 392 

Communication from Judge Metcalf 395 

Communication from Mr. Deane respecting Governor Bradford's 

Dialogue 396 

Copy of the Dialogue 407 

Verses by Governor Bradford 465 

NOVEMBER MEETING. 483 

Letter from Mr. Charles J. Hoadly 483 

Account of a Portrait of Sir William Phipps, by Hon. George 

T. Davis 484 

Letter from Hon. Hugh B. Grigsby 485 

DECEMBER MEETING. 492 

Letter of Major Abraham Eustis, giving an Account of the 

Capture of York, now "Toronto" 492 

Letter from Mr. George H. Chapman, containing an Account of 

the Fenwick Family 497 

List of Donors 498 

Index 502 



OFFICERS 

OF THE 

MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

Elected April 14, 1870. 



HON. ROBERT C. WLNTHROP, LL.D Boston 

HON. CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS, LL.D Boston. 

HON. EMORY WASHBURN, LL.D Cambridge. 

SUtorbittg Jtejeiarg. 
CHARLES DEANE, A.M Cambridge. 

Comsgonbmg Uttmiarg. 
REV. CHANDLER ROBBLNS, D.D Boston. 

ftreasaar. 
HON. RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, A.M Charlestown. 

librarian. 
SAMUEL A. GREEN, M.D Boston. 

Cabitttt-Jlfceper. 
HENRY G. DENNY, A.M. ...*....*....*'. Boston. 

JSianbing Committer 

REV. GEORGE W. BLAGDEN, D.D Boston. 

HON. JAMES M. ROBBLNS Boston. 

HENRY W. TORREY, A.M Cambridge. 

THEODORE LYMAN, S.B Brookline. 

REV. HENRY M. DEXTER, D.D Boston. 

[xiii] 



RESIDENT MEMBERS, 



AT THE DATE OP THE PUBLICATION OP THIS VOLUME, IN THE ORDER OP 
THEIR ELECTION. 



Hon. James Savage, LL.D. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, LL.D. 
Hon. Charles Francis Adams, LL.D. 
Rev. George E. Ellis, D.D. 
Hon. John C. Gray, LL.D. 
Hon. George S. Hillard, LL.D. 
Hon. William Minot, A.M. 
Hon. Peleg W. Chandler, A.M. 
Rev. George W. Blagden, D.D. 
Rev. Lucius R. Paige, D.D. 
Hon. Solomon Lincoln, A.M. 
Rev. Chandler Robbins, D.D. 
Francis Bowen, A.M. 
John Langdon Sibley, A.M. 
Hon. Richard Frothingham, A.M. 
Hon. Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, M.D. 
Henry Wheatland, M.D. 
Charles Deane, A.M. 
Francis Parkman, LL.B. 
Ellis Ames, A.M. 
Hon. John H. Clifford, LL.D. 
Hon. Emory Washburn, LL.D. 
Rev. Samuel K. Lothrop, D.D. 
Rev. William Newell, D.D. 
Hon. Lorenzo Sabine, A.M. 
Col. Thomas Aspinwall, A.M. 
Rev. John S. Barry, A.M. 
John A. Lowell, LL.D 
Hon. John Lothrop Motley, LL.D. 
Hon. Charles H. Warren, A.M. 



Rev. James Walker, D.D. 
Rev. Edmund H. Sears, A.M. 
Oliver Wendell Holmes, M.D. 
Henry W. Longfellow, LL.D. 
Rev. Frederic H.'Hedge, D.D. 
Jacob Bigelow, LL.D. 
Hon. George T. Davis, LL.B. 
Hon. Stephen Salisbury, A.M. 
Henry Austin Whitney, A.M. 
Rev. William S. Bartlet, A.M. 
Josiah G. Holland, M.D. 
Rev. Charles Brooks, A.M. 
Leverett Saltonstall, A.M. 
Rev. Alonzo H. Quint, D.D. 
Samuel F. Haven, A.M. 
Hon. Richard H. Dana, Jr., A.M. 
Hon. George Tyler Bigelow, LL.D. 
Hon. Caleb Cushing, LL.D. 
Henry W. Torrey, A.M. 
Hon. Joel Parker, LL.D. 
Williams Latham, A.B. 
Hon. Charles Hudson, A.M. 
Rev. Robert C. Waterston, A.M. 
Hon. Theophilus Parsons, LL.D. 
Thomas C. Amory, A.M. 
Hon. Benjamin F. Thomas, LL.D. 
Samuel A. Green, M.D. 
Hon. James M. Robbins. 
Charles Eliot Norton, A.M. 
Hon. John J. Babson. 



[xiv] 



RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



XV 



Robert Bennett Forbes, Esq. 
Rev. Edward E. Hale, A.M. 
Rev. Andrew P. Peabody, D.D. 
Hon. Theron Metcalf, LL.D. 
William G. Brooks, Esq. 
Hon. Horace Gray, Jr., A.M. 
Charles Folsom, A.M. 
Amos A. Lawrence, A.M. 
Rev. Edwards A. Park, D.D. 
Charles Sprague, A.M. 
Hon. Francis E. Parker, A.B. 
William H. Whitmore, A.M. 
George B. Emerson, LL.D. 
James Russell Lowell, A.M. 
Rev. Nicholas Hoppin, D.D. 
Nathaniel Thayer, A.M. 
Erastus B. Bigelow, LL.D. 
William C. Endicott, A.B. 
Hon. Eben. Rockwood Hoar, LL.D. 



Hon. Seth Ames, A.M. 
Josiah P. Quincy, A.M. 
Samuel Eliot, LL.D. 
George Bemis, A.M. 
Henry G. Denny, A.M. 
Rev. Thomas Hill, D.D. 
Charles C. Smith, Esq. 
Hon. George S. Hale, A.B. 
Hon. Charles W. Upham, A.M. 
Jeffries Wyman, M.D. 
Robert M. Mason, Esq. 
William S. Appleton, A.M. 
Rev. Henry M. Dexter, D.D. 
Theodore Lyman, S.B. 
Edmund Quincy, A.M. 
Hon. William T. Davis, A.B. 
Rev. George Punchard, A.M. 
Abner C. Goodell, Esq. 



HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING 
MEMBERS, 



DELECTED UNDER THE ORIGINAL ACT OF INCORPORATION, 1794, IN THE ORDER OP 
THEIR ELECTION. 



M. Cesar Moreau. 

Erastus Smith, Esq. 

Joshua Francis Fisher, A.M. 

T. A. Moerenhout, Esq. 

Rev. Luther Halsey, D.D. 

Rev. Leonard Bacon, D.D. 

George Catlin, Esq. 

John Winthrop, Esq. 

Don J. Jose da Costa de Macedo. 

Rt. Rev. William B. Stevens, D.D. 

Henry Black, LL.D., C.B. 

Richard Almack, F.S.A. 

John Romeyne Brodhead, A.M. 

Major E. B. Jarvis. 

E. George Squier, Esq. 

Thomas Donaldson, Esq. 

Hon. George Bancroft, LL.D. 
[xvi] 



J. Hammond Trumbull, Esq. 

Robert Bigsby, LL.D. 

James Ricker, Jr., Esq. 

Henry Stevens, F.S.A. 

Cyrus Eaton, A.M. 

Frederick Griffin, Esq. 

John Carter Brown, A.M. 

Rev. William S. Southgate. 

Hon. Samuel G. Arnold, A.M. 

John Gilmary Shea, LL.D. 

James Lenox, Esq. 

Rt. Rev. theBishop of Oxford,D.D., 

now of Winchester. 
Earl Stanhope, D.C.L. 
Hon. John R. Bartlett, A.M. 
G. P. Faribault, Esq. 
William Paver, Esq. 



HONORARY AND CORRESPONDING MEMBERS, 



ELECTED SINCE THE PASSAGE OF THE ACT OF 1857. 



Honorary. 
Francois Pierre Guillaume Guizot, 

LL.D. 
Baron Charles Dupin. 
M. Francois A. A. Mignet. 
Count Adolphe de Circourt. 
Hon. Horace Binney, LL.D. 
William Cullen Bryant, LL.D. 
Count Agenor de Gasparin. 
Hon. Millard Fillmore, LL.D. 
George Grote, D.C.L. 
M. Edouard Rene Lefebre Laboulaye. 
Hon. John A. Dix. 
Hon. William H. Seward, LL.D. 
Leopold von Ranke. 
James Anthony Froude, M.A. 
The Very Rev. Arthur Penrhyn 

Stanley, D.D. 
M. Louis Adolphe Thiers. 
Thomas Carlyle, D.C.L. 

Corresponding. 

Rev. William B. Sprague, D.D. 

Rev. Samuel Osgood, D.D. 

William Durrant Cooper, F.S.A. 

Edmund B. CTCallaghan, LL.D. 

Benjamin F. French, Esq. 

Francis Lieber, LL.D. 

William H. Trescot, Esq. 

John G. Kohl, LL.D. 

Hon. George P. Marsh, LL.D. 

Benjamin R. Winthrop, Esq. 

J. Carson Brevoort, Esq. 

The Rt. Rev. Lord Arthur Hervey. 

Horatio Gates Somerby, Esq. 

George H. Moore, LL.D. 



Hon . Hugh Blair Grigsby, LL.D. 
W. Noel Sainsbury, Esq. 
S. Austin Allibone, LL.D. 
Henry T. Parker, A.M. 
Rev. Leonard Woods, D.D. 
Benson J. Lossing, A.M. 
Lyman C. Draper, Esq. 
George Washington Greene, A.M. 
Rev. William G. Eliot, D.D. 
Henry B. Dawson, Esq. 
Prof. Goldwin Smith, LL.D. 
John Forster, LL.D. 
George T. Curtis, A.B. 
Evert A. Duyckinck, Esq. 
James Parton, Esq. 
William V. Wells, Esq. 
John Meredith Read, Jr., Esq. 
Joseph Jackson Howard, LL.D. 
Brantz Mayer, Esq. 

Rev. Theodore Dwight Woolsey, 
D.D. 

John Winter Jones, F.S.A. 

John Gough Xichols, F.S.A. 

Richard Henry Major, F.S.A. 

Rev. Edmond de Pressense. 

Charles J. Stille, LL.D. 

William W. Story, A.M. 

M. Jules Marcou. 

Rev. Barnas Sears, D.D. 

Thomas B. Akins, Esq. 

M. Pierre Margry. 

Charles J. Hoadly, Esq. 

John Foster Kirk, Esq. 

Henry T. Tuckerman, A.M. 

William T. Budington, D.D. 

Benjamin Scott, F.R.A.S. 
fxvii] 



MEMBERS DECEASED. 



Resident, Honorary, and Corresponding Members who have died since the 
publication of the last volume of Proceedings, June 1, 1869 ; or of whose 
death information has been received since that date : — 



Resident. 



Hon William Brigham, A.B. 

Rev. Joseph B. Felt, D.D. 

Rev. Nathaniel L. Frothingham,D.D. 



Hon. David Sears, A.M. 
George Ticknor, LL.D. 
Joseph Palmer, M.D. 



Honorary and Corresponding. 



William Winthrop, Esq. 
George Peabody, D.C.L. 
John Bruce, F.S.A. 
Hon. William Willis, A.M. 
[xviii] 



Hon. Gulian C. Verplanck, LL.D. 
Winthrop Sargent, A.M. 
Hon. John P. Kennedy, LL.D. 
Buckingham Smith, Esq. 



PROCEEDINGS 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTOEICAL SOCIETY, 



ANNUAL MEETING, April, 1869. 

THE Society held its Annual Meeting this day, Thursday, 
15th April, 1869, at eleven o'clock, a.m. ; the President, 
the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the last meeting. 

The President said that the business of the Monthly Meet- 
ing would be proceeded with before that of the Annual Meeting 
was taken up. 

The Cabinet-keeper reported a gift to the Cabinet, of one 
hundred and forty-two engraved portraits from our associate, 
Mr. Whitmore. 

The Corresponding Secretary read letters of acceptance from 
Charles J. Stille, of Philadelphia ; from William W. Story, of 
Rome, Italy ; and from Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Dean of 
Westminster. 

The letter from Dean Stanley here follows : — 

Deanery, Westminster, Feb. 27, 1869. 

Sir, — I beg to return my sincere thanks for the great honor which 
has been done to me by my election as an Honorary Member of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Few rewards can be more deeply felt by an Englishman than the 
knowledge that any of his labors have been appreciated by his kinsmen 
on the further side of the Atlantic, and that he has in any way contrib- 



2 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

uted to strengthen those bonds of intellectual and moral sympathy 

which make us feel that, amidst whatever differences of government, 

civil or ecclesiastical, we are still of the same flesh and blood, heirs of the 

same great race and language, — and hoping for a like glorious future. 

It is one of the many charms of my present position in Westminster 

Abbey that one of the monuments in its walls is inscribed with the name 

of a Governor of Massachusetts, at a time when our countries were 

still undivided. I shall now regard it with a fresh interest, and shall 

hope to welcome any members of your Society to the Abbey, not merely 

as American citizens, but as my colleagues in the same institution. 

I beg to remain, yours faithfully, 

Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, 

Dean of Westminster, 
The Rev. Chandler Robbins, Cor. Secretary. 

The President communicated from Francis Lieber, LL.D., a 
pamphlet by him, entitled " Fragments of Political Science on 
Nationalism and Inter-Nationalism. " 

He also communicated from W. F. Goodwin, Captain in the 
United-States army, now stationed at Richmond, Ya., a book, 
in facsimile, of the arms of Goodwin, and of Bradbury. 

The President read a letter from A. W. Thayer, Esq., United- 
States Consul at Trieste, in which he presented to the Society 
a copy, kindly furnished by Barone Revoltella for the purpose, 
of a book, entitled " II Diciasette Maggio M dccc lxvii nei fasti 
della chiesa tergestina per la sapiente generosa pieta di Pas- 
quale Barone Revoltella Imperituro : Memorie per Luigi Cesare 
Dr. Pavissich, * * * Trieste." 

A beautiful volume, entitled " The Melrose Memorial," was 
presented to the Society, by the Town of Melrose. 

Suitable acknowledgments were ordered for these several 
gifts. 

The President read the following letter from the Rev. W. H. 
Milman, which, he said, though not intended for publication, 
was too interesting to be lost to our Proceedings : — 

15, Cornwall Gardens, Queen's Gate, W., March 2, 1869. 
My dear Sir, — I write at my mother's request, who even yet 
does not feel equal to acknowledging for herself kindness so great as 



1869.] DEATH OF HON. GEORGE FOLSOM. 3 

yours and Mr. Motley's, to thank you heartily for the handsome and 
affectionate tribute paid by you publicly to the memory of my dear 
father, and for the letter you were good enough to write to her. 

I must also ask you to express to the Massachusetts Historical So- 
ciety, my mother's gratitude for the Resolution of appreciation of my 
father's life and labors, and of sympathy with herself in her bereave- 
ment, passed by the Society. 

The great sorrow consequent upon her loss has been not perhaps 
diminished, but emptied of much of its bitterness, by the gratifying 
testimony which has been borne by the foremost men of all classes and 
of all parties on our side the Atlantic, to the brightness of my father's 
talents, to the genial loving-kindness of his disposition, to the purity 
and simplicity of his character ; and now it is a very great additional 
consolation to hear voices from across the ocean, which assure us that 
in the New World, too, he had won the admiration, the esteem, the 
affection of all that is most distinguished there ; of all there whose 
kindly regard and approval is most worth having ; whose praise is 
praise indeed. 

You know my father never wrote to secure applause, never sup- 
pressed a conviction or modified an expression to gain it ; yet when he 
had done his part, and his work had to be judged, there was no favor- 
able verdict for which he looked more eagerly, or which more assured 
him that he had done well what he had done, than that which came to 
him from the great new home of our race. 

As Mr. Motley signed his name to your letter to my mother, may I 
ask you to communicate to him this our answer ? 

Believe me, my dear sir, yours very truly and gratefully, 

William H. Milman. 

The Honorable Robert Winthrop. 

The President spoke of the death of the Hon. George Folsom, 
a Corresponding Member, in the following language : — 

The death of the Hon. George Folsom has recently been 
announced by an ocean telegram. He has been on the roll 
of our Corresponding Members since 1836. He was born on 
the 23d of May, 1802 ; was graduated at Harvard University 
in 1822 ; studied law in the office of Judge Shepley, at 
Saco, Me. ; and, while a student there, wrote a history of some 
of the early settlements of that part of our country. He 



4 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April 

entered on the practice of his profession at Worcester, Mass., 
where he soon became associated with the American Antiqua- 
rian Society, and, as Chairman of the Committee of Publication, 
edited the second volume of its Transactions. 

About the year 1837, he removed to the city of New York, 
and became a member of the New- York Historical Society. 
He was soon elected its Librarian, and took a very leading 
part in the restoration of that Society to its original activity 
and usefulness. In 1841, he was the principal, if not exclusive, 
editor of a volume of Collections, devoted to the Dutch 
Annals of the State, upon which a very high value was placed 
by historical students. His next publication was a Transla- 
tion from the Spanish, of the Despatches of Hernando Cortes, 
written from Mexico in 1520-1526, with a valuable introduc- 
tion and elaborate notes. About the same time, he published 
anonymously a little volume, entitled " Mexico in 1842." 

Mr. Folsom was elected to the Senate of New York in 1844, 
and thus became a member, ex-officio, of the Court of Errors of 
that State, in whose discussions and decisions his early legal 
training was turned to the best account. In 1850, he was ap- 
pointed, by General Taylor, Charge d' Affaires at the Hague, 
where he remained until 1854, discharging the duties, and 
administering the hospitalities of his mission, to the entire 
satisfaction of his own government, and of the country to which 
he was accredited. 

After travelling in Europe for a couple of years, he returned 
to New York, and renewed his relations to the various literary 
and charitable associations with which he had been previously 
connected. He was a Director of the New- York Institution 
for the Deaf and Dumb, President of the Citizens' Savings 
Bank, and President of the American Ethnological Society. 
The state of his health, however, had incapacitated him, of late, 
for any active pursuit of literary or historical studies ; and he 
had repeatedly sought restoration in tours to Europe. He 
died at Rome on the 27th of March last. 



1869.] LETTER FROM J. HAMMOND TRUMBULL. 5 

Mr. Folsom married a daughter of the late Benjamin Win- 
throp, Esq., of New York, by whom he had several children, 
and through whom he enjoyed a large fortune. She died some 
years before him. His large and valuable library was the con- 
solation of his darkened home and failing health. 

Dr. Ellis announced that the Sewall Papers, purchased by 
the Society, had been received by the Committee, from the 
Sewall family, and were now deposited in the Library of the 
Society. 

Dr. Hoppin spoke of having recently received a letter from 
the Eev. John Laviscount Anderton, of Chislehurst, Kent, 
England, a descendant of Lieutenant-Governor Thomas Oliver, 
inquiring if Copley ever painted miniatures, he having in his 
possession a miniature of Mr. Oliver, said to be by Copley. 

Remarks were made by Messrs. Whitmore, Amory, and E. 
Ames, all expressing the opinion that Copley, at one time, 
painted miniatures. 

The President read the following . letter from our Corre- 
sponding Member, J. Hammond Trumbull, Esq., of Hartford : — 

Hartford, Conn., March 29th, 1869. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 

President of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Dear Sir, — Several years ago, you informed the Historical Soci- 
ety that you had discovered, in a manuscript memorandum by Ebeling, 
a possible solution of the question of authorship of the English trans- 
lation of Chastellux's " Voyages dans l'Amerique." This memorandum 
gave the name of the translator as Grieve, — " living at Morly, near 
Paris," in 1787, or afterwards. A few months after your communica- 
tion of this discovery, a writer in the " Historical Magazine," for Jan- 
uary, 1863, called attention to the fact, that, in Watt's " Bibliotheca 
Britannica," the translation is attributed to " J. Kent, Esq.," and sug- 
gested that " Grieve " may have been an alias, assumed for purposes 
of secrecy. 

John Kent, " a young man of good parts, upon town," — as " Jun- 
ius," wrote of him to Woodfall, in 1769, — translated Chastellux's essay 
" De la Felicite Publique," and published it, under the title of " An 
Essay on Public Happiness," &c. ; and he afterwards (in 1776) pub- 



6 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

lished a " Picture of the Condition and Manners of the People of 
Rome," &c. But I have not been able to find any authority for Watt's 
attribution to him of the translation of "Voyages dans l'Amerique," 
nor any evidence that Kent had ever been in this country. I have 
now sufficient proof that Watt was misinformed, and that Ebeling 
was right in ascribing the translation to a Mr. Grieve, — or, as he 
wrote his own name to a letter now before me, Greive, — who was liv- 
ing in France between 1783 and 1793. 

As you remarked, in mentioning your discovery to the Society iu 
1862, that this question of authorship " had frequently engaged your 
attention," I shall offer no apology for communicating to you this evi- 
dence, — which, though circumstantial, appears to me to be conclusive. 

From the translator's notes, we learn some particulars of his early 
life and of his social position. From an allusion to Dr. Witherspoon's 
"displays of eloquence at presbyteries and synods" (vol. i. p. 163), 
and from the mention of his " old friend Rumney," whom he met 
" after an absence of twenty years," at Alexandria, Va., it may be in- 
ferred that the translator's family lived near the Scottish border. Dr. 
Rumney's " father had been forty years master of the Latin school at 
Alnwick in Northumberland, and his uncle [the Rev. Joseph Rumney] 
clergyman of Berwick " (i. 66). The translator had " spent some years 
in the compting-house of one of the most considerable merchants of 
London, a native of Switzerland" having purchased that privilege by 
" the moderate premium of one thousand guineas " (ii. 355). He had 
been "the intimate friend" of General Montgomery, — "deep in the 
secrets of his head and heart," — before that hero abandoned the ser- 
vice of Great Britain, in 1772 ( i. 92 ; ii. 375). After the commence- 
ment of the American war, he had lived some time in the West Indies, 
— at Porto Rico (i. 362 ; ii. 195). In 1777, he met Silas Deane, and 
"supped with him, on his return from Havre de Grace " (i. 320). In 
1780, he appears to have been in this country (i. 99), but must have 
returned to Europe not many months afterwards, for he was in Eng- 
land in the autumn or early winter of the same year (ii. 186), and in 
Holland in August, 1781, and "saw the Dutch fleet sail, and return 
after the engagement" off the Dogger Bank (i. 193). He was in 
America again, very early in 1782, and appears to have remained at 
Philadelphia or in that neighborhood till the beginning of May (ii. 
182, 37 : i. 182). He called on General Washington, having " partic- 
ular business to transact with him, respecting the estates of an old 
friend to whom he was executor"; and afterwards (in company with 



1869.] LETTER FROM J. HAMMOND TRUMBULL. 7 

Dr. Rumney) he visited Washington's home in Virginia, " passing a 
day or two with Mrs. Washington " and her family (i. 67, 115, 194). 
In October, he accompanied the French army on their march north- 
ward, " nearly the whole way from Alexandria to the North River," — 
going on from Philadelphia to the camp at Verplanck's Point, in com- 
pany with Mr. Craigie (apothecary-general for the northern depart- 
ment). He dined with Washington at headquarters, "spent a day 
or two at the camp," and then " continued his journey to Massachu- 
setts" (i. 67, 126, 335; ii. 212). In November, he "was residing at 
Salem " ; " was present at the [Association ball] at Boston," November 
14th; having, by "his accidental absence" from Goodhue's Tavern in 
Salem, on the 13th, missed a visit of the Marquis de Chastellux to 
that place (ii. 254, 259). The next month, December, 1782, he sailed,^ 
for Europe, with four officers of Rochambeau's army for fellow-pas- 
sengers, and, after a seven weeks' voyage, arrived at Bordeaux in France 
(ii. 77 ; i. 106), — where we lose sight of him in the notes. 

The letter to which I haVe before referred, is dated from " Bordeaux, 
21 January, 1783," and addressed to Silas Deane, then at Paris, by his 
" much obliged and obedient servant, George Greive," — who " arrived 
a few days ago in the General Galvez, of Salem, and has now the 
pleasure of enclosing [to Mr. Deane] a letter which he received from 
[his] brother in Hartford, in October last." " As his stay at Hartford 
was only transient," he had " not the opportunity of availing himself 
of those tenders of civility which [Mr. Deane's] brother kindly made 
him, in consequence of Mr. Deane's friendly letter of introduction" &c. 
The writer's address was " at Messrs. French & Neveu," Bordeaux, 
where he proposed to stay " three weeks or a month." 

And now, who was this George Greive? A letter published in 
Oswald's "Independent Gazetteer" (Philadelphia), June 27, 1787, — 
an extract from which was printed in the " Historical Magazine," vol. 
i. p. 90, gives a " history of this same translator and brother traveller 
of the Marquis de Chastelleux." " He was an attorney at Northum- 
berland, of some little abilities, but of more impudence," who went to 
London, was employed by Almon to superintend the printing of the 
" London Courant," took an active part in the contested election for 
Westminster (in 1780), and "somewhat distinguished himself" by his 
zeal and success in procuring votes for Fox and Sir G. Rodney. Not 
long afterwards, having been detected in " the most detestable of all 
crimes," he " made his escape to Holland, and soon after from thence 
to America." Mr. Adams, " who was a f Amsterdam when the fugitive 



8 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

embarked for America," is censured (by implication), for not having 
" apprised his constituents, or friends," of this man's " infamous char- 
acter," of which, " it is said, he was not ignorant." 

The letter-writer, whoever he was — possibly Colonel Oswald himself, 

was evidently disposed to present the character of the translator 

(whom he does not name), in the worst possible -light. The sketch 
can have had no other original than George Greive, — who, however, 
may not have been quite so bad as he is painted. He was bad enough, 
certainly, — or he would not have written his notes to Chastellux. 
Brissot was right in advising readers of the translation, that " il faut 
se defier excessivement de tout ce qu'il dit pour et contre." 

From an obituary notice in the " Gentleman's Magazine," vol. lxiii. 
p. 1216 (Supplement for 1793), I learn that George Greive was the 
younger son of Mr. Richard Greive, attorney-at-law in Alnwick, — "a 
branch of a family settled in trade at Berwick-upon-Tweed," — who, 
" zealous in the pursuits of his profession, and having talents, left, for a 
place so remote from the capital, a very considerable fortune to his 
children." His elder son, " David Richard Grieve [as the name is 
printed, 1. c] Esq., of Swarland Hall, near Felton, in Northumberland, 
for which county he was high-sheriff in 1788," died at his London 
residence in Soho Square, December 16, 1793, — without issue. His 
brother, " George Grieve, Esq., now in his forty-fifth year, was a young 
gentleman of great promise, to whom his father left £20,000, most of 
which he spent in search of popularity. He was bound apprentice to 
Peter Thellusson [' a native of Switzerland '], merchant in London. 
Being a man of warmth and vivacity, he was an active member of the 
Bill of Rights Club, to which he was, for a time, secretary. About 
this time he was a candidate for the shrievalty of the city of London, 
in which he was unsuccessful. For many years past he has lived in 
France, and has employed himself in literary pursuits, such as a trans- 
lation of Baron Tott's Memoirs, published here in 1785, ['translated 
from the French by an English gentleman at Paris, under the imme- 
diate inspection of the Baron,' ] and some other works ; and where, we 
are told, he has long lamented his youthful levities, and now, at Bor- 
deaux, sighs for the sweets of his native land, and of a virtuous liberty." 
I have not taken the trouble to trace his history further. His iden- 
tification with the translator of Chastellux's " Voyages " appears to me 
to be complete, though it is established by circumstantial evidence 
only. I trust that you will excuse the length of this letter, if it dis- 
poses finally of a question which has puzzled many readers, and of 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 9 

which the error of Watt in the "Bibliotheca Britannica" has led 
others to a mistaken answer. 

I remain, dear sir, very respectfully and truly yours, 

J. Hammond Trumbull. 

P.S. — In the management of the "London Courant," in 1779 and 
1780, Greive was associated with Hugh Boyd, one of the putative 
authors of "Junius." In July, 1781, " the late printer of the ' London 
Courant,' " as the first publisher of " a libel against the Russian Am- 
bassador " [M. de Simolin], was sentenced to pay a fine of £100, to be 
imprisoned for a year, and at the expiration of his confinement be set 
on the pillory for one hour." The attorney-general " expatiated on the 
enormity of the libel " ; and the printers of Jive other London journals, 
which had copied it from the " Courant," were punished by fine and 
imprisonment. See " Gentleman's Magazine," vol. li. p. 340, and " An- 
nual Register," xxiv. 184. Greive was in Holland in August, 1781 ; 
and Oswald's letter-writer says that he " made his escape from the pil- 
lory at London, for the most detestable of all crimes." Whether or not, 
the crime alluded to was the libel against De Simolin, I cannot say. 

Mr. Davis offered for publication a manuscript diary of what 
was described on the title-page as a journey from Plymouth to 
Connecticut, by Samuel Davis, in 1789. The journey was in 
fact from Plymouth to Fairfield, in Connecticut, and thence by 
water to Xew York. It was performed to Fairfield on horse- 
back, with a companion, Mr. Barnabas Hedge, Jr., accompany- 
ing in a chaise. The writer was an accurate and tasteful 
observer, and his accounts, both of things and people, have a 
singular freshness and interest. The diary has also some 
original drawings of objects which attracted his special atten- 
tion. 

JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. — AUTUMN OF 1789* 

August 27. — Leave Plymouth at noon, in company with Mr. B. 
Hedge, Jr., on a tour to Fairfield, in the State of Connecticut. As I 
travelled on horseback, it gave me an opportunity to make many 

* Samuel Davis, writer of this journal, was born in Plymouth, March 5, 1765, and 
died unmarried, July 10, 1829. He was a member of this Society from 1S12 until his 
death. His epitaph, written by his brother, the Hon. John Davis, for many years a Presi- 

2 



10 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

remarks, which are here transcribed from my original memoranda, 
made en passant. Lodged at Cushing's, Hingham Plain, this night. 
On our way hither, we passed a party going to Plymouth : Mr. Rus- 
sell, Mr. Brimmer, Mr. Pepping, ladies, and others. 

August 28. — Breakfasted at Vose's, Milton Hill, and passed this 
day at Boston. Lodged at the Golden Ball (Mrs." Loring's). 

August 29. — Leave Boston, and are detained this day at Cam- 
bridge by rain. Visit the public rooms of the University ; Mr. Fox- 
croft's ; take tea with him ; lodge at Bradish's. 

Sunday, August 30. — Visit Mr. Brattle's gardens, and proceed on 
our journey through Watertown and Waltham to Weston. Breakfast 
at Flagg's, the stage inn, and a very good one, thirteen miles from 
Cambridge. Dine at Williams's (Marlborough), fourteen and one-half 
miles from Weston. Arrived at Worcester, having passed East and 
West Sudbury, Northborough, and Shrewsbury ; the last stage eighteen 
miles. In the latter place we were stopped by a warden (General 
Ward), for travelling on the Sabbath. " Mr. H. made such apologies as 
gave us a passport. Near Worcester the road passes a large and 
pleasant (Long) pond ; and in Sudbury are extensive marshes, and a 
causeway, which in some seasons is overflowed, by what I suppose to 
be a branch of Concord River, which in its turn is a tributary to the 
Merrimac. 

WORCESTER. 

From a hill, as we approach, Worcester appears pleasantly situated 
in a vale. Put up at Patch's, the stage inn, and find Mr. James a 
boarder here, — my former schoolmaster ; pass the evening with him 
at Mr. William Sever's. At Northborough, the county of Worcester 
commences. I saw nothing in that place worthy of further remark. 
At Shrewsbury, near the meeting-house, the ground is high, the pros- 
pect extensive and interesting. On the right lies Princeton and 
Wachuset hills, twelve miles distant, from whence, we are told, the 
spires of Boston and the Atlantic may be seen, distant fifty miles. 

dent of this Society, describes him and his character with more accuracy than perhaps is 
usually found in epitaphs. It is as follows: — 

" From life on earth our pensive friend retires, 

His dust commingling with his pilgrim sires. 

In thoughtful walk their every path he traced, 

Their toils, their tombs, their faithful page embraced: 

Peaceful and pure and innocent as they, 

Like them to rise to everlasting day." — g.t.d. 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 11 

Worcester is a neat and flourishing town. The houses are generally 
painted. There is a mode of finishing prevails here, somewhat peculiar. 
The jut passes round the corners of their houses two or three feet ; 
and the window-caps are ornamented with modillions. Mr. Sever 
observed that a spirit of building prevailed, and that the greater part 
of the principal street had been built since his residence here, a period 
of seven or eight years. Their printing-office is celebrated; their 
court-house is a neat edifice ; and their farms are well cultivated. 

August 31. — Breakfast at Spencer (Jenk's), twelve miles from 
"Worcester. Have had the agreeable companions of one-mile stones 
this stage, which are continued to Springfield. Our route this morn- 
ing has been through Leicester and a continued range of long and 
rugged hills, of extensive prospect indeed. Leicester is situate on very 
high ground. The meeting-house is a decent edifice, very illy painted. 
Near it, is the academy, founded by the late Mr. Lopez, a worthy 
merchant, of the Jewish tribe. It is a long building, of two stories, 
with a cupola and bell, and two entrances, fronted by porticos : appears 
to be decaying. Mr. James observed, at Worcester, that he supposed the 
preceptor and pupils would be removed to a handsome new school-house 
in that town. Mr. H.'s chaise broke this stage, and while assisting 
him my horse walked back a mile or more. Spencer meeting-house is 
painted ; without a spire ; small windows, all capped with pediments. 

BRIMFIELD (iN THE COUNTY OF HAMPSHIRE). 

Powars's, eighteen miles from Spencer. This inn is situate at the 
foot of the Western Mountains. On this stage we have passed through 
Brookfield and Western. The former is a large and pleasant town, of 
several parishes, once the seat of Indian wars. The road is hilly and 
rocky, until we reach the upper meeting-house, where it suddenly 
alters to a level, without any stones. In Western, near two bridges, 
the road directly forward leads to Northampton, thirty miles distant, 
while the stage road to this place turns short to the left, a few rods 
from the bridge. After passing a burial-ground, it ascends the West- 
ern Mountains, a ridge that intersects the State, and terminates in 
Connecticut. This pass is about five and one-half miles over ; and we 
were an hour and a half in crossing it. In some places it is a solid 
mass of rock. One can scarcely believe this has been the main road 
to Springfield from time immemorial. The upper country, however, 
cannot be attained in any better direction. Powars's, in Brimfield, is 
not a stuge inn. It was late, and we had no choice. Our repast was 



12 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

various : cold meat, corn, baked apples, wild honey, eggs, cheese, &c. 
The room in which we dined recalled Dr. Goldsmith's description. 
There was " the bed by night, the chest of drawers by day " ; and 
among its decorations were an " Elegy on a late Hurricane," and 
" Handsome Harry, or the Deceitful Young Man." The good dame of 
the house talked much and loud. The quaint manner in which she called 
" E-li ! E-li ! E-li ! " her son, amused us not a little. Some new cheeses 
appeared to be inlaid with sprigs and flowers. I asked the landlady how it 
was done. She said, " The little witch of a girl brought the leaves from the 
garden, and when the cheese was soft pressed them in." The effect was 
pleasing, and to me new : the good woman, it seems, thought otherwise. 

wilbraham:. 

Bliss's, ten miles from Powars's. Monday evening. This house has 
a pleasant aspect. It is situated on the side of a mountain, out of the 
main road, on a cross one, that leads to Somers in Connecticut. We 
are directed to it as a place of good accommodation, though not the 
stage inn. Soon after leaving Brimfield, we passed a small bridge, 
over the Chickapee. This river is here of some width. We had 
passed it twice in Brookfield, where it is an inconsiderable stream. 
Here it divides the towns of Brookfield and Palmer, both in Hampshire 
County. The road now runs parallel with the river along the valley, 
presenting the most romantic scenery. Cottages and cultivation inter- 
mingled with rude mountain scenery. Whoever has read Goldsmith's 
" Traveller," will here be reminded of his description of Switzerland : 
and the attachment of the peasantry to their native soil may be as 
proverbial ; for — 

" Even those hills that round their mansions rise, 
Enhance the bliss their scant3 r fund supplies ; 
And the loud torrent, and the whirlwind's roar, 
But bind them to their native mountains more." 

The road continues along the valley, surrounded on either hand by 
mountains, that now take the name of Wilbraham ; and we pass the 
Chickapee again on a bridge in Palmer. This river, which rises, I 
suppose, in Worcester County, runs a south-westerly course along 
these valleys, and loses its name in the Connecticut, above Springfield. 
We passed the evening very socially at Wilbraham. Mr. Bliss gave 
us much information relating to this part of the country. The room in 
which we were entertained was adorned with prints engraved by 
Doolittle, of New Haven. " The Battle of Lexington," " Concord 
Bridge," and other leading events of the American war, were the 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 13 

subject of these pictures. Thomson's " Seasons " was on the table : 
it belonged to the young woman who waited on us at tea. She wore a 
crape cushion : the first I have noticed in all the way from Boston. 
The chimney-piece and tables were fancifully decorated with flowers 
and shrubbery : and I observed many traits of improved taste, very 
pleasant to meet amidst the wild scenes of Wilbraham Mountains. 

SPRINGFIELD. 

September 1. — Parsons's, ten miles from Wilbraham. Very cool 
morning; a frost last night: the buckwheat supposed to be injured by 
it. Breakfast at this place. The road hither is not unlike that from 
Plymouth to Plimpton, a continued pine plain, without fence. Pass 
the Magazine, a long brick building, remarkable for the defence made 
before it in 1787, by General Shepard. Further on, are two large 
public stores for arms, and a number of barracks, &c. The meanest 
houses we have passed this stage are neatly underpinned with Connec- 
ticut stone. The Magazine appeared thus as I passed it. 
[In the original is a neatly executed drawing.] 

Springfield is a pleasant town of some extent, on the east bank of 
the river Connecticut. It has a handsome meeting-house, painted, and 
furnished with a clock and electrical rod ; a small court-house ; several 
well-furnished shops : the hair-dresser's is one of them. I called on 
the Rev. Mr. Howard, who was very civil, and requested me to visit 
him on my return. Our stay was short here ; and the morning fog 
from the river prevented a general view of the place. It is level, and 
a continued street along the river of great length. The river is eighty 
rods wide here, and ten feet deep in the midst. There are marks of 
great freshets on the trees, when it rises twenty feet. 

WINDSOR (CONNECTICUT). 

Picket's Inn, eighteen miles from Springfield. The ferry which we 
crossed at Springfield is very commodious. Several ladies came over 
with us, and their carriage entered and left the boat without untackling. 
The road now led along through West Springfield, by the banks of 
the river. Crossed a bridge in this town over the Agawam, and ascend 
a hill, from which there is an extensive view of the mountains in East 
Hampton and Hadley, fifteen and thirty miles distant ; and further, a 
mountain in Deerfield, as I am told, fifty miles distant from this hill. 
About six miles from the ferry we enter the State of Connecticut in 
Suffield, and soon perceive a difference In many respects. The roads 



14 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

are six rods in width, bordered by a slab fence. The houses have, 
generally, porticos ; generally painted. Suffield has a church and a 
meeting-house, decorated with the handsomest steeple between this 
place and Boston. Begin to see quarries of red stone : the waters of 
the brooks have the tinge of red. Indexes are at convenient distances 
on this stage. Between Suffield and Windsor there is a long tract of 
pine woods, through which the road leads ; a growth of wood not very 
common in this region, I believe. Dine at Windsor. While at dinner 
a chariot passes from the westward. There is not so much travelling 
as I expected here. Between Worcester and Springfield, a distance 
of fifty-two miles, met only one wagon. 

WETHERSFIELD. 

Tuesday evening. — Wright's, fourteen miles from Windsor, and 
four from Hartford, which we passed through without alighting. Wind- 
sor is the oldest town in the State. It was here that Captain William 
Holmes landed from Plymouth, 1633; and there is a place yet called 
Plymouth Point. Hartford is built chiefly on one street, a mile or 
more in length. Many of the houses are brick. The tide flows here, 
near forty miles from the sea. It has a state-house, and two meeting- 
houses, and many busy mill-seats. The streets, which are of red 
earth, are raised in the turnpike manner. When it rains, a red mud 
covers the shoes and boots of the passengers. We have not yet seen 
any stone-wall in this State. Virginia fence, so termed, is very common. 
The road is rather good than otherwise, all the distance from Spring- 
field to this place, inclining to sand here. Their orchards make a fine 
appearance. Wheat is much cultivated ; and, though they raise excel- 
lent corn, their household bread is universally of wheat. The style of 
building varies somewhat from that of the Bay State, as they term 
Massachusetts. Beside the front door, their houses have a door on 
the end near the front corner, which looks awkward. Porticos are 
universal. The windows have steel springs. Large halls are generally 
attached to the principal inns. At Wethersfield, onions are much cul- 
tivated, of which we were apprised at some distance. It has a noble 
brick meeting-house, — which, with its elegant spire, is built on the 
model of the North Church in Boston, — a fine clock, and a deep-toned 
bell, and many handsome houses on a spacious and busy street. .We 
saw that of the late Mr. Beadle, which is shut, with its shop, none 
being willing to occupy it. # We met the stage from Fairfield near 
Hartford, and many carriages of ladies and gentlemen returning to 
town. The gypsy hat and the jaunty air bespeak the neighborhood 

* Seep. 163. — Eds. 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 15 

of city fashions and manners. At Wethersfield the floors are sanded, 
which I have not noticed since leaving Cambridge. Visit a goldsmith's 
shop here, who is also a druggist and clockmaker. A repeating clock 
has a curious device on the face, which represents Adam and Eve in a 
circle. A serpent forms a part of the circumference, and, by internal 
movements, moves around, incessantly tempting. In coming to this 
place, ascend a high hill in Windsor, which opened a view of a chain 
of mountains called Windsor Goshen, running east and west, on the 
east side of the river, being, I suppose, in East Windsor and Goshen. 
And, before entering the line of Hartford, passed the Hanging Bridge ; 
so called, from its construction. 

WALLINGFORD. 

Wednesday noon, September 2. — Keyes's inn, nineteen miles from 
Wethersfield. Retarded by showers this morning. Have passed 
through Berlin, and the pleasant and fertile village of Worthington 
here called a Society. The road led along under mountains. Vil- 
lagers were making cider: we took some at the press, from their 
beechen bowl. The road has been very rough, but the views of culti- 
vation pleasant. At this inn we are shown glass mugs and bottles, 
which are made at East Hartford : price of the former Is. 3d. ; the 
latter 6d. The color is quite green. 

NEW HAVEN. 

Smith's coffee-house, seventeen miles from Wallingford. After 
leaving Keyes's, we travelled on a level, sandy plain, — a barren heath 
of some length, — on which is situated a Separatists' meeting-house, in 
poor plight. See much Virginia fence this stage. Pass through North 
Haven, the lightest soil we have yet seen in this State. See many 
locust-trees, which do not appear injured by the worm. Farmers sow- 
ing wheat all along this distance. Arrived at New Haven in the 
evening, which is situate on the Sound, on a plain, surrounded by 
rude mountains. This inn is opposite the Green, on which are a state- 
house, of brick, three meeting-houses, the college, and chapel, all very 
near. Their several spires give it a city aspect. It has also much of 
a rural appearance, by reason of many trees. The streets are rather 
sandy. The harbor of New Haven is shoal ; the principal wharf is 
nearly as long as Boston Pier, yet much narrower. There is also an 
island wharf for large vessels. The seat of Mr. Edwards appears to 
much advantage, as we enter the town from the eastward. 



16 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Thursday, September 3. — Visit the City Assembly Room, where are 
exhibited natural curiosities from Africa and Brazil ; are shown the 
ourang-outang, or man of the woods, three feet five inches in height ; 
the buffalo, of the size of a bull ; the baboon ; the sloth ; and various 
monkeys ; the crocodile ; and many serpents of tropical climes ; the tiger 
cat, of Brazil, alive in a cage ; a great variety of beautiful birds, among 
them the gold crown, of Brazil, of unrivalled plumage. We find some 
difficulty in making change in this place. Coppers pass at six the penny. 
Even those graced with the legend " Auctori Conn." are included. 
Feel chagrined that old Massachusetts, with his bow and arrow, should 
be undervalued. New York regulates their trade. The crown passes 
there, and here now, at 6s. 9d. All along as we travel, the usual ques- 
tion at the taverns is, " From Boston : going to York, I suppose ? " 
The appellation New York is not used here. 

Thursday noon, September 3. — Leave this place in the forenoon ; 
and, at two miles' distance, from an eminence, have a pleasing view of 
it, seated apparently under the mountains. Long Island also appears 
in view. Fall in company with Mr. Beers, postmaster of New Haven, 
and ride with him to Milford. Passed through a part of West Haven. 

MILFORD. 

This place is seated on the Sound, and is divided from Stratford by 
the Housatonic, a river which rises in Berkshire County (Massachu- 
setts). Here is a meeting-house of three stories, a smaller one, and a 
church, all on one continued street. We cross the Housatonic, a mile 
from its mouth, to Stratford. The river is here eighty- two rods wide, 
and the channel is four fathoms deep. It is navigable to Derby, ten 
miles above, for vessels of burden. There is considerable tide here ; 
and this ferry is at times a dangerous passage, from its contiguity to 
the sea. 

STRATFORD 

Is two miles from the ferry ; a very handsome town, also on the Sound. 
Benjamin's inn, at which we dined, is fifteen miles from New Haven, 
and eight from Fairfield. In the afternoon, proceed to Newfield (since 
Bridgeport). Stop at Mr. Young's, a merchant, in that very pleasant 
and flourishing village, and are kindly entertained. Arrive at Fairfield 
in the evening, the term of our journey ; distant from Boston, by the 
route we travelled, one hundred and ninety -four miles, and from Plym- 
outh, via Boston, two hundred and thirty-six. Lodge at the Sun 
Tavern, — the stage inn, kept by Mr. Penfield. Met Mr. Gershom 
Burr between Newfield and Fairfield. 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 17 



FAIRFIELD. 

Friday, September 4. — Introduced to Mr. and Mrs. Burr, Rev. Mr. 
Eliot, Hon. Mr. Sturges, and others ; and here meet Mr. Capers, his 
younger brother Gabriel, and Mr. Townsend, of Beaufort, S.C. ; 
Mrs. Burr and her daughters, our former acquaintance. This after- 
noon there is an annual party to the " Pines," on the sea-shore, oppo- 
site Long Island. The term Pines is used by way of distinction, 
these being almost the only trees of that growth in this place. It was 
a " Feast of Shells." The clams are brought from Long Island, and 
roasted in the sand. Age and youth of either sex were of the party, 
which was very numerous, festive, novel, and agreeable, and closed 
with a ball in the evening. The Boston stage arrives this evening, 
and we see the " Centinel " of Wednesday. 

Saturday, September 5. — Ride to Mill River, the western extreme 
of Fairfield, two miles. At this inlet there are bolting mills, several 
wharves, on which I notice large piles of Egg Harbor shingle. Many 
of the houses in Fairfield are covered with these. The courses, being 
laid twelve inches distant, have an unpleasing appearance, resembling 
boards. Oak floors and staircases are also common. Cedar, I' believe, 
is not indigenous here, as the rails around the enclosures are of chestnut 
The soil is excellent. There are few hills — none of magnitude, 
nearer than Greenfield — from which a general view can be seen. On 
our return take tea with Mr. Sturges, who is a member of Congress 
and pass the evening at Mr. Burr's. 

Sunday, September 6. — Attend meeting in the morning at Rev. Mr. 
Eliot's, who preached from Heb. iv. 16: "Let us therefore come 
boldly unto the throne of grace." In the intermission visited the 
burial-ground, where are some monuments of Connecticut marble. 
Dine at Penfield's ; and in the afternoon attend the church service in 
the court-house. The Rev. Mr. Sayre, late of Newport, read the 
service with solemnity and grace, and preached from 1 Cor. i. 18 : " For 
the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness." His 
society is small and scattered. There are several in this section of the 
State. Mr. Eliot's meeting-house is yet unfinished; and the court- 
house scarcely merits the name, being a temporary building. Fair- 
field, it is well known, was once a beautiful place. The public build- 
ings, as well as many elegant private dwellings, were burnt during the 
Revolution; and men of ample estate yet reside in very humble 
abodes. Take tea at Mr. Burr's, whose residence is one of these. His 
garden shows the cellar of his former mansion, over which some 

3 



18 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

venerable elms spread their foliage. Introduced to 'Squire Rowland 
in the evening, who has visited Plymouth in former days. A satirical 
poem has just been published at New York, by a Mr. Church (a can- 
didate for office) — called the " Dangerous Vice " ; in allusion, it is 
supposed, to eminent public characters. It discovers malignancy, but 
has many vigorous lines. Mr. Rowland has read it, and quotes with 
emphasis these: — 

" Gods! how they'd stare! should fickle Fortune drop 
These mushroom lordlings, where she picked them up! " 

Mr. C, the author, is understood in this passage to allude to General 
Knox, who perhaps did not patronize him. The General cannot be 
injured by such darts as these; they fall harmless. The title, it is 
thought, alludes to the Vice-President. Visit the singing-school this 
evening. 

Monday, September 7. — Make an excursion, with Mrs. Burr, to 
Greenfield Hill, the residence of the Rev. Dr. Dwight, four miles 
distant. Dr. D.'s residence commands a beautiful and extensive 
view of Long Island. His mansion is neat, and his gardens well culti- 
vated. He is very social. His presence is commanding. A habit 
of winking denotes a weakness of the eyes. His rooms are ornamented 
with paintings from the pencil of Mr. Dunlap, his brother-in-law. 
Some of the subjects are from his " Conquest of Canaan." One repre- 
sents " Irad and Selima," from the Third Book, line 135, &c. : — 

" O'er northern plains serene the lovers stray, 
And various converse charms their easy way." 

The figure of Irad is well delineated. Selima not so well. There are 
portraits also of Dr. Dwight and Mrs. Dwight, who treated us very 
civilly. Dine at Mr. Bradley's, at Greenfield, with our friends. This 
gentleman is a farmer of opulence, and gives us the cordial welcome 
of abundance. Also visit his son, Mr. S. Bradley. Here are family 
portraits, lately done by Earle, who has painted many in this part of 
the country. Greenfield is pleasantly situated; has a meeting-house 
and an academy, of which Dr. Dwight is the preceptor ; and the place 
is the subject of one of his poems. I suppose it to be a parish of Fair- 
field. Pass the afternoon at the Rev. Mr. Eliot's, who lives two miles 
from town. Hence we see the sand cliffs of Long Island, eighteen 
miles distant. Columns of smoke arise along its view this day, and 
awakens the idea of the Indian fires of former times, when Montog 
and Manhattan and Mohegan visited one another. Here we met Rev. 
Mr. Willis, of Kingston, who had come hither to attend the Com- 
mencement at New Haven, this week, on the 9th. 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 19 

Tuesday, September 8. — Stages depart at four o'clock this morning 
for the eastward ; and at nine a coach and phaeton arrive, being the 
family of the Hon. Mr. Dalton, a senator of the United States from 
Massachusetts, who breakfast at this place. The newspapers of this 
week announce the arrival of the French fleet at Boston, the 3d inst. 
At the distance of near two hundred miles, we receive the " Centinel " 
the third day of publication. Mr. Burr is the postmaster, and is the 
centre of intelligence. Many of the clergy pass by this day, going to 
Commencement. Dine with Mrs. Burr this day, with her children ; 
and Mr. C. learns me the game of backgammon in the afternoon. 

Wednesday, September 9. — Our friends dine with us at Penfield's, 
being Commencement. In the afternoon, Mr. Wm. H. Capers to Miss 
A. Burr, and Mr. B. H. to Miss E. D. Burr, were married at Mr. 
Burr's, by the Rev. Andrew Eliot. The guests were numerous. I 
waited on Miss A. Sturges. Mr. Burr and Mrs. Forgue, relict of a 
Dr. Forgue, step a minuet, &c, &c. 

Thursday, September 10. — Visits are made. Become acquainted 
with Mr. Judson and Dr. Hull, Captain Smedley, &c, &c. Dine at 
Mr. Burr's ; and all the party go to Newfield in the afternoon, four 
miles hence. Go in the stage. It was quite a cavalcade and proces- 
sion. Take tea at Mr. Young's ; and, in the evening, Mr. G. Burr 
was married to Miss Susan Young of that place, by Mr. Eliot. A 
Mrs. Clark, an English lady, sung, accompanied by her husband, on 
the violin. Danced with Miss Hubbell. Mr. Young has an elegant 
house at Newfield, which was begun and completed in sixty-two days. 
It is finished in a style of much taste, stands near the shore, and 
commands a very picturesque view across the harbor. There is a 
bridge of some length between this place and town. It is a city in 
miniature. Streets, docks, and trades denote its future character of 
commercial importance. 

Friday, September 11. — Much visiting and festivity, and not much 
journalizing. Mr. Burr, an intelligent man, lodges at Penfield's. He 
is engaged in the linen manufacture at New Haven, of which he gives 

© © > o 

me some account. Western and eastern stages arrive. Only one pas- 
senger in each : somewhat singular, on this great road. 

Saturday, September 12. — Visit Newfield with a numerous party, 
and take a sketch of the place from Mr. Young's house. Have fine 
melons, &c, &c, here. On our return find Judge Hobart and lady 
have arrived from New York, with whom we dine at Mr. Burr's. 
Judge H. is singularly tall in person, being six feet four inches; 
grave in air, plain in dress. Mrs. H. is small and delicate, — her 



20 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

voice is extremely weak, — and is probably an habitual invalid ; quite 
the lady in her manners. The Judge gave us an account of the por- 
poise fishery at Sagg Harbor, Long Island, which I will attempt to 
state. They are caught in seines of half a mile in width, supported by 
boats, connected with ropes. These seines are made of ten-thread 
ratline, and cost, as he stated, £4,000 currency. They are hauled to 
the shore by a windlass, when forty or more porpoises are drawn in 
averaging from five to six and seven gallons of oil each. Their skins 
are said to be worth 6s. each. 

Sunday, September 13. — Two English gentlemen are at Penfield's 
this morning, from Dominica, via Boston and Newport. Attend public 
worship at Mr. Eliot's meeting, who preaches from John iii. 36 : " He 
that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life : and he that believeth 
not the Son shall not see life." In the afternoon, from Rom. v. 10 : 
" For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the 
death of his Son ; much more, being reconciled, we shall be saved by 
his life." At the close of the service an anthem was sung from Psalm 
xxvi. ; intended, without doubt, as a mark of respect to the events of 
the past week. Take tea at Mr. Burr's. 

Monday, September 14. — In the morning go to Mill River with 
Mr. and Mrs. Capers, where we are to embark for New York, on a 
visit. Take passage with Captain Thorp, in the " Lady of Fairfield." 
Other passengers are Miss Sherwood and Mr. Pomeroy, of Greenfield, 
Mr. Sherwood, and Mr. Piatt, a youth of the city. Embark at nine 
o'clock, wind N.N.E., and soon leave several vessels far behind. Speak 
a schooner from Casco Bay, with fish, going our course. Becalmed at 
noon. 

LONG ISLAND SOUND. 

Pass by Norwalk, Stamford, Horseneck, or Greenwich, and Rye, 
which is the first town in New York State, on the eastern side. 
The views sailing up the Sound are pleasing. The shore approaching, 
as we proceed, brings a succession of picturesque objects in view, of 
which I take pencil sketches. Becalmed at sunset, off Sands's Point, 
thirty-eight miles from Fairfield ; and at nine o'clock come to, under 
Hart's Island. 

September 15. — Heave up at three in the morning, with the tide in 
our favor, but calm. Double many points, and at nine o'clock pass 
Hell Gate, with New York Island on our right, and Blackfield's 
Island on the left. This is called the West Passage. It is said the 
bed of the river here is rock, which renders anchoring hazardous. As 
it was calm, we were obliged to row. It rained at this time, and the 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 21 

whirlpools were to be seen which mark the places of danger. This 
passage is about half a mile, and ten from the city, which appears in 
view after doubling Kyler's Hook ; also the village of Brooklyn, on 
Long Island opposite. The banks of York Island have here a wild 
and grotesque appearance. Seats and summer-houses appear among 
the rocks, almost hanging over us. We pass timber and mast yards at 
the east end of the city, which here resembles the north part of Boston 
around Winnisimmet and Copp's Hill. The prospect of the city pre- 
sents but few spires. We landed at Burling's Slip, and quartered at 
Mrs. Vandervoort's, No. 28, Maiden Lane, where we dined. The 
company are Mr. Robert Greenleaf, a youth of Boston, Mr. and Mrs. 
Dickason of Bermuda, and Miss D. Vandervoort. 

NEW YORK. 

September 15. — A coat-of-arms hung in the parlor of Mrs. Vander- 
voort, bearing the. name of Ledyard, which she told me was her former 
name ; and that the traveller was her nephew. A beautiful, unfinished 
picture of one of her children hung in my chamber, which she said was 
painted by a Mr. Wright, a son of the celebrated Mrs. Wright. Mrs. 
Dickason was a lively woman ; repeated poetry, and gave me some 
anecdotes of Miss Helen Maria Williams, the poetess. She said she 
was addressed by a Mr. Riddle, of Bermuda, whose death in early years 
had given occasion to some of her admired compositions. Visit the 
Fly Market and other parts of the city in the afternoon with Mr. 
Capers, and call at Mr. Rogers's, where we meet Dr. Dwight and a 
Mr. Lyde, who I believe was an absentee and a native of Boston, and 
who makes many inquiries respecting Colonel Watson and Mr. I. 
Lothrop, of Plymouth, with whom he was formerly acquainted. Saw 
a beautiful engraving of the " Nativity," at Mr. Rogers's. The streets 
are bordered by convenient brick walks. Meet Dr. Bard, a very polite 
man, physician to the President. Begs us to call at his house : is 
extremely civil. Visit the Federal Hall, where I meet Mr. Partridge, 
member of Congress from Massachusetts, who told me I was the first 
person he had ever seen from his district. Engage to breakfast with 
him to-morrow. Take tea at Judge Hobart's. All the tea-water used 
in this city is brought from the tea-water pump, some distance, in cars, 
and is sold at two coppers the pail. The wheels of these are broad and 
unshod, as well as the trucks, on account of the pavement. The city 
is lighted ; and as I pass along, see whole families sitting in the Dutch 
stoops at the doors, a mode of building now obsolete. Our party this 



22 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

evening at Mrs. Vandervoort's are Miss Ledyard, Mr. Tucker, and Mr. 
Walker, Mr. Dickason and lady. 

September 16. — Breakfast with Mr. Partridge, at Mrs. Loring's, 
Broadway. Mr. Ames and Mr. J. Williams, of Boston, are here. 
Mr. Lear, the secretary, called on Mr. P., respecting appointment at 
Rehoboth, Mass. Opposite the parlor is a view of the North River, 
and the village of Bergen, on the Jersey shore. In front is the 
Bowery. The Bowery, or Bowling Green, is an oval plat, enclosed 
with a railing of iron. The pedestal on which formerly stood the 
statue of the king, is in the centre, on which now stands the ship car- 
ried in procession when the Constitution was adopted. Broadway is 
very wide ; and its four-story buildings superb. At the end, on the 
harbor, is the fort, which is to be the site of the future government 
house. At the north end is St. Paul's Chapel, in front of which is 
Montgomery's monument. Near it are the college, poor-house, Bride- 
well, and the jail. The new Trinity Church is now building on 
this street, which will have a spire two hundred feet from the pave- 
ment : is twenty-five higher than any other in the city. In the grave- 
yard are many wooden monuments, — erected during the war, when 
stone could not be procured, — painted white, with black letters. 

Septemler 17. — Visit Federal Hall, situate at the head of Broad 
Street, in the front of which the President lately took the inaugural 
oath, and where the Congress sits. The vestibule is lighted from 
above, the floor of which is flagstone. Visit the gallery. Prayers 
performing. The members sit in semicircles, covered; uncovered 
when speaking. Mr. Lear is announced, and delivers a message. 
The debates appear to be desultory this morning, and unimportant. 
Meet Mr. John Fenno in the gallery, who designates all the members 
as they sit. He is taking their debates for publication, and is glad to 
see me, though unknown, because I came from Massachusetts. Meet 
with Mr. Lyde again this morning. Says he has been absent from 
Boston fifteen years ; is strongly attached to it, yet prefers New York 
for business. Says it is as two to one in this respect : that he leases 
a house for £185 currency ; and every thing is in that proportion. Is 
very civil. Purchase some fruit in the market. Coppers pass at 
twenty-four the shilling Only the Jersey coinage are current in the 
market, where are melons, peaches, and other fruits, superior, I think, 
to those of Boston. Visit the theatre this evening, in John Street, 
with the ladies of Maiden Lane. The exterior of the theatre is ordi- 
nary, but handsome within. Mr. Henry's " Old American Company " 
are the performers. "The Father, or American Shandyism," written 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 23 

by Mr. Dunlap, the painter, was performed. The "Taming of the 
Shrew" was the afterpiece. Mr. Wignell, one of the actors, was 
much applauded. Mr. Henry spoke the epilogue. This being my 
debut at dramatic representations, was not a little gratified. 

September 18. — Repair to the gallery of Congress this morning. 
Prayers offered by Dr. Prevost. Only thirteen members present. 
The House were engaged by private petitions. The question of Per- 
manent Residence was taken up : and it was proposed to fix the future 
seat of government on the Susquehanna, in Pennsylvania. On the 
amendment, " or in Maryland," an animated debate ensued. Messrs. 
Stone, Lee, Jackson, Page, Madison, Gale, for the amendment. Hartley, 
Clymer, Ames, Sherman, against it. On a division there was a tie, 
twenty-seven and twenty-seven. The Speaker, Muhlenburg (of Penn- 
sylvania), was against the amendment. The salary of the judges was 
taken up this day. Mr. Goodhue moved that $4,500 for the chief 
justice be struck out, and $3,000 inserted : supported by Judge Liver- 
more (New Hampshire), Mr. Ames, Mr. White, Gerry, and S ; 

opposed by Smith (South Carolina) ; Lawrence (New York) ; Benson, 
(New York) ; Vining (Delaware.) Finally passed at $3,500 ; associates, 
$3,000. District judges, under consideration. Judge Livermore moved 
that $800 be struck out, and $500 be inserted for Maine. Mr. Madison 
proposed to equalize them ; overruled. A reduction made in every in- 
stance. In the course of these debates, Mr. Ames observed, on the sub- 
ject of the chief-justice salary, that he thought $1,500 would command 
the first legal abilities in New England. He therefore thought $3,000 
an ample compensation ; that the integrity of the judge was not secured 
by the quantum of compensation, but by a habit of right action ; that it 
was often the case, that men politically bad made very good judges, &c, 
&c Some other business of less moment occurred this day. Mr. Good- 
hue called for the report of the committee on the value of the rouble of 
Russia. A petition of Mr. Rumsey, on improvements in hydrostatics, 
was read ; and of the Rev. Mr. Stoy,* of Pennsylvania, on a nostrum 
for the cure of the hydrophobia. A general smile. Mr. Boudinot, of 
New Jersey, was in the chair. Visit the bookstore of Hugh Gaine, and 
buy " Nisi Prius " for my brother. Call on Mr. Dunlap, where we 
meet Dr. Dwight again. See some fine drawings in India ink, and 
paintings from Orlando Furioso ; and a sketch of the "Inauguration 
of the President," on a scale of twelve by eight feet ; the " Choice of 
Hercules " ; the " Youth rescued from a Shark," &c, &c. Mr. Dunlap 

* Probably Hoy. See Journal of the House under this date. — Eds. 



24 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

has studied with the celebrated Mr. West, and is a man of genius in 
the arts of poetry and painting. Meet with Mr. Woolsey here. Take 
tea at Mrs. Loring's, with Mr. Partridge, Ames, and Colonel Leonard, 
who arrived this morning, to increase the vote on the question of 
permanent residence, I suppose. Judge Hobart arrived this day from 
Fairfield. We called on him, who treated us with Blue Point oysters 
from the shell, and excellent Madeira. As we return home, the still- 
ness of this great and busy city is very impressive. In the course of 
this day I visited Mr. Decker's balloon, in which he advertises to 
ascend on Wednesday next. The car is completed. It has cost £100 ; 
and it makes a beautiful appearance. 

Saturday, September 19. — Embark on board the "Lady of Fair- 
field " on our return. As we passed through the Fly Market before 
five o'clock, the marketmen and Dutch women were arranged at their 
stands. Leave Burling's Slip with the wind at N.N.W. ; and as we are 
wafted along the East River, meet the market boats from Long Island, 
plying across in rapid succession, loaded with bounties. The wind 
hauls N.E. Lay our course along the Narrows. The " Pot and Pan " 
of Hell Gate foam and hiss as we pass ; and two vessels get on shore. 
Pass the North Channel, and tack frequently in confined waters. The 
sun arises, and illumines the seats along the island ; and we come to 
under Frog's Point, which makes out from East Chester, twenty miles 
from New York. Take the bonnet from the jib, reef the mainsail, 
and at nine o'clock heave up ; pass Hart Island and Sands's Point, 
when we are in the Sound, with a tumbling sea. Far as the view 
extends, many vessels are tacking from shore to shore, while others 
pass us with pleasant gales. 

LONG ISLAND SOUND. 

We keep the Long Island shore, and find ourselves in Hempstead 
Bay, celebrated as the resort of the British fleets during the late war. 
Eaton's Neck forms an imposing aspect. A well was dug here, of 
great depth, by the British, to procure water, we are told. At sunset 
come to under Norwalk Islands, on the northern shore ; and pass the 
night six leagues from Fairfield. 

Sunday, September 20. — Heave up at four o'clock ; wind at N.W. 
We get within two miles of Mill River, and are becalmed. A bar 
extends from Sasco to McKensie Point. While detained here take a 
view of Mill River Village. The passage in is very narrow. The 
tide is rapid ; and we are carried into the ware, and on to the marsh. 
The passages back and forth is nine shillings. Arrive at the Sign of 



1869.] JOURNAL OP A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 25 

the Sun, in Fairfield, at twelve o'clock. Dine at Mr. Burr's, and pre- 
pare to return to Plymouth. Meet with Mr. Pepping (and Mr. 
TTaldron). who gives me an account of his visit to Plymouth. Appears 
to be much gratified with it ; and is passing through this place on his 
way to South Carolina. 

Monday, September 21. — Take leave of Fairfield. Dine at New- 
field. At Stratford there is a duck manufactory. See many looms as 
I pass. Horse races are held here on a fine level road of great length. 
Meet the stage, and the top covered with bandboxes. Farmers topping 
corn, expecting the equinox storm. Coppers seventy-two the shilling 
at the ferry. 

NEW HAVEN. 

Lodge at Smith's coffee-house. Marshes surround this place, and 
mosquitos abound. Take a sketch of the public buildings. Meet with 
Mr. Blodget here. 

NORTH HAVEN. 

September 22. — Ives's, seven miles from New Haven. Breakfast 
here. A stage inn : not very good. The road is pleasant to travel. 

MIDDLETOWN. 

Bigelow's ; twenty miles from North Haven. Have passed through 
Wallingford and Durham to this place. In the former there are two 
meeting-houses and a church ; many shops. Durham is mountainous ; 
rough roads, and narrower than is usual in this State. Abundance of 
apples. "Between these places inquired the way of a traveller. " La ! " 
says he, " you must turn down by Captain Day's ; and then, d'you see, 
when you come to Captain Atwater's, turn to the left." On my telling 
him I knew neither of those persons, he expressed great surprise. 
Meet but very few travellers in this populous region and pleasant 
month. Dine at Bigelow's. Middletown is a charming place ; both 
busy and rural ; west side of the Connecticut River. Here are twelve 
sail of vessels that trade to the West Indies, and some to Europe ; and 
ten feet water at the wharves. The place is laid out in squares. A 
Mr. Mortimer has an elegant seat near the river, ornamented by a 
double row of button-wood trees, here called " the mall." Dine in this 
place, — the road beyond it is on the shore of the river for two miles, 
— and pass two gates. It was calm, and the inverted view of the 
opposite shores beautiful beyond description. 

4 



26 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. fAPRIL, 



ROCKY HILL, 

A pleasant village between Middletown and Wethersfield, situate on 
the river. All these places have navigation. The latter place has 
been described before. 

HARTFORD. 

Bull's coffee-house ; fifteen miles from Middletown. This is a cele- 
brated inn. It is noisy; but there is the best attendance. Stages 
daily arriving and departing. Opposite is the State House, a wooden 
edifice. The Assembly sits alternately, I suppose, here and at New 
Haven. I believe there is not much navigation above this. Much 
business centres here ; and there are many well-furnished shops and 
stores, and various manufactures ; and perhaps two printing-offices. 
Pass the night here. I shall detail an appendage to the table. The 
toast was brought on in a pewter dish, with a double bottom ; between, 
the space was supplied with hot water, by an aperture. Travellers see 
many rare and new things. 

EAST HARTFORD. 

September 23. — Woodbridge's ; ten miles from the city. Crossed 
the ferry this morning in a very convenient boat. The fare, two- 
pence. Meet loads of coal, which pass over the ferry. Fall in com- 
pany with a woman on horseback. I thought she had. a Plymouth 
countenance. She asked me where I was from : when she informed 
me her name was Holmes ; that her father, Samuel Holmes, came from 
Plymouth, and now lived at New London ; her grandfather was 
Elisha Holmes ; that her present name was Williams ; lived at West- 
field ; and was going to New London to see her friends. Stopped to 
see the glass works in this place, superintended by a foreigner, who 
gave me a crucible made here. Take specimens of kelp and sand used 
here. The works are now out of repair. This town appears thinly 
settled : soil light and sandy ; much woods. Breakfast here. 

LEBANON-CRANK. 

Hill's ; sixteen miles from East Hartford. Have passed through 
Bolton and part of Andover in coming hither. The chimneys in the 
latter place universally of stone. This is a mountainous district. 
Roads are rough, narrow, and obscure. Cultivated settlements, how- 
ever, are frequent. Ride in company with a traveller from the Grand 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 27 

Isle, on Lake Champlain. Governor Trumbull's ancestral seat is in 
this town ; not on this road. Dine at Hill's, on roast pig. 

SCOTLAND-SOCIETY (iN WINDHAM). 

Ripley's ; ten miles from Lebanon-crank. Five back I passed a 
bridge over the Shetucket, a river which rises in Brimfield, Mass. ; 
which, after winding among these mountains, in Windham, joins the 
Thames, at Norwich, sixteen miles hence, and passes on to the Sound, 
at New London. The road through Windham runs east and west. 
The town is in a valley ; has a court-house and prison, and a very 
large school-house, with a lofty spire. Scotland village is four miles 
from the court-house, also in a valley. Mr. Ripley, the innkeeper, is 
a descendant of one of that name from Hingham, and brother to the 
Rev. Mr. Ripley, of Green's Farms, near Fairfield ; is related to the 
Bradfords about Plymouth. This stage has been over rugged moun- 
tains. Lodge at this place. The tavern is on a hill, which overlooks 
the village. 

VOLUNTOWN. 

September 24. — Dickson's. The frontier town of Connecticut; 
adjoins Rhode Island. Fourteen miles from Scotland-Society. Have 
passed through Westminster (society), Canterbury, and Plainfield, over 
a rude and unequal country. Stone walls again appear. A morning 
prospect from a hill in Westminster Society presented phenomena to 
me novel. The sun was rising, while the vapors of the night rested in 
the valleys, which appeared like a vast lake, interspersed with islands. 
The risen day soon dissipated these vapors, when were successively 
exhibited forests, spires, cottages, and cultivation. Pass a long bridge 
in Canterbury, over the Quinebaug, a river which rises in "Oxbridge 
and Woodstock ; divides Canterbury and Plainfield, and joins the She- 
tucket in Norwich, when both swell the waters of the Thames. Some 
boys were assembled on the bridge in contention : the subject of dis- 
pute was a musquash trap. Nations have disputed for the furs of 
Nootka, objects comparatively not more important ; and boys are the 
germ of nations. Not any mile-stones since I left Lebanon. Break- 
fast at Dickson's. Coppers pass at forty-eight the shilling, to those 
going east, as they pass thus at Providence. This is the inn which 
has been celebrated by the Marquis Chastellux, in his "Travels." 
I could embellish too ; for at the moment of my departure the girl 
overset and broke all the tea-equipage. 



28 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 



SCITUATE, R.I. 

Manchester's ; thirteen miles from Voluntown. Enter this State at 
Coventry, near a log bridge, three miles from Voluntown. Also pass 
through a part of Foster, a new township. The militia of Scituate 
were paraded on the border of a grove, into which they fired by 
platoons. The reverberation of the sound was like cannon, which I 
supposed it to be. All the matrons and children of the country were 
assembled in their best attire. This part of the State is thinly inhab- 
ited, and the buildings are ordinary. A Baptist meeting-house in 
Coventry, and another in this place, are without glass or doors. There 
is something savage and wild in the appearance of every thing in these 
back towns. The road from Hartford to Providence is in a direction 
nearly east and west. From Bolton, fifty miles hence, it is a contin- 
ued tract of ridges of very high ground. These ridges pervade the 
country, while the rivers and streams, in various directions, find a 
passage to the Sound, or Narraganset Bay. Dine at Scituate. A 
dispute or argument occurred here between a Connecticut man and 
a Rhode Islander, on the moral and religious character of their respec- 
tive States. The latter observed, that " there may be more religion 
in Connecticut, but there was more honest men in Rhode Island ! * 

PROVIDENCE. 

Dexter's ; twelve miles from Scituate. Arrived here this afternoon. 
The last stage the road bounds Johnson on the north, and Cranston on 
the south, except the last four miles, being in Johnson. Pawtuxet 
River rises in Scituate, Coventry, and Foster, and falls into Narragan- 
set Bay below Providence. The elegant spire of the Baptist meeting 
[house], in Providence, is conspicuous many miles. The soil is light 
and sandy in the western suburbs of Providence. Lodge at this 
place. 

September 25. — Visit the stone-ware manufactory. The apparatus 
for moulding it is simple. Two wooden wheels, placed horizontally, 
and a few wooden tools, in the manner of a pottery, are all. The 
ware was annealing in a kiln, in which Lisbon salt was occasionally 
thrown. Two ranges of holes are on the top ; I suppose for this pur- 
pose. The clay is procured from New Jersey. Leave this place in 
the forenoon, by the lower ferry on Seaconk River, to Rehoboth, 
in Massachusetts. The river is here seventy rods wide. The channel 
is crooked, but very deep here, perhaps twenty-five feet. Pawtucket 
Falls are three or four miles above. The general name of the river is 



1869.] JOURNAL OF A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 29 

the Narraganset. It rises in Worcester County, Massachusetts. Ships 
of great burden, 800 tons, and more, are built at Providence, thirty 
miles from the ocean. Ride five miles in Rehoboth. Pass a part of 
Barrington, R.L, and cross the ferry to "Warren, on Palmer's or 
Swansey River, which is here forty rods wide, and thirteen feet depth 
at low water in the channel. Its sources are in Rehoboth and 
Swansey. 

BRISTOL. 

Mount Hope, Governor Bradford's seat. Came to this place at 
noon, fourteen miles from Providence. Governor Bradford returned 
from Newport in the afternoon. Visit in town, and see many visitors 
here, where I remain till — 

Sunday, September 27. — Appearances of a storm. Leave Bristol 
on my way to Plymouth. 

REHOBOTH. 

Gon^s ; thirteen miles from Mount Hope. Six miles from Bristol 
on this road is the boundary of the State, near some large rocks, lying 
along the way, where it enters Swansey. There are many cross-roads 
in all directions, without indexes. 

RAYNHAM, MASS. 

This place is twenty-seven miles from Bristol, and twelve of them 
are in Rehoboth. Pass through Taunton, and come to Colonel Leon- 
ard's, in Raynham, where my brother Wendell is at school. Dine 
here, and attend the Rev. Mr. Fobes's meeting, who preached from 
John xv. 22. The ancient custom of reading the psalm by the deacon 
prevails here : the singing is excellent. Colonel Leonard's house is 
pleasantly situated near the banks of Taunton River, on a fine road, 
in a rural neighborhood, two miles from Taunton Green. 

MIDDLEBOROUGH. 

Monday, September 28. — Sprout's ; twelve miles from Raynham. 
Came hither by Titiquet bridge, which divides Bridgewater from Mid- 
dleborough. The first six miles are in Raynham, two in Bridgewater, 
the rest in this place. Pass another bridge on Namaskett or Middle- 
borough River, whose source is in the Assawumpsit ponds, once the 
favorite residence of Massasoit. Have passed three iron works on 
this route. The scenery and the faces I now meet are familiar ; still 
more so, as I pass through Plimpton, and meet the teamsters return- 



30 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

ing from Plymouth, where I alighted at noon. Thus an excursion of 
thirty-two days has afforded as many pages — 

" Of all I felt, and all I saw." 

It has been performed in the morning of life, when hope gilds our 
prospects with hues of gayety, when every object has the aspect of 
novelty. 

These descriptive lines, written at a subsequent period, are subjoined 
as a suitable accompaniment to this journal. — S. D. 

TAUNTON RIVER.* 

Nature's views more beauteous seem 
Than Art can show — be these my theme ; 

Taunton, first an humble rill, 
Blithely whirls the rural mill ; 
Now, along the valleys slow, 
Bids the dusky furnace blow ; 
Busy sounds incessant call ; 
'Tis the tripping hammer's fall ; 
Roaring echoes loud awakes, 
Where Fall River's torrent breaks ; 
Annual tributes grateful bears ; 
Feeds a thousand nets and wares ; 
Picturesque, thy beauteous views, 
Somerset, delight the muse ; 
Rural scenes, in verdure drest, 
Gay, upon thy margin rest ; 
Berkley, Dighton, Swansey, claim 
Deeper tides and wider fame ; 
Where thy vessel-freighted waves 
Tiverton and Bristol laves ; 
While thy broader bosom, spread 
Far reflects the mountain's head ; 
When thy waters, borne away, 
Circle Narraganset Bay : 
Swell the homage, due to thee, 
NEWPORT, daughter of the SEA. 



* Taunton River has several heads. The principal is at a pond in the south of 
Bridgewater ; another is at the great ponds in the south of Middleborough, and is called 
Namaskett, till it joins the Taunton in Titiquet, and runs north. Two other heads are 
in Foxborough and Sharon or Stoughton, and run south-east to Taunton and Bridge- 
water. Another head is at a pond in Carver, eight miles from Plymouth ; and in Carver 
turns a mil!. It runs westerly, through Plimpton and Halifax, to the main river at 
Bridgewater. — Note by the Author. 



1869.] JOURNAL OP A TOUR TO CONNECTICUT. 31 

My travelling expenses on this journey, going. 

£ s. d. 

Hingham, Cushing's. Supper and lodging 2 10 

Milton, Vose's. Breakfast 12 

Boston, Mrs. Loring's. Dinner, supper, lodging, and 

breakfast 7 11 

Cambridge, Bradish's. Dinner, lodging, supper. ... 46 

"Weston, Flagg's. Breakfast 14 

Marlborough, Williams's. Dinner 10 

Worcester, Patch's. Supper and lodging 3 

Spencer, Jenk's. Breakfast 11 

Brimfield, Powars's. Dinner 12 

Wilbraham, Bliss's. Supper and lodging 2 7 

Springfield, Parsons's. Breakfast . 14 

Windsor, Picket's. Dinner 16 

Ferry and hairdressing 6 

Wethersfield, Wright's. Supper, lodging, breakfast . . 4 4 

Wallingford, Kye's. Dinner 10 

New Haven, Smith's. Supper, lodging, and breakfast . 4 3 

Hairdressing 9 

Curiosities 12 

Stratford, Benjamin's. Dinner . 16 

Ferry 6 

Board at New York, four days 140 

Two passages, @ 4s. 9c? 9 

Mr. Penfield's bill, board, &c, at Fairfield, about nine 

days, and incidental expenses, — I forget it, but say, 3 
I think it was less. 

~6l6~5 

Travelling expenses, returning. 

s. d. 
Stratford Ferry 6 

New Haven. Supper and lodging 3 9 

North Haven, Ives's. Breakfast 9 

Middletown, Bigelow's. Dinner 16 

Hairdressing 7 

Hartford, Bull's. Supper and lodging 4 6 

East Hartford, Woodbridge's. Breakfast 11 

Ferry at Hartford 2 

Lebanon-crank, Hill's. Dinner 11 

Scotland, Ripley's. Supper and lodging '. . 1 10 

Voluntown, Dickson's. Breakfast 11 

Scituate, R.I., Manchester's. Dinner 16 

Providence, Dexter's. Supper, lodging, and breakfast ..55 

Hairdresser 7 

Ferry, 5c?. ; Kelly's Ferry, 4c? 9 

Amount carried forward £1 5s. lc?. 



32 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

£ s. d. 

Amount brought forward 151 

Rehoboth, GoflTs. Hay 6 

Middleborough. Shoeing horse . 16 

Hay, &c. . ..10 

£18 1 

Brought from the other side 6 16 5 

8 4 6 

Other incidental charges, say 140 

£9 8 6 



The President, in announcing that the business of the An- 
nual Meeting would now be taken up, stated that the Society- 
was favored with the presence, at this meeting, of our Corre- 
sponding Member, Professor Goldwin Smith.. 

The Annual Keports of the Standing Committee, the Treas- 
urer, the Librarian, and the Cabinet-keeper, were severally 
presented and accepted, and referred to the Committee on the 
Publication of the " Proceedings." 

Report of the Standing Committee, for the year 1868-69. 

During the last year, the Society has lost two members, the 
Hon. Levi Lincoln, LL.D., and Dr. John Appleton. The 
memoir of the former, by the Hon. Emory Washburn, has been 
presented for publication. The death of Dr. Appleton was 
peculiarly touching, as it occurred almost immediately after 
his election to the Society. One Honorary Member, the Rev. 
H. H. Milman, D.D., and one Corresponding Member, the 
Hon. W. R. Staples, have died in the course of the year. We 
have also learned the death of seven persons on the old list of 
Honorary and Corresponding Members. Two Resident Mem- 
bers have been elected, and there are now two vacancies in the 
list. Two Honorary and five Corresponding Members have 
been added to our Association. The present number is ninety- 
eight Resident and ninety-six Non-resident Members. 

Among the additions to the Society's possessions, the most 
noticeable are the bust of Mr. George Peabody, by Powers, 



1869.] REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 33 

presented by Mr. Winthrop ; and the Sewall Papers, purchased 
by a special subscription from members of the Society. 

A new volume has been added to the " Collections." It con- 
tains the Mather Papers, the publication of which had long 
been desired. A new volume of "Proceedings" will appear 
within a few weeks. 

Perhaps the most important effort of the Society during 
the year, considering all its bearings, was the Course of 
Lectures at the Lowell Institute, delivered by the following 
Members : the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop ; the Rev. George 
E. Ellis, D.D. ; Samuel F. Haven, Esq. ; Hon. William Brig- 
ham ; Hon. Emory Washburn ; Hon. Charles W. Uphain ; 
0. W. Holmes, M.D. ; Samuel Eliot ; Rev. Chandler Robbins, 
D.D. ; Hon. Joel Parker ; Rev. E. E. Hale; and George B. 
Emerson, Esq. The interest taken in these lectures en- 
courages us to hope that they have strengthened the hold 
of the Society upon the community. They are to be pub- 
lished in a volume, which will probably appear early in May, 
and which, if generally circulated, may carry to other parts of 
the country the same favorable impressions that have been pro- 
duced here. The associate to whom we owe the idea of these 
lectures has already proposed a second course, and we hope 
that his new plan may meet the same success as the old. The 
history of Massachusetts, to say nothing of other States, is rich 
in material, the most varied and instructive with which lec- 
turers can desire to deal. Names, characters, events, and the 
working out of great principles, religious and civil, are still 
waiting the eye that will pierce their depths, and the pen to 
describe what the eye has seen. 

The office of Assistant Librarian was resigned by Dr. Apple- 
ton, at the end of November, after a long and faithful service, 
which every member will hold in respectful remembrance. A 
sub-committee, charged with finding a successor, was not able 
to report until a few weeks since, when Mr. F. H. Hedge, Jr., 
was nominated, and unanimously elected by the Standing Com- 



34 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

mittee. He began his labors, which we trust may prove even 
longer and more acceptable than his predecessor's, on the 9th 
of April. One of the chief necessities of the Library is the 
want of shelf-lists, the preparation of which has been intrusted 
to a sub-committee ; and the work they have before them will, 
when executed, prove the best safeguard that can be devised 
for the literary collections of the Society. Other subjects con- 
nected with the Library will doubtless be brought forward in 
the Report of the Librarian. 

The Treasurer's Report will describe the financial condition 
of the Society. The Standing Committee have expended some 
money during the year upon a new furnace, and in repair of 
the flues, which were found in a very unsafe state. The roof, 
which had become quite leaky, has been thoroughly repaired. 

Such are the matters upon which it seems proper that the 
Standing Committee should touch in their review of the year. 
In transferring their charge to their successors, the Committee 
take leave to point out two questions as worthy of early con- 
sideration. One relates to the more general circulation of the 
Society's publications, the other to the improvement of the So- 
ciety's building, and thereby of the Society's material resources. 
Both these topics have been under frequent discussion, and it 
is hoped that they may soon be acted upon in such a manner 
as to promote the welfare of the Association. 

Samuel Eliot, Chairman. 

Annual Report of the Treasurer. 

The Treasurer of the Society presents the following state- 
ment of its financial condition : — 

GENERAL ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL, 1869. 

DEBITS. 

John Appleton, salary $666.64 

George Arnold 691.63 

Insurance 193.75 

Incidental expenses 362.29 

Amount carried forward $1,914,31 



1869.] TREASURER'S REPORT. 35 

Amount brought forward $1,914.31 

City of Boston, tax of 1868 615.00 

Printing 79.00 

Books 75.61 

Coal 80.25 

Repairs 401.95 

Appleton Fund 732.18 

Massachusetts Historical Trust-Fund 254.31 

Note of Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 1,000.00 

Accrued interest 16.00 

Expended for purchase of MSS 1,250.00 

Disbursement on account of the Peabody subscription .... 101.00 

Balance to new account 325.90 

$6,845.51 

CREDITS. 

Balance from old account . .^ $70.63 

Suffolk Savings Institution, reH 2,200.00 

Suffolk Savings Institution, taxes 615.00 

Coapons, Quincy & Palmyra Railroad 80.00 

Assessments 701.00 

Admissions . . • 30.00 

Sales of Society's Publications 421.25 

Sundries 8.23 

Copyright of sales of Life of J. Q. Adams 8.40 

Hon. John A. Lowell, for Thirteen Lectures before the Lowell 

Institute 1,300.00 

Subscription for the purchase of MSS 1,150.00 

Subscription to procure a bust of George Peabody 261.00 

$6,845.51 



The undersigned, who were appointed a committee to ex- 
amine the accounts of the Treasurer of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society for the year ending April, 1869, have com- 
pared the vouchers with the entries, and find them correct, 
and the balances on the ledger as follows : — 

DEBITS. 

Appleton Fund $666.58 

J. E. Thayer & Brothers, on deposit, bearing interest .... 1,944.00 

Cash 433.56 

$3,044.14 

CREDITS. 

General account $325.90 

Massachusetts Historical Trust-Fund 1,492.86 

The Peabody Fund 1,225.38 

$3,044.14 

Robert M. Mason, , 
N. Thayer, 

Boston, April 13, 1869. 



1128342 



36 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

THE APPLETON FUND, j 

This fund consisted of ten thousand dollars, presented to the 
Society, Nov. 18, 1854, by the executors of the will of the late 
Samuel Appleton, on the condition that its income be applied 
to the purchase, preservation, and publication of historical 
material. It was received from the executors in ten shares of 
manufacturing stocks. These stocks were sold in February 
and March, 1863 ; and the net proceeds, amounting to twelve 
thousand two hundred and three dollars, were invested in the 
real estate of the Society, according to the Declaration of Trust 
on file, and recorded in the Register of Deed's office, book 827, 
p. 63. Volumes three, four, five, *x, seven, and eight, of the 
Fourth Series of the Society's " Collections," were printed from 
the income of this fund, and the strictly historical portions of 
the volumes of the " Proceedings " of the Society for 1862-63, 
and for 1864-65. 

The volume of " Collections " issued last year was uncom- 
monly large ; and owing to this, and the increased expenses of 
printing, the cost of it absorbed the income for the next year. 

Account ending April, 1869. 

DEBITS. 

John Appleton, preparing papers $133.36 

John Wilson & Son, printing volume VIII. of Collections bal- 
ance 1,137.84 

Benj. Bradley & Co., binding, &c 81.28 

John Wilson & Son, printing volume IX. of Collections . . . 85.03 

$1,437.51 

CREDITS. 

Balance of old account $38.75 

One year's interest of the Fund 732.18 

Balance due the Treasurer 666.58 

$1,437.51 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL TRUST-FUND. 

This fund was originally two thousand dollars, presented to 
the Society by Hon. David Sears, by an Instrument dated 
Oct. 15, 1855, and accepted Nov. 8, 1855. This provides 



,1869.] treasurer's report. 37 

that the income is to be added to the principal annually 
between July and January, to form a new investment ; but in 
any year before such investment, the Society may, by vote, 
expend the income for such purposes as may be required ; or 
it may, by vote, expend the accumulations of the income, in 
whole or in part, towards the purchase or improvement of the 
premises belonging to the Society ; " or in the purchase of 
works of art or desirable objects " : provided, that in no case 
whatever " the original trust-sum be encroached upon or 
diminished." By vote of the Society, the sum of five hundred 
dollars was paid July 5, 1859, from the accumulation, in aid 
of paying the debt incurred by the purchase of the estate which 
the Society owns. No other expenditure has been made from 
the accumulations of this fund. On the 26th of December, 
1866, the principal was increased by a subscription by Hon. 
David Sears and Nathaniel Thayer, Esq., each of five hundred 
dollars, which makes the principal of the fund three thousand 
dollars. The accumulation of income to Sept. 1, 1867, was 
$1,238.55, making the amount on which to cast the interest 
from Sept. 1, 1867, $4,238.55. 

Account ending Sept. 1, 1868. 

DEBITS. 

Balance to new account $1,492.86 

$1,492.86 

CREDITS. 

Balance of old account $1,238.55 

Interest one year on $4,238.55, to Sept. 1, 1868 254.31 

$1,492.86 

THE PEABODY FUND. 

This fund was presented to the Society by George Peabody, 
Esq., in a letter dated Jan. 1, 1867, enclosing an order for 
820,000 in 10-40 Coupon Bonds, and providing that they or 
their proceeds shall be held by the Society as " a permanent 
trust-fund, of which the income shall be appropriated to the 
publication and illustration of their Proceedings and Memoirs, 
and to the preservation of their Historical Portraits." This 



38 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Apkil, 

trust was accepted by a vote of the Society, Jan. 10, 1867. 
The Coupon Bonds have been exchanged for two United States 
10-40 Bonds of $10,000 each, registered in the name of the 
Society, dated Jan. 12, 1867, and numbered 9,904 and 9,905, 
with the interest payable in Boston. 

The volume of "Proceedings" for 1866-67 was printed 
from the income of this fund, and another volume is passing 
through the press. 

Account to April, 1869. 

DEBITS. 

Paid John Wilson and Son, for paper $262.08 

Paid John Wilson and Son, for printing Proceedings .... 250.00 

S. S. Kilburn, engraving 4.75 

A. Trochler and Co., printing 9.63 

Balance to new account 1,225.38 

$1,751.84 

CREDITS. 

Balance of old account $368.72 

Proceeds of Coupons of September 723.12 

Proceeds of Coupons of March 660.00 

• $1,751.84 



THE DOWSE FUND. 

This fund, of ten thousand dollars, was presented to the 
Society, April, 1857, by the executors of the will of the late 
Thomas Dowse; and it was invested in a note signed by 
Edward Hyde and O. W. Watris, secured by mortgage on 
real estate. This note was paid on the 7th of April, 1863 ; 
and the whole fund was then invested in the real estate of 
the Society. The income of this fund is included in the rent 
received from the Suffolk Savings Bank ; and the expenditure 
is included in salaries paid to the Assistant Librarian and to 
Mr. Arnold, who are employed in the care of the Dowse 
Library. 

PROPERTY OP THE SOCIETY. 

The Estate on Tremont Street. — The Society purchased, 
March 6, 1833, of the Provident Institution for Savings, the 



1869.] TREASURER'S REPORT. 39 

second story, and one-half of the attic story, of this building, 
for $6,500 ; and on the 13th of March, 1856, the remainder of 
the interest of this institution, for 135,000. A portion of this 
was paid by subscription ; and, for the remainder, the Society 
mortgaged the whole estate to the Suffolk Savings Bank for 
Seamen and Others for $27,500. This mortgage was dis- 
charged on the 7th of April, 1863. The payments of the note 
have been as follows : two thousand dollars from the legacy 
of Miss Mary P. Townsend ; sixteen hundred dollars from the 
legacy of the late Nathaniel I. Bowditch ; five hundred dollars 
from the Historical Trust-Fund ; twelve thousand two hun- 
dred and three dollars from the net proceeds of the sale of 
stocks of the Appleton Fund ; ten thousand dollars from the 
note of Hyde and Watris, constituting the Dowse Fund ; and 
the balance, eleven hundred and ninety-seven dollars, from a 
donation by the late Hon. William Sturgis, to enable the 
Society to discharge the mortgage. The lower floor is rented 
to the Suffolk Savings Bank for fifteen years from March 1, 
1856, at an annual rent of $2,200. 

The Library, Paintings, and Cabinet. — The Library consists 
of about eighteen thousand volumes and twenty-eight thousand 
pamphlets. 

The Society's Publications. — These consist of the thirty- 
eight volumes of the " Collections," seven volumes of " Pro- 
ceedings," and two volumes of the " Catalogue," — about six 
thousand volumes, which are for sale. 

The Appleton Fund, of ten thousand dollars ; The Massachu- 
setts Historical Trust Fund, of three thousand dollars ; The 
Bowse Fund, of ten thousand dollars, — all invested in the 
real estate and obligations of the Society, as explained in this 
report. 

The Peabody Fund. — Invested in two registered United- 
States 10-40 Bonds of $10,000 each, bearing five per cent 
interest. 

The Bowse Library, — This Library was presented to the 



40 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Society by the late Thomas Dowse, and consists of four thou- 
sand six hundred and fifty volumes. 

The Copyright and Stereotype Plates of the "Life of John 
Quiney Adams." — This was presented to the Society by Hon. 
Josiah Quiney. It is on sale by Wool worth, Ains worth, and 
Company. 

Bond of $1,000 of the Quiney and Palmyra Railroad, and a 
note of 11,000 of the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad Com- 
pany, dated Feb. 1, 1869. 

THE INCOME. 

The income of the Society consists of an annual assessment, 
on each Resident Member, of seven dollars, or, instead, the 
payment of sixty dollars ; the admission-fee, of ten dollars, of 
new members ; the rent of the lower floor of the Society's 
building ; the sales of the publications of the Society ; the sales 
of the " Life of John Quiney Adams " ; the interest on the 
Peabody Fund ; a bond of $1,000 ; and a note of $1,000. 

In 1868, the Society received a legacy of $2,000 from the 
late Henry Harris, Esq., one-half of which was invested in a 
Coupon Bond of the Quiney and Palmyra Railroad Company. 
The remainder has been invested in a coupon note of the Han- 
nibal and St. Joseph Railroad Company. Both securities bear 
eight per cent interest, and are free of government tax. No 
conditions were attached to this legacy ; and, if thought desir- 
able, it may be constituted into a permanent fund. 

The course of thirteen lectures, delivered before the Lowell 
Institute the past season by members of the Society, produced 
thirteen hundred dollars, which will be expended for their pub- 
lication. 

The income of the Appleton Fund for the next year, it will 
be observed, has been absorbed in the publication of the eighth 
volume of the " Collections" ; but the expense of the ninth 
volume of the " Collections," part of which is in type, can be 
met from the general fund. 



1869.] librarian's report. 41 

The proceeds of the Peabody Fund will be ample to meet 
the publication of the volume of " Proceedings " now in the 
press. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Richard Frothingham, Treasurer. 

Boston, April 13, 1869. 

Annual Report of the Librarian. 

The By-laws of the Society require the Librarian to present, 
at the Annual Meeting, " a statement of the condition and 
wants of the Library, with a notice of the important accessions 
that have been made to it during the year." In accordance 
with this requirement, the Librarian respectfully submits the 
following report. 

The growth of the Library during the year has been steady 
and satisfactory. The accessions may be classified as fol- 
lows : — 

Books 626 

Pamphlets 2,361 

Bound volumes of newspapers 35 

Unbound volumes of newspapers 16 

Separate numbers of newspapers 609 

Maps 6 

Plans 13 

Broadsides 32 

Volumes of manuscripts 30 

Manuscripts 48 

Fac-similes of manuscripts 8 

3,784 

Of the volumes added, 509 were by gift, 107 by exchange, 
and 10 by purchase. The pamphlets were all given or pro- 
cured by exchange. Of the duplicates in the Library, there 
have been exchanged 104 volumes and 86 pamphlets for works 
wanted, but not owned, by the Society. These exchanges have 
been made by the Librarian, under the supervision of the 



42 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Standing Committee. Of the Society's " Collections " and 
" Proceedings," 60 volumes have been exchanged for other 
volumes of its publications, or for books not in the Library. 
In this way 11 volumes of the " Collections " wanted have 
been received. In every case where the publications are given 
out, the exchange is made by the Standing Committee. Three 
bound volumes of newspapers have been given for four others 
that were needed to complete sets. 

There have been taken out of the Library during the year 
197 books, including 9 pamphlets, and all have been returned. 
This number, however, is no measure of its usefulness, as 
it is daily consulted by persons who come hither, sometimes 
from a great distance, to find only in this collection what they 
want. 

There are now in the Library, it is believed, more than 
18,000 volumes, including the files of newspapers and the 
manuscripts ; and more than 28,000 pamphlets. 

The largest number of books given by any one person 
during the year was received from the President of the Society, 
Mr. Winthrop. Among his gifts are 268 volumes, besides many 
pamphlets, maps, and manuscripts. Of these volumes, 79 are 
made up of political and miscellaneous tracts, some of them of 
great rarity and value. With proper precaution, Mr. Winthrop 
has restricted their use to the Library. 

Considerable accessions have been made to the books relat- 
ing to the Great Rebellion. Mr. Lawrence has continued his 
gifts to this department, having added 33 volumes and 6 pam- 
phlets. The collection of this class of books now in the Library 
is a very good one, and we hope the Society will be able to 
add to it from time to time. It should embrace every thing 
that has been printed on either side, bearing even remotely on 
the late war. In future years this kind of literature will be 
in demand by students of history ; and publications now 
deemed unimportant may be the only means of shedding light 
on questions of great interest. With these materials, the 



L869.] LIBRARIAN'S REPORT. 48 

time will come when the impartial history of those great events 
can be written. 

Within a few weeks an important addition has been made to 
the manuscripts in the Library. Through the exertions of the 
Reverend Dr. Ellis, Mr. Frothingham, and others, the manu- 
scripts of Chief-Justice Samuel Sewall, which had been pre- 
served by his descendants during nearly a century and a half, 
have come into the possession of the Society. These com- 
prise his Journals, Letter-Books, and other miscellaneous 
papers ; and altogether they constitute a valuable collection. 

There has been a temporary break in the cataloguing of 
books and pamphlets during the last four months, owing to 
the want of an Assistant Librarian. This position having now 
been filled, it is hoped that the work will go on with regularity 
and promptness. The. card system has been adopted some 
years, and continues to give satisfaction. Since the last Cata- 
logue was printed, there has been added to the Library a suffi- 
cient number of titles to fill a supplementary volume, and the 
means must soon be provided for printing it. In connection 
with this subject may be mentioned the want of more shelf- 
room. The present accommodation for books is all taken up ; 
and additional shelves, if only for temporary use, must be put 
up to meet the exigency. This fact, however, is not stated to 
discourage any member who has the intention of giving a few 
volumes to the Library, from carrying out his benevolent pur- 
poses. 

Before closing this report, the Librarian desires to put upon 
record his high appreciation of the services rendered in many 
ways by the late Dr. John Appleton, who was the Assistant 
Librarian of the Society during fourteen years. His health 
was so feeble that he was obliged to hand in his resignation, 
which took effect on the 1st of December last. It was then 
hoped that the Society would not lose altogether the benefit of 
his large experience in matters pertaining to antiquarian and 
historical studies. In the following January, he was elected a 



44 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY [April, 

Resident Member ; but his associates never had the pleasure ot 
seeing him at a meeting, as he died on the 4th of February. 
In his death the Society lost one whose place it will be hard 
to fill. Respectfully submitted, 

Samuel A. Green, Librarian. 

April 15, 1869. 

The Cabinet-keeper's Report. 

The Cabinet-keeper of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
submits the following report for the year ending April 15th. 

During the year, the Cabinet of the Society has received 
accessions from Messrs. Deane, Green, Whitmore, and Win- 
throp, of the Resident Members ; from Mr. Grigsby, a Corre- 
sponding Member ; and from Messrs. G. C. Burgess, A. W. 
Corliss, G. W. Pearson, H. Powers, G. T. Sproat, C. L. Whit- 
man, F. A. Whitney, Miss A. L. Pierce, and the Building 
Committee of the First Church in Boston. 

Among the most interesting of these accessions are the bust 
of Mr. George Peabody, by Powers, given by the President of 
the Society ; framed photographs of the Old Brick or First 
Church in Boston, and of the First Church in Chauncy 
Street; a photograph of Daniel Webster, from an early 
daguerreotype ; a collection of one hundred and forty-two 
engraved portraits of distinguished men of France of the last 
century ; photographs of Benjamin Franklin, Adolphe de Cir- 
court, and the Trustees of the Peabody Education Fund ; and 
an engraved portrait of Peter Stuyvesant. 

The identification, by Mr. George Arnold, of the portrait of 
Thomas Hutchinson, now hanging in the Society's upper room, 
as the original portrait by Truman, presented to the Society by 
Peter Wainwright, Jr., deserves special mention, as for many 
years another portrait has been supposed to be the original, 
and has been engraved as such. 

The Cabinet-keeper cannot refrain from expressing the con- 
viction, that valuable additions to the Cabinet might be made, 



1869.] CABINET-KEEPER'S REPORT. 45 

were there proper accommodation for them, so that they could 
be arranged for the inspection of members and others ; and, 
following the example of his predecessors for some years past, 
he urges the matter on the consideration of the Society. 
Respectfully submitted, 

Henry G. Denny, Cabinet-keeper. 

Boston, April 15, 1869. 

Mr. Lincoln, from the Committee appointed to nominate 
candidates for the offices of the Society, after stating that the 
Hon. John C. Gray had declined to serve again as Vice-Presi- 
dent, presented the following list : — 

President. 
Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, LL.D Brookline. 

Vice-Presidents. 

Col. THOMAS ASPINWALL, A.M Boston. 

Hon. CHARLES F. ADAMS, LL.D Quincy. 

Recording Secretary. 
CHARLES DEANE, A.M Cambridge. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS, D.D Boston. 

Treasurer. 
Hon. RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, A.M Charlestown. 

Librarian. 
SAMUEL A. GREEN, M.D - : . Boston. 

Cabinet-keeper. 
HENRY G. DENNY, A.M Boston. 

Standing Committee. 

WILLIAM G. BROOKS, Esq Boston. 

CHARLES C. SMITH, Esq Boston. 

Rev. GEORGE W. BLAGDEN, D.D Boston. 

Hon. JAMES M. ROBBINS Milton. 

HENRY W. TORREY, A.M « Cambridge. 

For the Committee. 

Solomon Lincoln. 

Boston, April 15, 1869. 

This list of officers was adopted by the Society for the ensu- 
ing year. 



46 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Mr. Lincoln offered the following, which was unanimously 
adopted. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to the 
Hon. John C. Gray, Vice-President, and to Dr. Eliot, and W. 
C. Endicott, Esq., retiring members of the Standing Committee, 
for the interest they have manifested, and the valuable services 
they have rendered, in promoting the objects of the Society. 

Professor Washburn announced the Memoir of Levi Lin- 
coin as ready for publication. 



1869.] MEMOIR OP HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 47 



MEMOIR 



OP 



HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 

. BY EMORY WASHBURN. 



The circumstances under which such a memoir as is pro- 
posed in the following pages, must, almost necessarily, be 
prepared, should serve as an apology for its defective exe- 
cution. The work to be done is not sufficiently removed 
from the subject of it, to have had its relations to the historical 
events with which it is connected, sufficiently defined to do it 
justice ; while, on the other hand, the personal relations of 
the writer to one with whom he had long been associated in 
the offices of courtesy and friendship, are in danger of giving 
to the work more of the character of a eulogy than an impar- 
tial biography. Such are some of the embarrassments which 
are to be anticipated, in undertaking to prepare a notice of 
the Hon. Levi Lincoln, in accordance with the request of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, with which he was asso- 
ciated. The most that can be hoped, in the way of its 
execution, is, that the details here preserved may serve as 
materials for a more ample memoir of one who has been iden- 
tified with so many of the events which have characterized 
the last half-century of the history of the country. 

To do any thing like justice to the subject, it will be neces- 
sary to speak of his private, his professional, and his political 



48 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

life, in each of which he was eminent for the qualities which 
commanded the respect and esteem of the people of the Com- 
monwealth. 

The father of Governor Lincoln bore the same name, and 
was hardly less eminent than the son, in his professional and 
political career. He was born in Hingham, in 1749 ; and was 
graduated at Harvard in 1772. In 1775, he was admitted to 
the bar, and settled in the then rural village of Worcester. 
There were only two lawyers remaining in the county. The 
leading members of the profession had left the country, on 
account of their political antagonism to the prevailing senti- 
ments of the people. By diligent devotion to business, with 
the skill and ability which he brought to the practice of his 
profession, he rose to high distinction as a lawyer, at the same 
time that he was taking a leading part in the political agi- 
tations of the day. 

He was one of the two who were promoted to the rank of 
Barristers in that county after the Revolution. He was chosen 
to Congress in 1800; and, in the following year, was appoint- 
ed by President Jefferson, Attorney-General of the United 
States. In 1807, he was chosen Lieutenant-Governor, and re- 
elected in 1808 ; and, upon the death of Governor Sullivan, 
became Acting Governor. In 1811, he was nominated to a 
place on the bench of the United-States Supreme Court, but 
declined it, on account of a growing defect of vision, which 
terminated in almost total blindness. He died in 1820, at 
the age of seventy-one. His wife was a daughter of Daniel 
Waldo, Esq., of Worcester. 

Levi Lincoln, the subject of this notice, was the oldest of 
the children of this marriage. He was born on the 25th of 
October, 1782. He was graduated at Harvard College in 1802, 
in a class long distinguished by the eminent rank to which 
many of its members attained in the professions and in civil 
life, two only of whom still survive. Upon leaving college, 
he entered upon the study of the law, and was admitted to 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 49 

the bar of the Court of Common Pleas in Worcester, in 1805. 
As the law then stood, it required two years' practice at that 
bar, before an admission could be gained to that of the Su- 
preme Judicial Court, as an attorney ; and two years more, 
before one could be made a counsellor. He began practice in 
Worcester ; and, in due course, became attorney and coun- 
sellor in the Supreme Judicial Court. Among the men then 
at the bar, were Francis Blake, Jabez Upham, and Seth Hast- 
ings. And among those who were afterwards his contem- 
poraries, and whom he survived, were John Davis and Samuel 
M. Burnside ; whose names are a warrant for claiming for that 
bar a rank that, to win distinction or eminent success as a mem- 
ber of it, required a more than ordinary share of talent and 
ability. Mr. Lincoln, at once, gave an earnest of the success 
that awaited him, by the zeal and energy with which he en- 
gaged in the business of the profession, and the skill and good 
judgment with which he conducted the cases which he had 
in charge. His business rapidly increased ; and, in a few 
years, he found himself among the leaders of that bar. To 
attain this, against such a competition as he had to contend 
with, must have required effort and talent of a high order, 
when it is remembered that Mr. Blake was one of the ablest 
advocates in Massachusetts. 

Much of his success may be ascribed to the less dazzling 
and more commonplace qualities, which any man, of fair 
talents, may bring to the profession, — earnest devotion to 
whatever he had to do, fidelity to his clients, and a thorough 
preparation in every thing which he undertook. There was, 
moreover, in his intercourse with the bench and the bar, as 
well as with his clients, a courtesy of manner which, undoubt- 
edly, aided him in winning his way as a lawyer. Something 
may also be ascribed to his early political associations, which 
brought him into connection with an active and earnest body 
of men, who were ready to repay, by their patronage and 
favor, the aid which he contributed to the cause in which they 
were engaged. 



50 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

But every one . acquainted with professional success in a 
lawyer, knows that something more is wanted than personal 
address, or political favor, to attain to eminence in the field 
which he has entered. The client does not choose his ad- 
vocate because he is personally a popular favorite, but because 
he feels a confidence that his cause will be safe in his hands. 

The professional labors of a lawyer, in country practice, 
such as that in which Mr. Lincoln engaged, were almost in- 
finitely varied, as well as at times exceedingly complicated 
and perplexing. The duties of chamber counsel were mixed 
up with those of a scrivener and conveyancer, while the prep- 
aration and trial of jury causes were carried on at the same 
time that he must be investigating and applying the most pro- 
found principles of law, as well as its technical rules of detail, 
in the discussion of questions before the bench. 

The consequence was, that his life, while at the bar, was 
exceedingly laborious. His services were greatly sought as a 
jury advocate ; and although he always argued questions of 
law before the whole court, with a thorough preparation, and 
with acknowledged ability, it was before the jury that he 
achieved his most distinguished success. Nor were his 
efforts confined to his own county. His services were being 
sought in other parts of the State, to which he was called, 
when he was removed from that field of labor, and promoted 
to a place upon the bench of the Supreme Judicial Court. 

Of his manner, and the elements of his success as an advocate, 
it may be more appropriate to speak in another place. But 
it-may be remarked, in passing, that he illustrated in that, as 
in every other business or occupation in which he engaged, a 
thoroughness in whatever he had to do, that gave a dignity 
and importance to even the ordinary affairs of life. The 
duties, moreover, as well as the rewards of the profession, 
were in harmony with his taste and early training; and he 
never forgot or ceased to recall with pleasure, in after life, the 
period during which he was connected with it, or the associa- 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 51 

tions which such memories awakened of the struggles by 
which he rose to the places of trust and honor which he after- 
wards was called to fill. Nor did he give up the idea, which 
he cherished for many years, of returning to it, until quite a 
late period in his life. 

In February, 1824, a vacancy having occurred upon the 
Bench of the Supreme Judicial Court, by the resignation of 
Judge Thacher, Mr. Lincoln, then Lieutenant-Governor of the 
State, was appointed, by Governor Eustis, to the place. The 
selection was generally acceptable to the profession, and was 
received with great favor by the people of the Commonwealth. 
The bitterness of party feeling which had, at one time, 
divided the people, had been losing much of its severity, 
and had prepared them to welcome, on both sides, the 
nomination which was now made. And the manner in which 
he performed it- duties fully justified his selection for the 
office. He had a just and appreciative sense of its dignity 
and importance, and addressed himself, at once, to meet 
its responsibilities. His preparation at the bar had familiar- 
ized him with its details ; and his habits of investigating 
difficult and complicated questions, as a lawyer, were of im- 
mense advantage to him in weighing arguments, and reach- 
ing conclusions as a judge. If an overcrowded and busy 
life had left him little leisure to gather up the learning which 
is found in the books, the quickness and tact with which he 
brought the results of his reading and experience to bear 
upon the questions upon which he was called to pass, left 
little to be desired which his diligence did not readily supply. 
These remarks are fully justified by an administration of a 
little more than a year, during which time he had occasion to 
prepare opinions upon questions of importance, which have 
ever since been regarded as leading and authoritative state- 
ments of the law, upon the subjects to which they relate. A 
new sphere of activity was about to open to Mr. Lincoln, while 
that of the bar and the bench became practically closed. But 



52 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

he always spoke of his connection with these with affectionate 
regret, and retained to the last a high sense of the dignity 
and importance of the profession to which he had devoted 
twenty years of earnest and hopeful labor. He was now 
entering upon the more eminent and attractive period of his 
public career. He had taken an active part in the political 
discussions of the day, and, at length, was to assume the 
Chief Magistracy, and become the political head of the Com- 
monwealth. In this case, however, it did not imply the 
leadership of a party. 

This is no place or occasion to discuss the merits of the 
questions which divided the country at the time when Mr. 
Lincoln began active life. But the earnestness with which 
they were discussed, and the extent to which personal feeling 
became enlisted in the maintenance of the issues upon which 
opinions were divided, can hardly be conceived from any 
thing which is witnessed in the political discussions of our 
own day. His father had not only been in sympathy with Mr. 
Jefferson in his political views, from judgment and convic- 
tion, but shared largely in his personal confidence and re- 
gard. He was a zealous " Republican," as those who were 
opposed to the Federal party were then called. The party 
was a rising one, and professing to represent the popu- 
lar democratic element in the government, it was not sur- 
prising that the son should have early felt these influences, 
and, when he came to act, should have thrown himself 
with the zeal and ardor of a young man into the contest. 
His family connection, his ready eloquence, and his popular 
address soon gave him a commanding influence in his party, 
and attracted a corresponding disposition to censure and 
animadvert upon his course, on the part of those who were 
opposed to him. Bitter things were said of him, and harsh 
epithets applied to the measures he advocated, and the 
policy he espoused. In contrast with the circumstances 
under which he was raised to the chair of the Chief Magis- 



869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 53 

trate, it would be suggestive as well as instructive to copy 
from the partisan press of that day the language in which 
men and their motives were dealt with, on the one side and 
the other, and to remember that there is nothing like the logic 
of events to break down the barriers which separate men in 
their opinions, and to bring them together upon a common 
basis. Such was, eminently, true in the case of Governor 
Lincoln. The Federalists had uniformly been in the ascend- 
ent in Massachusetts, until 1807, when, for the first time, a 
" Republican " Governor was elected. In 1812, Mr. Lincoln 
was elected to the Senate from the County of Worcester. 
And so prominent had he already become in the State, that 
he was selected by that body to prepare the formal cus- 
tomary answer, to the message of Governor Strong, who 
had been elected by the Federal party. This election to the 
Senate seems to have been the first of that series of popular 
elections for which the political course of Mr. Lincoln became 
distinguished. 

In 1814, he was elected a representative to the General 
Court, from the town of Worcester, but found himself in a 
minority, in that body. At no time, perhaps, before or since, 
was party excitement in the Commonwealth more intense or 
active than in that year. It was in the midst of the war with 
Great Britain. There was a strong feeling on the part of large 
numbers in New England, that her interests had been neg- 
lected by the General Government, that the war was unneces- 
sary, and that the policy of the administration was illiberal 
and unwise, and counter to the spirit and intent of the Consti- 
tution. An additional cause of excitement on the part of Massa- 
chusetts was awakened in the circumstance that a portion of 
her territory had been seized and occupied by the enemy. But 
while the Federal party were thus embittered towards the 
national administration, there was a growing disposition among 
the people, as the war progressed, to sustain it. And in the 
election of Governor in the spring of 1814, the majority for 



54 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

the Federal candidate scarcely exceeded one hundred, in a 
vote of more than 102,000. The majority, however, in the 
Legislature was large and decisive. The feeling which had 
been growing stronger, with their losses and reverses in the 
war, culminated at last in a resolution for appointing fi delegates 
from this Legislature to meet and confer with, delegates from 
the States of New England, or any of them, upon the subjects 
of their public grievances and concerns, and upon the best 
means of preserving our resources, and of defence against the 
enemy, and to devise and suggest, for adoption by those 
respective States, such measures as they may deem expedi- 
ent ; and also, to take measures, if they shall think proper, for 
procuring a convention of delegates from all the United 
States, in order to revise the constitution thereof, and more 
effectually to secure the support and attachment of all the 
people, by placing all upon the basis of fair representation." 

This resolution has been transcribed in full, as a part of the 
history of the times, and especially of the convention which 
assembled at Hartford, in December, 1814, the memory of 
which is still associated with the odium which the real or 
affected apprehensions of the public, at large, attached to it 
at the time. And yet it is difficult to find in the language 
made use of, or the character of the men who took part in it, 
any thing to justify the censure to which it was subjected. 
Whatever cause of apprehension or alarm there was in calling 
such a convention, is to be sought in the circumstances under 
which it was held. At the present day, it would serve for 
the excitement of an hour, and be forgotten in something 
equally grave which might arise to engage public curiosity 
and attention. 

At the time, however, it was doubtless a matter of serious 
import. The resolution was carried by a vote of 260 to 90. 
A minority both of the Senate and House made separate pro- 
tests against the adoption of the resolution. That on the 
part of the House was drawn by Mr. Lincoln, and signed by 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 55 

seventy-five members besides himself. The language of the 
remonstrance justifies the remark just made, when it says, 
" The undersigned therefore cannot disguise their apprehen- 
sions, that more must be designed than is distinctly avowed." 
Among the consequences which they anticipated from the 
measure, as expressed by them, were that " Jealousy and 
contention will ensue. The Constitution, hitherto respected 
as the charter of national liberty and consecrated as the ark 
of our political safety, will be violated and destroyed ; and in 
civil dissensions and convulsions our independence will be 
annihilated." Fortunately, though the convention was held, 
no such disastrous consequences followed ; and the actors in 
the scene, on both sides, lived to appreciate the honesty of 
each others' motives, and to respect the sentiment which 
prompted the ardor of their zeal. As an index, however, of 
the feeling which prevailed at the time, the fact should be 
stated, that this protest, though respectful in its terms and 
signed by so large a number of members, was refused a place 
upon the Journal of the House. With such a lesson from the 
past, one can hardly fail to look hopefully upon the future of 
our popular frame of government, which seems to gather 
strength from every struggle through which it has been 
called to pass. From 1814 to 1822, inclusive, with the ex- 
ception of three years, when he declined being a candidate, 
Mr. Lincoln was a member of the House of Kepresentatives. 
The last of these years, he was elected Speaker, although 
the majority of the House and the Governor were of the 
opposite school of politics. The truth is, that political 
asperity was fast giving way to a better state of feeling ; and 
the tact and independence which Mr. Lincoln had displayed 
in his long experience in legislative proceedings, had fitted 
him admirably for the place. Nor did he disappoint the 
House. He combined promptness with accuracy, firmness 
with urbanity, and dignity with impartiality, in presiding over 
their deliberations. Few incumbents of the office have evei 



56 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 



excelled, if they have equalled him, in the qualities which 
constitute an able and acceptable Speaker. 

In 1820, in consequence of the separation of Maine from 
Massachusetts, it became necessary to amend or modify the 
constitution of her government. A convention for that pur- 
pose was accordingly called. And in the selection of mem- 
bers, the people chose their best and ablest men. No body 
of men ever surpassed them, in Massachusetts, for wisdom, 
personal and social influence, patriotism and practical sagacity. 
The various professions and callings in life were ably repre- 
sented. Judges of the highest courts, and statesmen of 
the broadest experience, with the ripest scholars, had a 
place in its deliberations. When the names of John Adams, 
Chief-Justice Parker, Judges Wilde and Story, Webster, 
Quincy, Shaw, and Hubbard, afterwards of the Supreme 
Court, Hoar, and Saltonstall, are mentioned among its mem- 
bers, it is hardly necessary to add, that to take a leading 
part in the business of such a convention, must have called 
for a high order of talent, as well as great personal influence 
and respect. Mr. Lincoln was one of its members. In his 
political views and opinions he differed from many of his 
associates. He early engaged in its discussions, and showed 
himself a ready and effective debater. He never hesitated 
to avow and defend his opinions ; and this, at least, may be 
said, if he did not convince his opponents, he did not lose 
their respect, nor fail to command the attention of the con- 
vention. The part which he took in giving shape and consist- 
ency to the constitution might justify a fuller notice of the 
subjects which engaged his more immediate attention, but 
this can only be done by a reference to its reported debates, 
which would exceed the limits of the present memoir. 

The separation of Maine from Massachusetts involved, 
moreover, the adjustment of important interests between 
them, such as the division of the public lands ; and a com- 
mission for this purpose was created, upon which Mr. Lincoln 
held a prominent place. 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 57 

In tracing the elevation of Mr. Lincoln to the post of 
Chief Magistrate, it is necessary to say a single word of the 
change through which the Commonwealth had been passing 
in its political views. The Democratic party, as it was 
ultimately called, had been gradually gaining strength ; and 
the course of the dominant party in the State, during the 
war with England, had given occasion for a considerable 
defection from its support, especially among the younger 
portion of her citizens. With the removal, however, of 
the original grounds of disaffection and dispute, the feeling 
thereby engendered gradually died away, so that the second 
term of Mr. Monroe's administration was spoken of as " the 
era of good feeling " ; his election having been all but unani- 
mous, as there was but one vote against him, out of 231. 
This took place in 1820. While this feeling prevailed in re- 
spect to the national elections, the lines still remained pretty 
distinctly drawn in .Massachusetts. Governor Brooks held 
office from 1816 to 1823. In the latter year, Governor Eustis, 
who was of opposite politics, succeeded him ; and Mr. Lincoln 
was chosen Lieutenant-Governor. But this state of things 
was fast passing away. At the presidential election in 1823, 
Mr. Lincoln was one of the electors, on the part of Massachu- 
setts, and cast a vote for John Quincy Adams. In 182-4, Mr. 
Lathrop was nominated as a candidate for Governor against 
Governor Eustis, receiving 34,000 votes to 38,000 for the 
latter. Governor Eustis died in February, 1825. The parties 
seem to have made this an occasion for coming together, and 
agreeing upon some one whom both might support for the 
vacant place. Mr. Lathrop declined to be a candidate again 
for the office, and Mr. Lincoln declined being a candidate upon 
a Democratic nomination, because he was unwilling to stand 
in the way of unanimity in the action of the two parties ; where- 
upon, it was voted by the Federal Convention that it was not 
expedient to make a party nomination, and, upon a ballot for a 
candidate for the office of Governor, Mr. Lincoln received a 

8 



58 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

unanimous vote. And, of the thirty-seven thousand votes 
cast at the election in 1825, he received thirty-five thousand, 
and entered upon the office the last Wednesday of May, 1825. 

In order to understand and appreciate the character of the 
labor upon which he now engaged, it will be necessary to 
recall, for a moment, the prior history of the Commonwealth. 
Forty-two years had indeed elapsed since the treaty of 
peace consummated the war of independence ; and thirty- 
seven, since the adoption of the Federal Constitution. But 
it ought not to be forgotten, how many had been the causes 
of embarrassment in the way of reducing the affairs of the 
Commonwealth to a condition of order, and establishing its 
industrial, educational, and economical interests upon a satis- 
factory basis. 

She had come out of the war borne down with a weight of 
debt, which left her little power to do any thing beyond 
devising means to meet the interest upon it. The message 
of the Governor in 1786 stated the proper debt of Massa- 
chusetts, independent of her share of the Federal debt, at 
over <£ 1,600,000, requiring an annual interest of over 
£88,000. The alarming outbreak of lawless violence, known 
as Shays's Rebellion, was a culmination of the discontent 
arising from this impoverishment of the State, the general 
prostration of business incident to such a debt, and the un- 
settled state of public credit. Moreover, till considerably 
into the present century, the avenues to wealth were confined 
to agriculture, commerce, and the fisheries. Manufactures 
took their rise within the recollection of many now on the 
stage of action. Even the sources of business and occupation 
which did exist, became cramped and embarrassed by the 
embargo of 1807, and the subsequent derangement of our 
commerce up to the close of the war of 1812. In the mean- 
time, business and capital were seeking other avenues, and 
required the aid and countenance of the government. The 
war, moreover, had engrossed much of the attention of the 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 59 

public mind. So that these and a variety of like causes and 
circumstances had operated to prevent that attention to the 
domestic institutions of the State, on the part of its rulers, 
which their importance might otherwise have claimed. Our 
manufacturing system was to be built up. Our schools were 
hardly improved from the condition in which they were left 
at the close of the Revolution. The arrangement of our 
prisons and the whole subject of prison discipline were in a 
very low and unsatisfactory state. Our means of internal 
trade and intercourse had not risen above the few lines of 
turnpike-road and stage coaches, which maintained a precarious 
struggle for success. Nor is it too much to say, that the 
trade and business of Massachusetts, at the time of Governor 
Lincoln's accession to the executive chair, were in such a 
problematical condition, that an indifference towards them on 
his part and that of the Legislature would have long retarded, 
if it had not ultimately paralyzed, them. Fortunately for the 
Commonwealth, it found in him, not only a chief magistrate 
who understood the wants of its citizens, but one who was 
ready to devote an unwearied and unremitting effort to take 
care of and advance to the utmost, her social, political, and 
economical interests of every description. In his inaugural 
message, he refers to several of them, and calls for an early 
attention to them. A favorite scheme for internal communi- 
cation at that time was the construction of a canal from 
Boston to Connecticut River. This he refers to, with favor, 
and suggests that he has been assured that another mode, by 
railways, had been approved of in England. But " how far 
they would be affected by our severe frosts cannot be con- 
jectured yet," and whether they are better than canals re- 
mained to be determined. He speaks with approbation of the 
encouragement recently given to agriculture, by the incor- 
poration of societies, and calls upon the Legislature to relieve 
the manufacturing interests, by a change of the law which 
held stockholders in corporations liable, personally, for the 



60 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

debts of their company to an unlimited extent. He accom- 
panies these statements with the suggestive fact that com- 
merce was falling off, and reminds the Legislature of the 
necessity of prompt measures in favor of a revival of the 
trade and business of the State. In his message in January, 
1826, he again presses the subject of a canal ; and this he 
repeats in that of June that year, and states reasons why 
canals are preferable to railways. 

As an illustration of the candor and good sense with which 
he treated questions of a public nature, it may be stated that 
the experience of civil engineering had thus far been, chiefly, 
in the direction of canals. That of the Duke of Bridgewater 
in England had been eminently successful. The Erie Canal 
had been completed in 1825, and was then in full and satis- 
factory operation, while that from Worcester to Providence 
was in a state of. great forwardness. There was a general 
feeling, moreover, that something must be done to aid the 
business of Boston, or her decline in wealth and population 
would be inevitable. The canals then in progress and in 
contemplation would have the effect to divert the trade from 
the counties west of Middlesex to the Narraganset Bay and 
the Sound. At the June session of 1826, a motion had been 
made for a committee to consider and report upon the subject 
of a railroad from Boston to the North River, near Albany. 
And though it met with no approval, it had been adopted, 
and the committee reported in favor of such a measure. 
This, it will be recollected, was before a locomotive had 
been constructed ; and horse-power, alone, was contemplated 
as the means of draught. Nor is it easy now to conceive, 
with what incredulity and ridicule the proposition was at 
first received. The report of the committee, however, re- 
ceived at the hands of Governor Lincoln all the consideration 
which the subject deserved ; and, although he had already 
in a measure committed himself to the scheme of a canal, he 
did not allow his preconceived opinions to stand in the way of 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 61 

the measure. In his message of January, 1827, he says: 
" Their report will come recommended by the assurance that 
their attention has been perseveringly directed to the in- 
teresting objects of their commission ; and that, short of the 
expense and labor of a board of scientific engineers, a better 
source of authentic information could not be resorted to by the 
government." The subject, when thus broached, acquired so 
much importance in the public mind, that a Board of Internal 
Improvement was established by an act of the Legislature in 
1828, to consist of nine persons ; and Governor Lincoln was 
placed at its head. Under their advice and encouragement, 
a system of railroads was inaugurated ; and in just fifteen 
years from the date of the report which encountered such 
ridicule for the wildness of the scheme it proposed, the road 
from Boston to Albany was opened for travel. 

Among the railroads incorporated during the administra- 
tion of Governor Lincoln, was that from Boston to the " City 
of Lowell," in 1829, though the name of that city had no place 
upon the map of Massachusetts at the time of his inaugura- 
tion. It would be easy to dwell more at large upon the sys- 
tem of internal improvements, which took its rise during this 
administration, and to which he lent a prompt and efficient 
aid, and to trace the growth and increased prosperity of the 
Commonwealth in connection with the progress of these 
enterprises. But to do so would require a larger space 
than can properly be allowed for a personal memoir. In 
reminding the reader that the products of the industry of 
Massachusetts in the year ending in May, 1865, exceeded five 
hundred millions of dollars, it would require no labored effort 
to show that something more was wanting than soil and 
climate, or the individual toil and labor of the citizen, to work 
out such gratifying results. Facilities for trade and inter- 
course were not the only objects of the care and encourage- 
ment of Governor Lincoln. As already stated, home industry, 
in the form of manufactures of various kinds, was a subject 



62 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

of special interest to him. In the then condition of the arts 
of manufacture, he saw the wisdom of fostering them by the 
action of the government. In his public messages and ad- 
dresses, he maintained the policy of encouraging and protect- 
ing home industry, and, in one of them, in 1826, referred for 
illustration, to the "villages" of Lowell and Ware, when 
the term " village " was still applicable, alike, to both. He 
presided at a public meeting in Boston of the growers and 
manufacturers of wool, the following year, and in that year 
was chosen President of the New-England Society for the 
Promotion of Manufactures and the Mechanic Arts. His 
relation to the agriculture of the State will be mentioned 
in another connection. The countenance and encouragement 
rendered by the chief magistrate of the State to the cause of 
American industry, in its early struggles for success, had a 
value and importance which can hardly be appreciated in 
a community in which its interests are so thoroughly estab- 
lished as they now are here. This was felt and acknowledged 
at a time when the manufacturer had not only to contend 
with competition from abroad, but adverse laws at home ; and 
it should not be forgotten now that a wiser policy has become 
the settled conviction of the public mind, and the Common- 
wealth is reaping the fruits of such a policy. 

A subject which gave Governor Lincoln early and anx- 
ious solicitude, was the condition of the State Prison, and 
the system of discipline prevailing in the treatment and 
management of prisoners. To understand this, it should 
be borne in mind, that the former barbarous custom of 
whipping, cropping, and shutting-up in dungeons and jails, 
in idleness, those who had been convicted of crimes, had, 
for many years, been discontinued. An important step to- 
wards a penitentiary system of punishment had already been 
taken by the erection of a prison at Charlestown, and by 
requiring of its inmates a certain amount of labor in shops 
within the prison-yard. But the idea of solitary or sepa- 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 63 

rate confinement, when not engaged in labor, had been 
developed, for the first time, at the Auburn Penitentiary, 
almost coincident with the election of Governor Lincoln. He 
found the inmates of the prison at Charlestown lodged in 
large rooms, containing, in some cases, sixteen persons, where 
they were shut up together, thus subjecting the yet unhard- 
ened convict to the certain process of hopeless corruption and 
remediless ruin. They were literally festering in each other's 
defilement, under the pretence of correction and reform. 
In his annual message of January, 1826, Governor Lincoln 
gives a graphic picture of the condition of these inmates, and 
adds, in characteristic terms, " Better even that the laws 
should be written in blood, than thus be executed in sin." 
He recommended substituting for such a prison one upon the 
plan of that at Auburn ; and, under his auspices, a most im- 
portant reform was early accomplished. 

The subject of the, condition of the insane in the Common- 
wealth attracted the attention of the Legislature as early as 
1827. The idea of curing insanity by medical care and treat- 
ment was entertained but by few in the community ; while 
many of those who were suffering under this malady were 
shut up in jails and cages, or subjected to rigid and severe 
restraint in solitude and neglect, and cut off from every hope 
or chance of restoration. In 1829, an act was passed for the 
erection and establishment of a State Lunatic Hospital, in 
the location and construction of which, as well as the com- 
pleteness of its appointments, Governor Lincoln took an active 
and lively interest. In 1832, he issued his proclamation, 
opening it for the public use, and thereby offering comfort and 
kind and skilful treatment to that unfortunate class of suffer- 
ing humanity. 

The subject of popular education was one in which he 
always manifested an interest, as well before as after his 
term of office, and was made a prominent theme in his official 
messages and addresses. To him, it is believed, the Com- 



64 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

monwealtli owes the inauguration of the measures which 
resulted in that essential element in her present common- 
school system, the Normal School. In his message of Jan. 7, 
1826, he refers to the suggestion of an institution to qualify 
teachers, and commends the measure to "the fostering 
patronage of the Legislature." He renews this in stronger 
terms in his message of June following, and again urges its 
importance in a more distinct and definite form, in that of 
January, 1827, These recommendations were so far matured 
that in February, 1828, the Committee of the Legislature on 
Education reported a bill providing for the establishment of 
a school fund, to be, among other things, " appropriated to the 
endowment of an institution for the instruction of school- 
teachers in each county of the Commonwealth." But the 
measure, for some reason, was not then carried ; though it 
never seems to have been lost sight of, till it resulted in a 
Normal School, such as the Commonwealth is now enjoying. 

A circumstance connected with the administration of Gov- 
ernor Lincoln, may be mentioned, as tending to show the in- 
dependence with which he met its responsibilities. Although 
the Constitution had been adopted in 1780, giving to the 
Executive the right of Yeto, it had never been exercised by 
any of his predecessors. An act incorporating a musical 
society, in Salem, had been passed, and sent to him for his 
approval. But, while he was a strenuous advocate for that 
system of business corporations by which small capitalists 
could unite and manage their resources to advantage, without 
the embarrassments of large copartnerships, he was not for 
needlessly multiplying these artificial persons, where the power 
and influence of numbers could be directed and controlled by 
a few active managers, and the responsible influence of indi- 
viduals be thus lost upon a community. And believing that 
the proposed corporation was of the latter class, he interposed 
his veto to its passage, in which he was sustained by the 
Legislature. But the more important matter upon which he 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 65 

felt called upon to exercise this power, was one which had for 
some time excited much interest in the eastern part of the 
State, and became mixed up with its legislation, by the in- 
fluence of those who were immediately concerned in the 
scheme. That was the erection of a bridge over Charles 
River, between Charlestown and Boston, side by side with the 
one already built, and opening it to the free use of the public. 
The obvious effect of this measure would be to destroy the 
value of the old bridge, which was originally erected by a 
private corporation, with a right to take toll, and the shares in 
which had become very valuable. Relying upon the supposed 
pledge of the government, that the moneys thus invested 
should be secure under the protection of the law, large 
amounts of the capital stock were held by trustees, charities, 
and persons retired from business. Opposed to these were 
those who paid toll for the accommodation provided by such a 
bridge, and the owners of property, who believed that a free 
highway, between Boston and its suburbs, would enhance its 
value. And it is hardly necessary to add, that it was not 
difficult, in such a controversy, to enlist the weight of num- 
bers in favor of the measure. The question that underlay the 
whole subject, was, What, in fact, did the Legislature grant to 
the proprietors of the Charles-River Bridge, by their original 
charter? On the one side, it was insisted, that the charter 
for the bridge was a compact between the Commonwealth and 
those who were willing to invest their money in the enterprise, 
by becoming stockholders in its capital ; that the latter should 
erect and maintain, a bridge for the use of the public (who 
would pay a reasonable toll for its accommodation), and, as a 
consideration for that, they should have the chance of being 
reimbursed for their moneys expended in the work, by enjoy- 
ing the line of travel which was thereby to be accommodated, 
without any act on the part of the Commonwealth to divert it, 
or deprive them of it. Those who treated it as a simple grant 
of a franchise insisted that there was nothing, in the terms of 

9 



66 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

It, which limited the power of the Commonwealth to erect, or 
authorize others to erect, any number of bridges, which the 
Legislature might judge to be of public utility. But while the 
discussions, to which the question gave rise, involved these 
points of radical difference, they elicited a sharp controversy, 
in which there was much feeling. This found its way into 
the Legislature, and threatened to be visited upon any one who 
should come out in opposition to the popular cry for free 
avenues of business. With the minority in that body, it was 
a broader question than the technical limitation of that particu- 
lar grant, and reached to the general policy of good faith on 
the part of the government. It had a bearing upon future 
enterprises, requiring the employment of associated capital. 
Even if, in the letter of the grant, the Legislature had not 
restricted their right of granting new charters, it was too plain 
for contradiction, that both they who granted the original 
charter, and they who advanced their money under it, under- 
stood that there should be a reciprocal beneflt to the public 
and the stockholders, and that the Legislature could not, in 
good faith, take away, without compensation, what they had 
implicitly granted, after having received, in return, every 
thing which they had required of the holders of the charter. 
But so strong was the feeling in the House, when the ques- 
tion of a " free bridge M came up for consideration, that an 
effort to delay the subject, even for a few days, to give mem- 
bers an opportunity to examine it, was defeated ; and, after a 
sharp but able and elaborate debate, it was carried by a strong 
vote. Some of the ablest men in the House opposed it with 
signal ability ; and the whole merits of the proposition were 
canvassed, but without changing the determination of the 
majority. When, therefore, the question of approval came 
before the Governor, he was obliged to meet it upon its 
own merits ; and if he opposed the popular sentiment un- 
der which it had been carried, he saw that he must encoun- 
ter the odium of disappointed partisans, and the strong current 



1869.] MEMOIR OP HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 67 

of public feeling in its favor. But he did not shrink from the 
responsibility, nor seek to evade the performance of an un- 
pleasant duty. He was satisfied, on the whole, that the act 
ought not to pass ; and he fearlessly said so, in a veto message 
of great ability, which will remain a perpetual memorial of his 
sense of justice, his regard for the faith and honor of the 
Commonwealth, and his manly independence in maintaining 
his opinion of what was right and duty, against the pressure of 
popular clamor. Though the bill was carried through the 
succeeding Legislature, and was afterwards sustained by the 
majority of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the United 
States, there was nothing in their judgment which impugned 
the soundness of the views upon which the veto of the Gov- 
ernor had been based. A protest of a most respectable 
minority of the Legislature against the passage of the act was 
entered upon its records, and sustained the wisdom and policy 
of the Executive in interposing his disapproval of it as a legis- 
lative measure. 

While calling to mind the purity of motive and firmness 
of purpose, with which he performed the duties of his office, 
as the Governor of the State and not of a party, by which 
his administration was uniformly characterized, there was a 
circumstance connected with the exercise of the appointing 
power, which ought not to pass unnoticed. By the sudden 
and lamented death of Chief-Justice Parker, of the Supreme 
Judicial Court, it became necessary to fill the place by some 
one to be nomiuated by the Executive. It will be recollected, 
that with the remaining members of that court his relations 
had ever been of the most intimate and friendly character. 
He had been one of their associates upon the Bench ; and he 
knew, therefore, the high estimate in which they were justly 
held by the community and the Bar, for those qualities which 
distinguish an upright and able judge. It would have been a 
grateful exercise of his prerogative, and one in which the pub- 
lic would have cheerfully acquiesced, to have promoted one of 



68 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

their number to the vacant place. He knew, however, the im- 
portance of the position. It was second to none in the Com- 
monwealth. It demanded high qualifications, and talents of a 
most varied character. It was, therefore, an object of far 
greater interest on the part of Governor Lincoln in selecting 
a candidate, to find one whose competency for the place was 
undoubted, than to gratify any personal preferences of his 
own. And the wisdom of his choice was justified by the long 
and brilliant administration of Chief-Justice Shaw, upon whom 
the appointment fell. He, at once, established a claim to the 
highest rank as a jurist. And for honesty, uprightness, and 
devotion to duty, his record is without a spot. His selection 
for the place, and the circumstances under which it was made, 
reflect the highest credit for sagacity, good judgment, and 
personal independence, upon the course pursued by Governor 
Lincoln in this delicate and responsible duty. 

But it is not within the purpose of this memoir, to dwell, in 
detail, upon the measures in which Governor Lincoln took a 
part, during his then unprecedented continuous term of office. 
Of the estimate in which he was held as a magistrate, no evi- 
dence is needed beyond the uninterrupted succession of elec- 
tions until 1834, when he voluntarily withdrew from being 
any longer a candidate. Nor is it too much to say, that he 
retired from the place with the universal respect and grateful 
esteem of his fellow-citizens. He had come into office at a 
time when it required, in the chief magistrate, talents and 
qualities of a high and varied character, sound judgment, 
broad and liberal views, a familiarity with details, a skill in the 
adaptation of means to ends, a knowledge of men and an un- 
selfish desire to advance the best interests of the Common- 
wealth. The summary which even this imperfect sketch 
has given of what was accomplished for the promotion of the 
establishment and improvement of her industry, her schools, 
her institutions of charity for the unfortunate, and of reform 
for the criminal, would justify what many have been ready to 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. G9 

claim for his administration, a distinguished success which has 
not been surpassed by that of any of the illustrious chief 
magistrates of the Commonwealth. One circumstance might 
have been mentioned, in passing, which served to show a 
singleness of purpose on his part, while it indicated the 
estimate in which he was held by the Legislature. Upon the 
expiration of Mr. Mills's term of office as Senator in Congress, 
an attempt was made to elect a successor in February, 1827. 
Several ballotings were had, in which the House and Senate 
cast their votes for different candidates. At one of these, the 
Senate, by a vote of 26 out of 39, chose Governor Lincoln, on 
the part of that branch. But before the House had an oppor- 
tunity to concur or otherwise, he addressed a communication 
to the latter body, declining to be considered a candidate for 
the place ; and no one was elected during the session. 

Upon retiring from the office of Governor, Mr. Lincoln found 
that he had been obliged to make such considerable drafts upon 
his private resources to meet the requirements of the place, 
that he made up his mind to resume business in his original 
profession, and had made an arrangement for the formation of 
a copartnership with that view, when, upon the urgent solicita- 
tion of his fellow-citizens, he consented to be a candidate to fill 
the vacancy in Congress, occasioned by the election of Governor 
Davis, as his successor. He was elected to that and the three 
succeeding Congresses ; and here he was distinguished for the 
same habits and qualities which had characterized him in what- 
ever place he had been previously called to fill. He was con- 
stant in his attendance, diligent in his attention to business, 
and intelligent and independent in his action. Though decided 
in his political views, and uncompromising in his advocacy of 
what he considered a sound national policy, he never would 
lend himself to a factious opposition, nor consent to be a party 
to a scheme of questionable propriety or honor. An instance 
of this occurred during the canvass for President, at the election 
of General Harrison. Among the things charged against 



70 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

President Van Buren, and designed to create a prejudice 
against him in the minds of certain classes in the community, 
was the luxurious style in which he lived, and the extravagance 
in which he indulged by an ostentatious display of table and 
other furniture. The doctrine that " all is fair in politics " was 
liberally applied in the campaign of 1840, and a member from 
Pennsylvania made himself famous by the manner in which he 
arraigned the President in a speech upon the floor of Congress, 
for the use of " gold spoons " and other articles of luxury upon 
his dinner-table. This was received with great favor in certain 
quarters, but it was little suited to the taste or sense of decency 
of Mr. Lincoln, who rose at once to reply to what he regarded as 
an unwarranted and undignified attack upon the occupant of the 
Executive Mansion. He was unwilling that even a good cause 
should borrow aid from so questionable a means of attack, 
and he proceeded to show that the charge of extravagance 
was unfounded, and that, even if it were true, the incumbent 
of the White House was not responsible for the expendi- 
ture. The circumstance is nowise important except as show- 
ing a characteristic sense of honor that instinctively spurned to 
carry a measure by base or underhand expedients. Mr. Lincoln 
frequently took part in the debates in Congress, and several 
of his more elaborate speeches were published, and might be 
more specifically referred to. But, beyond showing the care he 
always manifested to make himself master of his subject, and 
the directness with which he engaged in the discussions in 
which he took a part, it would be of little use to dwell upon 
them more at length. One thing, however, may, with justice, 
be said of Mr. Lincoln's Congressional career ; and that is, his 
course was such as to command the respect of the House. He 
never obtruded himself for the purpose of display, he never 
came to the discussion of a question without being prepared, he 
never tired the House by dull harangues, and never forgot his 
self-respect in bitter language or undignified retort. The con- 
sequence was, he could always command attention ; and his 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 71 

opinions had the weight of well-considered judgments of a fair 
and intelligent mind. 

Upon the coming into office of General Harrison, in March, 
1841, an effort was made by many of the leading merchants of 
Boston, to have Mr. Lincoln placed at the head of the Customs 
in that city ; and he was early commissioned as Collector of 
that port, in accordance with this expressed desire. He held 
the office till September, 1843, to the acceptance of all who had 
occasion to come in contact with him in the way of advice or 
business. They found him ever prompt, impartial, and courte- 
ous, and were ready to accord to him the qualities of a faithful, 
dilligent, and attentive public officer. But there is little mate- 
rial for biography in a mere life of business. Its details would 
be as tiresome as the drudgery of its daily routine. 

After leaving the Custom House, he engaged, with renewed 
pleasure, in the care and cultivation of his beautiful estate in 
Worcester, but served, as a Senator from that county during 
the years 1844 and 1845. In the latter of these, he presided 
over that body, bringing to the place the same freshness of 
interest and promptness in details, that he had evinced while a 
member of that board more than thirty years before. 

In 1848, he was appointed by the Legislature a presidential 
elector, and was chosen to preside over the Electoral College. 
And in 1864, for the third time, he was elected a member of the 
Electoral College, and helped to cast the vote of the State, a 
second time, for one who, under Providence, had carried the 
country through the fearful ordeal of a civil war. And no one 
who had met him, for the first time, on that occasion, could 
have imagined that the erect, cheerful, and courteous gentle- 
man whom he then saw, had cast an electoral vote for John 
Quincy Adams, forty years before, when, with the mature ex- 
perience of a Judge of the Supreme Court, he was called upon 
to execute that important trust. Indeed, Time seemed to have 
dealt so kindly and gently with him, that his friends forgot that 
he had passed the climacteric of fourscore years, when, with the 



72 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Apkil, 

step and erectness ana grace of a man in middle life, he entered 
the Council Chamber to perform the grateful duty committed 
by his fellow-citizens to his charge. 

But in this we have somewhat anticipated the events of his 
life, which are yet to be noticed. Under the fostering influ- 
ences of that policy which he had so strongly advocated, 
the village of Worcester, upon his entering on his public 
career, had, in 1848, become a city of seventeen thousand 
people. Mr. Lincoln was elected, that year, the first Mayor 
of the city, and at once entered upon the duties of organ- 
izing and conducting the affairs of this new municipality. 
He served for a year in that office, evincing the same exact 
attention to its details which he had shown in every place 
which he had been called to fill, and, at the same time, dignify- 
ing it by the manner in which he sustained its more imposing 
duties and relations. The work of giving form and consistency 
to a newly organized municipal government, and adapting it to 
the condition of a rapidly growing and thriving industry, was 
one requiring much thought and a constant oversight ; and it 
was fortunate for that city that it could command the services 
of so faithful and capable a magistrate to meet the requirements 
of the occasion. 

But it is doubtful if, of all the places of honor and distinction 
to which Governor Lincoln was called by his fellow-citizens, 
there was any one which he enjoyed more highly, or entered 
into with a keener relish and satisfaction than that of Presi- 
dent of the Worcester County Agricultural Society. His tastes 
and early habits were associated with rural life. The Worcester 
of his boyhood was an agricultural community, and the broad 
acres and fine culture of his father's farm early indoctrinated him 
with a knowledge of the details of a farmer's life, and a taste 
for agriculture as a liberal pursuit. The agricultural society of 
the county was formed in 1818, and was one of the earliest in 
the State. His father was its first president, and he was himself 
elected to that office in 1824. He held the place by successive 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 73 

elections till 1852. For many years, it was the only society in 
the county. Its annual cattle-show drew together the leading 
men, not only of the county, but, often, many from other parts 
of the Commonwealth. It was the great holiday of the county, 
when the farmer and the man of business, the scholar and the 
statesman, came there to do honor to the skill and pursuits of 
the husbandman, and to enjoy the society of the men of culture 
and intelligence which the occasion drew together. The 
central and active spirit of the association was its president, 
whose presence and influence were felt and witnessed in all its 
details. On no occasion was the profuse and elegant hospitali- 
ty for which his house was always distinguished more liberally 
displayed than on these gatherings. On the last anniversary 
of this Society, Governor Bullock paid a beautiful and fitting 
tribute to their late President, in which he spoke of his knowledge 
of the science of agriculture, of his fondness for its pursuits, 
of his love of trees and his care for their culture and preser- 
vation, of his almost poetical fondness for flowers, and the 
beautiful things which make the garden so attractive to the 
man of refined taste ; and in referring to this trait of hospitality, 
as exhibited on the occasion to which we have referred, he said : 
" His hospitality after the labors of the show-day were over, 
when committee-men assembled under his roof to condense in 
the fellowship of the evening, the somewhat diversified and 
perhaps somewhat incoherent lessons of the field and the press, 
will long be remembered by every one who shared it. The 
best farmers from distant towns went away with an enlarged 
sense of the elevation and importance of their vocation, and felt 
encouraged to strive more stoutly in the next year's competi- 
tion." 

All that was here said of his admirably managed farm, of his 
fine stock, of his love of the beautiful in nature and cultivation, 
of the rare union of taste and practical good sense in the 
management of his estate, was evinced through his whole life. 

Of his social qualities and traits of domestic life it is hardly 

10 



74 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

within the province of such a memoir to speak at large. Be- 
fore even alluding to these, it is proper to refer to the part he 
took in the benevolent enterprises of the day, as well as in the 
promotion of the interests of education, and the support of the 
civil institutions of the Commonwealth. He was an early 
advocate of the Temperance Reform, and presided over the 
first State Temperance Convention in the Commonwealth, at 
Worcester, in September, 1833, receiving a unanimous resolu- 
tion of thanks of the vast body of its friends there congregated, 
for the very able and dignified manner in which he had per- 
formed the duties of the office. He was, for several years, 
President of the Worcester County Bible Society. He had an 
earnest and sincere conviction of his duty to God and the 
church, and never wavered in the respect with which he 
observed the offices and ministrations of religion, and bore 
testimony to his belief in the truths of revelation. The touch- 
ing and appreciative tribute paid to his memory by the Rever- 
end Pastor of the Church of which he was a member, on the 
sabbath after his interment, gives us an insight into his re- 
ligious character, and can leave no doubt of the sincerity of 
the faith which he professed. 

Although he retired from public life in 1845, and declined 
the place of Senator in Congress when it was offered to 
him in 1854, he continued to be called upon, from time 
to time, to serve for brief periods in responsible and im- 
portant public trusts. In 1847, he was selected, from his 
known interest in the maintenance of an effective militia sys- 
tem, which he had evinced through his whole career, to serve 
upon a commission to revise the existing laws upon that sub- 
ject, and report a system for organizing and disciplining the 
militia of the Commonwealth, and this he did, by an able and 
well-considered report, which became the basis of important 
legislative action. In 1854, a commission was constituted to 
examine into and report as to the number and condition of the 
Insane in the Commonwealth, to which Mr. Lincoln was ap- 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 75* 

pointed. And, though the principal labor of detail was per- 
formed by one of his associates, his aid in completing the work, 
and in preparing an able and satisfactory statement of its re- 
sults, was of great value and importance. 

His interest in the cause of learning and education was 
manifested in various ways, and upon all suitable occasions. 
It was seen in his public messages and addresses, as well as his 
personal services in connection with the institutions of learn- 
ing. The committee of the House, to whom the first report of 
the Board of Education, made in 1838, was committed, thus 
speak of what he had done towards inaugurating the scheme 
of Normal schools, to which reference has already been made. 
" The friends of universal education have long looked to the 
Legislature for the establishment of one or more seminaries 
devoted to the purpose of supplying qualified teachers for the 
town and district schools, by whose action, alone, other 
judicious provisions of law could be carried into full effect. 
At various times the deliberation of both branches of the 
General Court has been bestowed upon this, among other sub- 
jects, most intimately relating to the benefit of the rising gen- 
eration and all generations to come after us, particularly when 
the provision for instruction of school-teachers was specially 
urged upon their consideration in 1827, by the message of the 
Governor ; and a report thereupon, accompanied by a bill, was 
submitted by the chairman, following out, to their fair conclu- 
sions, the suggestion of the Executive." So that, whatever 
may have been the services of others afterwards, it was pro- 
per that this tribute to the part thus early taken in the matter 
by Governor Lincoln, should be repeated in this connection. 
He was, for many years, a member and President of the Board 
of Trustees of that venerable institution,' Leicester Academy, 
which was founded in 1784, and of which his father had been 
a member and its president, as early as the year 1800. He 
was always a stanch and active friend and patron of Harvard 
College, his Alma Mater, and, for many years, a member of 



76 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

her Board of Overseers. In return, he was honored by more 
than one of the Colleges of the Commonwealth, with gratifying 
expressions of respect for his public services, and his private 
worth. In 1824, the honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred 
upon him by Williams College, and a like honor was bestowed 
by Harvard College in 1826. He was one of the founders of 
the American Antiquarian Society, and its Senior Vice-Presi- 
dent at the time of his death. He was elected a member of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1859. In the suc- 
cess of both these associations, he took a lively interest ; and 
yet he made no particular pretensions to the character of a 
scholar or a man of science. His life had been eminently one 
of action ; and the various positions of professional and political 
service, which he was called to fill, left little leisure for the 
pursuits of literature or scholarship. His knowledge, however, 
was varied and extensive ; and his taste had been improved by 
a constant association with men of culture and refinement. 
He made no pretensions to what he did not feel that he had a 
right to claim. Beyond his public and official addresses and 
messages, he has left little that was published. Much of that 
which he did leave, related to matters of local interest. Of 
his Executive Messages, it may be said, without reserve, that 
they show a thorough knowledge of the subjects of which 
they treat. They are full, clear, and direct ; and, if their 
style may sometimes be regarded as diffuse, it is to be ascribed 
to that ready command of apt and expressive forms of speech 
which characterized all his public performances. He addressed 
a letter to his successor, upon his retiring from the Executive 
chair, which was published by order of the Senate, in which he 
briefly reviews the principal transactions with which his admin- 
istration of the office had been connected, many of which have 
not been even alluded to in these pages, in speaking of that 
period of his life : such as the revision, collation, and arrang- 
ment of the colonial and provincial and general statutes ; the 
trigonometrical survey of the Commonwealth ; the publication 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEYI LINCOLN. 77 

of the geological report of the features, natural scenery, and 
character of the country ; the gratifying improvements in the 
condition of the State Prison, the progress and condition of the 
Lunatic Hospital at Worcester, with other less important 
measures. In closing, he adds, and we quote it as an 
illustration of the sentiment of the man, and the style of the 
writer : " Grateful to my fellow-citizens, in a depth of feeling 
which I have no language to express, for the many repeated 
and unmerited honors which they have conferred upon me, I 
go now to the retirement of private life, to manifest, by the only 
means in my power, my sense of obligation in the discharge of 
the more humble but not less imperative duties of a faithful 
citizen, giving his vote and his influence, whatever it may be, 
to uphold the glorious fabric of free government, to preserve 
the Union of these States, and to strengthen and confirm for an 
inheritance to the latest generation, the institutions of piety 
and learning, humanity and benevolence, which are the boast 
of the present age, and so pre-eminently the enjoyment of our 
own prosperous and happy Commonwealth." It is hardly 
necessary to add, that this pledge thus solemnly and affection- 
ately given, was most faithfully kept to the last. He stood as 
calmly and as firmly in his fidelity to the Union and respect for 
the Constitution and the law, during the darkest hour of the 
Rebellion, as in the most prosperous days of the republic, and 
was as true to his loyalty. 

Among the publications of Mr. Lincoln which remain, was 
an address delivered by him at the consecration of the Wor- 
cester Rural Cemetery, in 1838. It shows learning, fine 
taste, pure and elevated sentiment, and was associated as a 
work of consecration, with the spot in which so many of 
his hearers were to repose, at last, together. u I pause here," 
are its words, " in thoughtful contemplation. We stand, this 
day, upon the virgin soil of this fair field, with which no 
crumbling clay of humanity ever yet has mingled. To-mor- 
row it may be ours to inhabit it. Henceforth, when we here 



78 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

assemble, it will be in silence and in tears, to commit the 
remains of some loved one to the dust, over which we have 
trodden ; and again and again shall the grave be opened, until, 
one after another, all shall be gathered to their mother earth." 
It was, indeed, his commission to see these eloquent words 
made history of most of the vast assembly who had gathered 
upon the yet unbroken soil of that beautiful receptacle of the 
dead, and beneath that autumn sky, within the thirty years 
which were yet to be added to his already mature life, before it 
was to become his own resting-place. 

Of his speeches in Congress, only two are now before us. 
Of one of these we have already spoken. The other is a bold 
and manly defence of Mr. Adams against the attempt which 
was made to censure him in Congress, for even proposing to 
the Speaker the question, how far a petition, purporting to come 
from slaves, would fall within the rule of the House in respect 
to the vexed question of the right of petition ? The subject has 
indeed lost much of its importance in the progress of events. 
But the circumstance has still a personal significance and 
interest, from the promptness and power with which Mr. Lin- 
coln threw himself into the conflict, and the readiness he 
evinced to maintain the right of petition, and vindicate the con- 
duct and character of the North. 

His last public speech was made while presiding at an im- 
mense gathering of the people, in Faneuil Hall, in December, 
1859, on which occasion Mr. Everett also made an eloquent 
address. Though he had been so long withdrawn from a par- 
ticipation in popular meetings, he stood before the multitude 
which crowded that hall, with all the grace and dignity which 
had marked his best efforts in middle life, and showed himself 
the same earnest and eloquent advocate for what he thought 
was right, that he had ever been. And he found in return as 
hearty a response, in the applause of those who listened to him, 
as he had ever received when he led in the councils of the 
State. 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 79 

It is not within the plan of this memoir to dwell upon the 
local published addresses or reports which occasionally called 
for the exercise of his voice or pen, though we ought not to pass 
to what relates more immediately to the personal relations of 
private life, without a word or two upon what entered so much 
into his success as a public man, his manner as a citizen and 
his eloquence as a popular debater. His manner in his inter- 
course with others was easy, graceful, and dignified, though, at 
times, it partook somewhat of the stately. He was always 
self-possessed, and, in private, >vas free, social, and often 
playful. He had nothing of austerity in his constitution, 
and no one could enter more readily into the pleasant humor 
of others. Nor was he capable of doing a rude or ungentle- 
manly act from carelessness, bad temper, or want of familiarity 
with good breeding. His form was erect, his step firm and 
elastic, and all his movements were graceful. His bearing was 
that of a gentleman of the old school, and he never was be- 
trayed into language or conduct unbecoming one of that class. 
Manners like these, with a good figure, fine voice, and grace- 
ful action, gave force and effect to his efforts as an advocate 
and an orator. He had clear and decided views upon the sub- 
jects in which he engaged, and these he enforced with an 
earnestness and sincerity, which hardly ever failed to command 
a lively interest in those to whom they were addressed. His 
ready fluency and command of fit and choice language to which 
we have alluded, were rarely excelled. He never hesitated for 
a word, and the right one always seemed to come at his bid- 
ding. He aimed to be master of his subject, and rarely, if 
ever, failed to make himself understood. One pleasure in 
listening to him was the assurance which every one felt, that 
he was adequate to the occasion, and that the cause he advo- 
cated would not suffer in his hands. He was, as we have said, 
earnest in his manner, and sometimes impassioned ; but he 
never violated the laws of courtesy in debate, nor descended to 
harshness of epithet, or rudeness in language, or an unbecom- 



80 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

ing retort upon an adversary. With these advantages in his 
favor, he was able to grapple with great and important subjects ; 
and if he failed to reach the highest flights of eloquence, he 
had few superiors at the bar, or in the popular assembly, as an 
effective advocate and orator. Nor should the unselfish fidelity 
with which he stood by a friend to the last be forgotten. He was, 
withal, a man of business and detail. He managed his private 
affairs with judgment and skill, and gave to them his per- 
sonal care and attention. Through life he maintained such 
a course of dealing with others, that his word was always as 
good as his bond. There was nothing stingy or contracted in 
his economy, or habits of thrift. He was generous in his 
benefactions, ever ready to respond to the calls of beneficence ; 
and in his style of living and the character of his hospitality 
he evinced the generous spirit and refined taste which charac- 
terized all his social intercourse. His house was the pleasant 
resort of strangers, while its doors were ever open to his 
friends and his townsmen, to welcome them to the graceful 
hospitalities which it supplied. Much of this was due to the 
congenial tastes and views of his wife, who was a fit associate 
and companion for one who enjoyed so highly the comforts and 
elegances of a well-ordered home. She was a daughter of 
William Sever, Esq., of Kingston, a well-known family in the old 
Colony, and might trace back her lineage to the Winslows and 
Warrens of the " Mayflower." She yet survives him, sharing 
largely in the respect and esteem of a wide circle of apprecia- 
tive friends. Three of their sons and a daughter also survive 
him. One son had fallen in the lifetime of the father, while 
gallantly leading a charge in the Battle of Buena Yista, in the 
war with Mexico. 

It is rare that a public man who has once left the stage of 
action, after having filled a part as important as that which 
had signalized the life of Governor Lincoln, has either occasion 
or opportunity to illustrate, in fact, how much he retains of the 
spirit and capacity which may have characterized the period of 



1869.] MEMOIR OF HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 81 

mature and vigorous manhood. But, in his case, the war of the 
Kebellion aroused within him all the zeal and patriotic ardor 
which he had felt in the flush of early manhood. And, what 
was equally marked, it seemed to inspire in him an equal vigor 
of body. He spoke and acted at the age of fourscore, as if he 
had the stake of a young man's life in the honor of his country, 
and the maintenance of the Constitution and the Union. He 
never lost heart, nor suffered himself to doubt the ultimate 
triumph of the government, and did much to animate young 
men to fill the ranks of the army and fight under the flag of 
the republic. A son did efficient service at the head of a regi- 
ment, and was permanently disabled by wounds received in 
battle. Two grandsons, also, did credit to their parentage in 
the same service. His zeal and efforts in the cause ceased only 
with the war, and his words of cheer and encouragement will 
long be remembered by those who listened to them through 
the long and dreary period of our civil war. Active, self- 
reliant, and self-sustained through this exciting period, the 
time came at last, when the powers of a fine constitution 
and an ardent temperament gave way before the insidious ap- 
proaches of a fatal disease. A few months before his death he 
suffered a slight attack of paralysis. But it was the precursor 
of the approach of the brief but final sickness which closed his 
busy, useful, and honored life. He died on the 29th of May, 
1868. 

His decease was the occasion for expressions of respect for 
his memory, and of sympathy for the family, from the press, 
the highest officials of the Commonwealth, and the numerous 
associations with which he then was or had been connected. 
A public official order issued by the Governor, recognized, in 
fitting and appropriate terms, " the dignity and grace of his 
long life closing in the veneration and esteem of all." The 
Legislature, then in session, commemorated the event by pro- 
ceedings indicating their respect for his private worth and 
public services. The same was done by the City Council of Wor- 

11 



82 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

cester, by the Judges and Bar of the Supreme Judicial Court, 
then sitting at Worcester, by the American Antiquarian Society, 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, the Directors of the Wor- 
cester National Bank, the Bunker-Hill Monument Association, 
and the Hingham and Worcester County Agricultural Societies. 
The funeral solemnities, at his burial, were at once touching 
and imposing. The whole city was moved ; and the citizens of 
the neighboring towns gathered along the sidewalks of its 
streets, or joined in the long procession that followed his re- 
mains from his late dwelling-house to the church, and from the 
church to the rural cemetery, in whose consecration he had 
taken a part. Business was suspended, and its places closed. 
An imposing cortege attended the body on its transit to its 
final resting-place, consisting of the Governor and his Council, 
Committees of the two Houses of the Legislature, the Indepen- 
dent Corps of Cadets, with their band playing a solemn dirge, 
together with numerous distinguished citizens from other parts 
of the Commonwealth, and citizens of Worcester. One feeling 
seemed to pervade the masses of the people, that the Common- 
wealth had lost one of her most honored and distinguished 
sons, whose life had long been identified with her history, the 
city of his home had lost a citizen loved and respected by all, 
and every one who had known him, a wise counsellor and a 
faithful friend. Deeply interesting services were held in the 
church where he was accustomed to worship, in which the Rev. 
Drs. Hill and Ellis took parts, and spoke of the deceased as 
only those who had known him intimately could have done, to 
those who crowded the edifice. And thus he died and was 
buried, the last, we believe, of that list of great and distinguished 
men, whose lives were associated with one of the most interest- 
ing and brilliant periods of Massachusetts History. Webster, 
John Davis, Choate, Everett, John Quincy Adams, Chief-Justice 
Shaw, Quincy, and now Lincoln, had all been contemporary, 
and present a collection of names never surpassed and rarely 
equalled in dignity, power, and influence, in a Commonwealth 



1869.] MEMOIR OP HON. LEVI LINCOLN. 83 

whose pride and glory have been her sons. Extended as this 
memoir may seem to be, in justice to the subject it should be 
added, that it is necessarily unsatisfactory and incomplete, and, 
as such, must claim the indulgence which is due to the brief 
space which, at best, can be allowed to it, in the transactions 
of the Society under whose auspices it has been prepared. 



84 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 



MAY MEETING. 

A stated meeting of the Society was held this day, Thursday, 
13th May, at eleven o'clock, a.m. ; the President in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the last meeting. 

The Cabinet-keeper reported the following gifts to the Cab- 
inet ; namely : — 

A framed photograph of the College of William and Mary, 
at Williamsburg, Ya., on the back of which was this inscrip- 
tion : " Designed by Sir Christopher Wren, and finished in 1703, 
destroyed by fire in 1705, rebuilt in 1723, destroyed by fire 
in 1859, rebuilt in 1860, destroyed in 1862 ; rebuilding com- 
menced in 1868 ; presented by Benjamin Stoddert Ewell, now 
President of the College " : 

Also, a copy of a pen-and-ink sketch of General Washington, 
by one of the guests, taken while he sat at a dinner-table : 

Also, a medallion likeness of our Corresponding Member, 
John Gough Nichols, and his wife, Lucy (Lewis) Nichols, 
taken to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of their 
marriage, — presented by Mr. Nichols himself, who sent at the 
same time a number of valuable books for the Library : 

Also, a facsimile of Paul Revere's picture of Boston, taken 
one hundred years ago, — a gift of A. L. Sewell and John E. 
Miller, publishers, Chicago. 

The thanks of the Society were ordered for these valuable 
gifts. 

The President read a letter from M. Jules Marcou, of Paris, 
enclosing a letter from M. Jules Desnoyers, the Secretary of the 
" Socie'te' de PHistoire de France " ; promising a valuable addi- 
tion to our Library from the Historical Society of France, and 
from their Secretary. 

Dr. Green called attention to the first volume of the manu- 



1869.] REMARKS ON CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 85 

script records of the " New North Church," which had been 
presented to the Society by the Rev. Mr. Alger, and said that 
this volume would be followed by the remaining volumes of the 
records in Mr. Alger's possession. 

Dr. Ellis presented a copy of " The Speeches of His Excel- 
lency Governor Hutchinson, to the General Assembly of the 
Massachusetts Bay," &c, Boston, 1773. 

The President read the following letter : — 

To the President of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Sm, — The Medal and Ribbons received by the late Dr. W. T. G. 
Morton from the French Government, &c, together with letters from 
your late associate, my brother, Nathaniel I. Bowditch, urging Dr. 
Morton to place them with the Historical Society, are now in the pos- 
session of the widow of Dr. Morton. She deems them too valuable to be 
kept except by some public institution. A secure case with a glass 
front, so that the chief articles can be seen safely by the public, has 
been prepared. 

Mrs. Morton wishes to deposit them with your Society, provided 
they can be kept for ever as a memorial of the labors of her husband, 
and provided, moreover, they can be placed in such a position in the 
hall of your Society as to be visible to all who examine the various 
objects of historical interest collected there. 

I remain very respectfully yours, 

Henry I. Bowditch. 

May 5th, 1869. 

Whereupon, it was — 

Voted, That the Society will gratefully receive the memorial 
referred to in the letter of Dr. Bowditch, and that the President 
communicate this vote of the Society to him. 

The President called attention to the sketch of Hannah 
Adams, by Chester Harding, the original of the portrait by 
this artist, placed on exhibition in the rooms of the Society 
by its owner. 
. Mr. J. C. Gray submitted the following remarks on the dis- 
cipline and mode of instruction in Cornell University, at Ithaca, 
N.Y., as compared with the same in Harvard University: — 



86 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

The condition and prospects of the Cornell University at 
Ithaca, N.Y., having lately been the subjects of much 
public comment, and many comparisons having been made 
between this institution and Harvard University, the writer 
submits a few remarks on the question how far it is practicable 
or desirable so to change the system of education and disci- 
pline pursued in the Academic Department of Harvard Univer- 
sity, as to render that institution similar to Cornell University 
at Ithaca, N.Y. In some particulars, such a change would 
be so manifestly impracticable, that it is useless to inquire 
whether it would be desirable or otherwise. 

1. As to the comparative expense of students at the two 
institutions. 

The average expense annually of a student at Cornell Uni- 
versity, may be estimated at $400. In this estimate is in- 
cluded a moderate allowance for clothing, and it is supposed 
that during vacation the student boards and lodges free of 
expense, in his parents' house or elsewhere. The average 
annual expense is estimated in the official circular (Cornell), 
at about $275, exclusive of the items last referred to. 

The whole annual expense of an undergraduate at Cam- 
bridge cannot be estimated at less than $800. The greater 
portion of the difference of $400 must be ascribed to the local 
position of Harvard College, which, of course, must be deemed 
unalterable. It may be therefore affirmed, that to reduce the 
expenses of a student at Harvard to an equality with those of 
one at Cornell University, or to an approximation thereto, must 
be considered absolutely impracticable. 

2. Terms of admission. Higher terms of admission are ex- 
acted for entrance into the Classical Department of Cornell 
University than into any other department, but the classical 
proficiency required at this University is materially lower 
than at Harvard or Yale. It would certainly be in the power 
of the Government at either of those colleges, to reduce the 
tciu s of admission. But there is no evidence whatever of a 



1869.] REMARKS ON CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 87 

desire on the part of either of those bodies to do so, or of the 
wish of the public that such a retrograde course should be 
adopted. 

3. One of the most important differences between Cornell 
and Harvard Universities is, that in the former the several 
branches of scientific and literary instruction, form one in- 
stitution, under the care of the same officers of instruction 
and government, who, as far as appears, form one body. 
At Cambridge, the Scientific Schools (using the word u scien- 
tific" generally) are in fact separate institutions, and not con- 
nected with the Academic Department, except that the President 
of the College stands at the head of each Faculty. The text- 
books of the Medical and Divinity Colleges are generally, it 
is believed, different from those of the Academic Department. 
Many of the studies of the Lawrence and the Mining School 
are pursued, in some degree, by the undergraduates ; such, for 
instance, as Mathematics and Geometry. It may surprise some 
to hear, that almost every branch of knowledge proposed to be 
taught in Cornell University, is well taught at Cambridge, 
either in the Academic Department or the Scientific School, or, 
in some cases, in both. It is far from certain, in the writer's 
opinion, that such connection as does exist at Cambridge be- 
tween the several Scientific Schools and the College proper, is 
of advantage to either side, and that all parties might not have 
prospered as well if all the schools had been located in Boston, 
leaving the Academic Department by itself at Cambridge. But 
this question is no longer an open one. 

4. In the Cornell University, it is proposed to carry the op- 
tional system to the fullest extent. In Cambridge, a very large 
though not unlimited option is allowed after' the Freshman 
year, and the student, more especially, is allowed to relinquish 
both the classics and the mathematics ; this certainly is an im- 
portant concession to the advocates of a voluntary system. It 
is yet to be seen whether the Government of Harvard have not 
gone quite far enough on what may be called the liberal side. 



88 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

The better way seems to be to subject the present arrangement 
to the test of experiment, for a few years at least, without a 
change in any direction. 

It will appear from the Report on the Organization of Cornell 
University, that the objects for which it is founded are materi- 
ally different from those pursued by undergraduates at Harvard, 
Yale, and the other leading colleges in New England. 

The Faculty at the Cornell University, propose, in the main, 
to educate pupils directly for some one of the occupations of 
practical life. No college in New England professes to do this, 
whatever facilities may be offered at Scientific Schools connected 
with such college. The object of a studious undergraduate at 
Harvard or Yale, for example, is to gain a good general educa- 
tion, which may, perhaps, include some knowledge of many 
sciences of the most practical kind, but which is mainly calcu- 
lated to invigorate, refine, and inform the mind generally, and 
thus prepare a foundation deep and broad, for the special pur- 
suit of any important branch of industry. 

Each description of seminary may be useful in its way. The 
Cornell University is as yet an experiment. If a successful 
one, it by no means follows that the system pursued in our 
college should be abandoned. In that system, the study of the 
classics yet holds a prominent place, but at Cambridge, at least, 
the pursuit of that study is optional after the first year. It is 
certainly possible to exclude it altogether ; but in so doing, to 
say nothing of the opinion of many intelligent men in all parts 
of our country, or of the patronage which our colleges are now 
receiving, we should differ widely in opinion from the Govern- 
ment of Cornell University, who have in decided terms recog- 
nized the high importance of classical studies, and made 
provision for the teaching of them. Abused as our collegiate 
system has been (and probably always will be), the people of 
New England will hardly agree to the assertion lately put forth 
with great seeming confidence, that we find " scholars stepping 
out of the highest scholastic positions in college, into nonentity 



1869.] REMARKS ON CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 89 

in after-life." To speak of Harvard only, as the College best 
known to the writer, we find that H. G. Otis, John Quincy 
Adams, W. E. Channing, W. P. Preble, and Edward Everett 
were among the very best scholars of their respective classes ; 
and a large number of names, selected from the living as well ■ 
as the dead, might be added to the list. Why any radical 
changes should be made at once in our system of education at 
Harvard, the writer is at a loss to know, though far from main- 
taining that there is no room for improvement. Still, there are 
some suggestions in the Cornell Report which deserve the 
serious consideration of the Faculty of Harvard and other col- 
leges. This may be said especially of the remarks on Dormi- 
tories. The Report on the Cornell University is decidedly 
against the whole system of dormitories, except as a temporary 
expedient. It states what was once true of some of our largest 
colleges, if not so now, that " no private citizen who lets rooms 
in his own house, to four or six students, would tolerate for an 
hour the anarchy which most tutors in college dormitories are 
compelled to overlook." 

Still it appears that, at Ithaca, large dormitories have been 
erected from obvious considerations of economy and conven- 
ience. For the same reasons, those at Cambridge cannot now 
be dispensed with. But the Corporation may well consider the 
expediency, if dormitories must be erected in future, of making 
them of a much smaller size, and more resembling in other 
points respectable private houses. Parietal discipline could 
certainly be much better enforced in such moderately sized 
lodging houses. The dormitory system has been carried out 
fully in English Universities by the construction of large quad- 
rangles, with gates closed at night. What enormities are 
sometimes perpetrated within those quadrangles may be seen 
by referring to Bristed's "Five Years in an English Univer- 
sity." 

The truth is, that if we expect to collect together from five 
hundred to one thousand young men, mostly minors, and to 

12 



90 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

rely wholly or mainly on their sense of propriety for the pres- 
ervation of good order, we shall soon learn the true value of 
such an expectation. Whatever may be said in favor of the 
character of college students generally (and much may be so 
said), there will always be several in respect to whom a mere 
appeal to their sense of propriety would be unavailing, not to 
say ridiculous. President Walker remarks, in his Inaugural 
Address, that one-fourth of those who enter college, would be 
better anywhere else, and this at any rate is altogether a rea- 
sonable supposition. While we have large numbers collected in 
large dormitories, parietal discipline, and that of a rigid kind, 
must be kept up, however disagreeable both to officers and 
students. 

The writer adds a few remarks on some points presented in 
a late Report to the Overseers of Harvard College. First, as 
to the compensation of instructors. If these officers are to be 
what they should be, or even (generally speaking) what they 
have been, the salaries paid at present are any thing but ex- 
travagant. The report speaks (p. 35) of the last addition to 
the term fees, to be paid by the student, of $45 annually, as 
not exorbitant, and this is within the truth. A further addition 
of $50 would yield from $20,000 to $25,000 annually. Each 
of the undergraduates would thus pay for instruction about $200 
annually, that is, no more than the price paid at several private 
schools in Boston, and not more than six per cent would 
be added to the whole annual expenses of an undergraduate at 
Cambridge, which cannot be fairly stated at less than $800. A 
Faculty composed of instructors of the highest order, would 
form a body, the best calculated of all others, to carry on any 
existing system to the best advantage, or to suggest any 
changes therein. To fill well the offices of our College Govern- 
ment, as opportunity offers, is, indeed, the highest and most 
delicate duty of the Corporation and Overseers, and they ought 
to be enabled to offer every reasonable inducement to compe- 
tent candidates, and all reasonable expenses thus incurred, 



1869.] REMARKS ON CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 91 

should be defrayed by reasonable charges on the students, and 
the addition thus suggested is believed to be clearly of that 
character. 

2. As to Recitations, the Report to the Overseers contains 
some valuable suggestions. Extempore recitations are very 
incomplete tests of proficiency. A good memory, a natural 
fluency, and even a confident and imposing manner, have often 
done much to conceal a want of thoroughness and accuracy. 
Written examinations at stated intervals furnish, of the two, a 
far better means of ascertaining scholarship. Still it is far 
from advisable to dispense altogether with daily recitations, or 
to allow them no weight at all, in determining a scholar's rank. 
Many young students, and some older ones, require a more fre- 
quent stimulus than is furnished by periodical examinations, 
and a perspicuous and accurate recitation by a student is often 
beneficial not only to himself, but to his classmates who listen 
to him. 

But after all, one general consideration, already referred to, 
can be hardly too much borne in mind. The chief source 
whence real improvements should be expected is a faithful and 
competent Faculty. It is, or ought to be, the duty of every in- 
structor, not merely to carry on class after class in a beaten 
track, and sit and hear recitations which prove little as to the 
student's faculties and scholarship, except that he has a good 
memory. Such a course might answer, or at any rate was 
made to answer, in the early part of the present century. But 
New-England teachers, and of course New-England scholarship, 
were very different then from what they now are. For half a 
century previous to 1810, scarcely any change was made in the 
requisites for admission, or the course of study at Cambridge, 
and it may be safely said that many a scholar gained the high- 
est honors with less scholarship, either in science or literature, 
than is now required for admission to the Freshman Class. It 
is now to be expected that the Faculty should perceive and 
suggest all necessary improvements, and it is not to be doubted 



92 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

that their suggestions will be duly estimated by Corporation 
and Overseers. 

Note. — As the Cornell University is scarcely yet in full operation, there is 
much in its course of instruction and discipline which has not yet been definitely 
arranged. Nothing has yet been said, so far at least as is known to the writer, as 
to the manner in which the classes shall be arranged. It is difficult to conceive 
how public instruction can be carried on without some such arrangement. But 
whether there shall be four classes as in most of our colleges, or three, as in many 
of our scientific schools, or what other arrangement of the kind shall be adopted, 
— these questions as well as others of great importance, are, doubtless, receiving 
a due consideration from the learned Faculty. 



Mr. William Sumner Appleton, of Boston, was elected a .Res- 
ident Member ; and M. Jules Marcou, of Paris, France, a Cor- 
responding Member. 

The President presented a sheet of paper, containing, in an 
early hand, a draft of some instructions intended for the agents 
of Massachusetts, selected to represent the Colony in England. 
The paper bears no date, but it was written after the receipt 
of his Majesty's letter of the 24th of July, 1679, to which it 
evidently refers, and for which see Hutchinson's " Collection 
of Papers," pp. 519-522. 

If anything be objected ag? haveing our Pattent here, & that it ought 
to lye in England & the Governm* managed here by Deputation, as it 
hath sometimes been hinted, yo u shall answer : that is wholy inconsistant 
w 01 the designe of the undertakers in settling these remote pts of the 
world under his Ma tie who intended, as to demonstrate their dependance 
on the Crowne of England, so their ready & constant conformity to 
the Charter graciously granted to them, to wch end they brought it w tb 
them w th out any obstruction from his ma ties p e decessors, & we hope may 
be continued here w th out the least offense to his ma tie : who hath we 
conceive for the like reason been pleased lately to grant, & send over, 
(or suffered to be brought over) Pattents of the same tenour to other 
Colonyes here. 

As to the delivering up the Province of Maine, purchased of m r 
Gorges, yo u shall humbly beg his ma tie9 pardon, If anything acted in 
that matter were irregular, or offensive ; it was not att all foreseen or 
thought by our late Agents or our Selves. They did w th all diligence 



1869.] INSTRUCTIONS TO AGENTS OF MASSACHUSETTS COLONY. 93 

enquire of the learned in the Law, who gave their opinion that it might 
lawfully be done, neither had our agents any thoughts of his ma ae ' 
intention of takeing of it into his own hand : But m r Mason haveing 
obtained what was formerly belonging unto us, & from whome we had 
necessary supplyes of many things ; we thought some releife might be 
to us by this Purchase. And is of so great importance, that we hope 
his Ma ties favor in continueing the Same to us, w c h hath cost us so deare 
formerly & lately, beside what m r . Gorges had. And we doubt not but 
to give his Ma tie an Acct of our managm* of the Governm* there to 
satisfaction, conformally to the gracious grant to sd m r Gorges. 

We suppose we have in the p 'ceding Articles fully instructed yo u in 
all things intimated by his ma tie , or intended as to regulation of our 
Governm* & managm* of affairs here. But if any other thing be pro- 
pounded w c h we cannott foresee or provide for, yo u shall humbly pray 
yo n may have time to signify his ma* 63 pleasure to us, & receive our 
direction therein, before yo u give any answer or consent there to. 

Mr. Davis announced the Memoir of the late Isaac P. Davis, 
which he had been appointed to prepare for the Society's " Pro- 
ceedings." 



94 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 



OF 



ISAAC P. DAVIS. 

BY GEORGE T. DAVIS. 



Mr. Davis was born in Plymouth, Mass., Oct. 7, 1771. 
His father, Thomas Davis, born in Albany, N.Y., in 1722, 
passed a portion of his earlier life in North Carolina, came to 
Plymouth as early as 1742, and died in 1785, leaving a com- 
petent estate gained in navigation and in mercantile pursuits. 
The father of Thomas Davis is believed to have been born in Eng- 
land. The mother was a Miss Wendell, of Albany. Thomas 
Davis, in 1753, married Mercy Hedge of Plymouth, whose ances- 
try is traced to Elder Brewster, Governor Bradford, and others 
of the earliest Pilgrims. The issue of this marriage was as 
follows : — 

Sarah, born 1754, died 1821. 



Thomas, 


?j 


1756, , 


, 1805. 


William, 


55 


1758, 


„ 1826. 


John, 


55 


1759, 


„ 1847. 


Samuel, 


55 


1765, 


, 1829. 


Isaac P., 


55 


1771, 


, 1855. 


Wendell, 


55 


1776, 


, 1830. 



Of these brothers, a writer who knew them well has said, — 

" There were six brothers in the family, all of whom held offices of 
public trust under the State and United-States Governments, with the 




<Jl <f 



&SV-7-4 



1869.] BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF ISAAC P. DAVIS. 95 

exception of one only ; they have all passed away, and their memory 
held in high regard and honor, particularly the late Thomas Davis, a 
former treasurer of this Commonwealth, and the late Judge Davis, so 
well known as the learned and upright Judge of the United States Dis- 
trict Court. 

" William, another of the brothers, was extensively engaged in his 
native town of Plymouth in mercantile pursuits; and was much 
regarded for his general knowledge, intelligence, and probity. He was 
frequently chosen a representative in the State Legislature. Samuel, 
another of the brothers, was a man of retiring habits and a most mod- 
est demeanor, very curious in antiquarian and genealogical research, 
and dealt largely in the chronicles of former times. It was always per* 
fectly safe to quote him in matters of fact. Wendell, the youngest 
brother, a graduate of Cambridge, became a member of the Senate of 
this State at a time when political excitement ran very high ; he was 
esteemed a ready and sharp debater, and distinguished himself by his 
apt rejoinders to his opponents ; he afterwards held the office of sheriff 
of the county of Barnstable." 

The subject of this sketch commenced business in Boston in 
the latter part of the last century as a rope-maker, having a 
considerable manufacturing establishment, and extensive trans- 
actions with the Government and with the leading merchants 
of that time. Some of his largest contracts with the Govern- 
ment were for supplies of cordage to the navy at the time of 
the threatened war with France, in 1798. He had large deal- 
ings with William and Eben Parsons, with J. & T. H. Perkins, 
and other great ship-owners, and retained their cordial friend- 
ship to the last. After some years of prosperous business, he sus- 
tained losses by fire and by adverse legislation, which reduced 
him to comparative poverty, but did not affect the genial and 
loyal qualities and the fine tastes which to the close of his life 
made his friendship desired and prized. 

Mr. Davis married. June 2, 1807, Susan, daughter of Dr. 
David Jackson, a distinguished physician of Philadelphia. This 
lady, who, in addition to great personal beauty, possessed the 
highest qualities of mind and heart, survived him, dying March 
30, 1867, at the age of eighty-two. The children of this mar- 



96 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

riage were — Thomas Kemper Davis, born June 20, 1808, and 
died Oct. 13, 1853 ; and George Cabot Davis, born Jan. 30, 
1812, and died June 20, 1833. Thomas K. Davis, graduated 
at Harvard College in 1827, first scholar of his class, and was 
also class orator. He had fine scholarship and brilliant powers, 
but long before his death was withdrawn by disease from the 
pursuits of active life. 

Mr. Davis became a member of the Massachusetts Historical 
Society in 1830, was elected its Cabinet-keeper in 1833, and so 
continued till his death. 

In 1841, he received the appointment of Naval Officer for 
the port of Boston, and retained it till 1845. Fortius appoint- 
ment he was principally indebted to the friendship of Mr. Web- 
ster ; a friendship which found further expression in the 
subjoined dedication of the second volume of Mr. Webster's 
works : — 

To Isaac P. Davis, Esq. 

My dear Sir, — A warm private friendship has subsisted between 
us for half our lives, interrupted by no untoward occurrence, and never 
for a moment cooling into indifference. Of this friendship, the source 
of so much happiness to me, I wish to leave if not an enduring memo- 
rial, at least an affectionate and grateful acknowledgment. 

I inscribe this volume of my speeches to you. 

Daniel Webster. 

At the time of his death, Mr. Davis was one of three surviv- 
ing original members of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic 
Association, — an institution with which he had been connected 
for sixty years. 

He was a trustee of the Boston Athenaeum from 1830 to 
1845. 

Mr. Davis died after an illness of some weeks' duration, Jan- 
uary 13, 1855. 

The above is merely an outline of the life of a man who for 
nearly two generations filled a large social place, and is still 
remembered with unusual affection by the narrowing circle of 



1869.] BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF ISAAC P. DAVIS. 97 

surviving friends. His personal qualities have been well por- 
trayed by one of his nearest friends * in a sketch written just 
after his death, but not hitherto published, and which I am per- 
mitted to use. 

Mr. Winthrop says, — 

" Few persons will be more missed from the daily walks of life than 
this esteemed and venerated gentleman. Though he had reached the 
advanced age of eighty-three years, he had retained a full measure of 
his characteristic activity of mind and body until a very recent period, 
and but a few weeks had elapsed since he was to be found at his cus- 
tomary haunts on the Exchange. Everybody was glad to meet him 
there, for he had a kind word for everybody. Nor did he confine 
himself to kind words. If an obliging act was within his power, he 
was always sure to do it. One was in danger of forgetting that he was 
no longer young, so ready and eager was he to anticipate the wishes 
of a friend in rendering any service that could be suggested. Indeed, 
he knew little of old age, except from the experience it had brought 
him ; his heart was always young, and his interest in the daily current 
of events lost nothing of its freshness to the end of his life. He was 
eminently a man of ' cheerful yesterdays and confident to-morrows.' 

'A man of hope, and forward-looking mind, 
Even to the last.' 

Yet he did not forget that he had passed the allotted term of human 
life, and was not unmindful of the great account which was soon to be 
rendered. 

" Mr. Davis entered life with slight advantages of fortune, but it would 
be difficult to name a man who had been happier in his social relations. 
Beyond any one of his time he had enjoyed the friendship and intimacy 
ot our most distinguished men. He was on terms of familiar inter- 
course successively with Fisher Ames and George Cabot, with John 
Quincy Adams, Josiah Quincy, Harrison Gray Otis, and Daniel Web- 
ster. Nor was his acquaintance limited to those of our own neighbor- 
hood. Strangers of distinction were rarely without a letter to Mr. 
Davis, and were always sure of receiving from him the kindest atten- 
tion, and of being introduced by him to the most agreeable hospitalities. 
His memory was thus stored with personal anecdotes and pleasant 
reminiscences of many of the most interesting characters in our more 

* Hon. Robert C. Winthrop. 
13 



98 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. TMay, 

recent history, and he was rarely without agreeable occasions of relat- 
ing them. He took an early and active interest in the encouragement 
of American art. He was the friend of Stuart and Allston and Sully, 
of Greenough and Powers and Clevenger; and not a few young art- 
ists of less celebrity have owed to him the earliest opportunities of exer- 
cising their profession. Though not wealthy himself, he knew how to 
bring deserving merit to the notice of those that were, and many an 
order for a bust or a portrait which has brought hope, and perhaps 
bread, to some discouraged and destitute artist, has had its origin in hi? 
thoughtful and timely suggestions. 

" Mr. Davis, like his venerated brother, the late Mr. Justice Davis, 
had a passion for every thing of an historical or antiquarian character. 
Born in Plymouth, he was never tired of visiting the Rock, and of 
exploring the footsteps of those who first trod it. Indeed, whatever 
related to American History, Colonial or Revolutionary, he was eager 
to hear and see and understand ; and, though neither a student nor a 
writer himself, he often helped those who were writers or students to 
facts, or anecdotes, or papers, or memorials, which might have been 
looked for in vain anywhere else. His service to the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, as one of their most attentive members, and as their 
Cabinet-keeper for a long course of years, will doubtless secure for him 
the customary tribute in their ' Proceedings,' as they have secured for him 
the cordial regard and esteem of all his associates. Mr. Davis was re- 
peatedly one of the representatives of Boston in the State Legislature, 
and for several years he held the post of Naval Officer in the Boston 
Custom House. But he sought no distinction in public life. His dis- 
position was for the social circle, where his tastes and his temper emi- 
nently qualified him to shine. His genial good-nature, his benevolent 
spirit, his peculiar faculty of gathering up whatever was most interest- 
ing or agreeable to those with whom he was associated, his quick 
appreciation of whatever was curious or novel, his kind, cordial, cheer- 
ful manners, — all conspired to make him the selected and solicited guest 
of every company, and the welcome visitor of every household. 

" His long life was not unclouded by afflictions. He was called to 
bear blows which would have broken any less buoyant spirit than his 
own. Two sons — his only children — who had given the best promise 
of success in their respective professions ; one of them second to no 
one of his age in early scholarship — were cut off before him. But 
with the aid of an affectionate and devoted wife, he bore up bravely 
beneath these bitter disappointments, and was soon the same cheerful 



1869.] BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF ISAAC P. DAVIS. 99 

old man ; — happy, at least, in making others happy. Sinking at last, 
under no very protracted disease, he has left a memory which will be 
cherished in many hearts, as that of a tried, trusty, affectionate friend, 
whom all would have gladly held back yet longer from the grave, to 
cheer and brighten the pathway of life." 

To the above just and discriminating portraiture, I will only 
add some lines upon the same subject, which appeared in print 
soon after his death, and which are understood to be from the 
pen of Hon. George Lunt. 

I. P. D. 

Ah, kind and good old man ! 

Whose life, a golden chain 

Of links, still brightening, ran 

Through more than fourscore years, 

In long-descending train, — 

Ripened by sun and rain, 

So the full shock should garnered be, and vain 

Were our superfluous tears. 

Yet, though we may not grieve 

For him, who waited but the Master's call, 

How oft, at morn, and noon, and social eve, 

By genial board, or in the festal hall, 

Shall busy fancy weave 

Sweet, sad memorials of thy decent form, 

Who knew life's sunny hours, and felt its storm, 

Saw human nature's every side, and still 

Who thought and spoke no ill 1 

The cordial grasp of an unsullied hand, 

The cheerful aspect and the beaming eye ; 

Those silvery locks that crowned a forehead bland 

With human sympathy ; 

The feeling heart, quick thought and earnest mind, 

The true, soft accents from thy lips that fell, — 

Where shall we look to find 

In soul so gentle left behind 1 

Dear, kind old man, farewell ! 



100 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 



JUNE MEETING. 

The stated monthly meeting of the Society was held this 
day, Thursday, 10th of June, by invitation of the President, 
with the concurrence of the Standing Committee, at his house 
in Brookline, at half-past four o'clock, p.m. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the last meeting. 

The Librarian announced the gifts to the Library the past 
month. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter of acceptance 
from the Rev, Edmund de Pressense*, of Paris. 

The President then spoke as follows : — 

You will not expect from me, gentlemen, any formal words of 
welcome on this occasion ; but I cannot omit to remind you 
that meetings of this kind have repeatedly been held in former 
years, and I hope this may not be the last of them. We had 
a most memorable meeting at the house of our lamented asso- 
ciate, George Livermore, in Cambridge, on the 26th of June, 
1856. It would not be difficult to trace to that meeting the 
inspiration which resulted, soon afterwards, in our possession 
of the Dowse Library ; and I believe Mr. Deane has so traced 
it in the Memoir * of his friend, which forms so interesting a 
feature of our new volume of " Proceedings." During the sum- 
mer of 1858, we held two such meetings ; one of them at 
the historic residence of Longfellow at Cambridge, and the 
other at the charming cottage of the late Frederic Tudor at 
Nahant. Not a few of those who were present on those occa- 
sions are no more ; but others have succeeded to their places, 
as still others will succeed to ours ; and I trust that an occa- 
sional social meeting in the country will long be something 
more than a tradition in our annals. 

* See the Memoir aa separately printed, at pages 45-47. 



1869.] ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WINTHROP. 101 

We are here, to-day, at what was known to the settlers of 
Massachusetts by the repulsive name of " Muddy River," and 
of which the first historical account is thus given by Gov- 
ernor Winthrop in his journal : — 

"August 30, 1632. — Notice being given of ten Sagamores and 
many Indians assembled at Muddy River, the Governor sent Captain 
Underhill with twenty musketeers, to discover, &c. ; but at Roxbury 
they heard they were broke up." 

I will not take up your time in dwelling on the old associa- 
tions of the place ; but will content myself with reminding 
you that a succinct and excellent account of this locality is to 
be found, where so many other good things are also to be found, 
in our own "Historical Collections." In the second volume of 
the second series, printed in 1814, may be read an historical 
sketch of Brookline, " extracted from a discourse delivered 
there on the 24th of November, 1805, the day which completed 
a century from the incorporation of the town," by one whom 
so many of us remember with respect and affection, the genial, 
warm-hearted, and excellent Dr. John Pierce, " the fifth minis- 
ter of Brookline," and a most active and valuable member of 
our Society. 

In turning over the pages of that sketch, which, among other 
matters, contains a list of those who had been educated at Har- 
vard University from Brookline, I observed but one name 
which I knew to be the name of a living man, and of which 
the notice is as follows : — 

" Thomas Aspinwall, A.M., son of the Hon. William Aspinwall, Esq. 
For several years he was a lawyer in Boston. He is now a colonel 
in the United-States Army." 

I need not say that this is our honored first Yice-President, of 
whom the description was true in 1814, when the sketch was 
revised for our " Collections," but of whom more might be said 
now than it would be quite fair to say before his face. I am sure 
we all feel that in having him here with us this afternoon, we have 
the best and fittest representative of o ] d Brookline, — yes, of 



102 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

old " Muddy River," — for his name and lineage go back, I 
believe, to the earliest settlement of the town. 

Let me only add that I think no one who reviews the history 
of the place, not merely as given by good Dr. Pierce, but also 
as developed and illustrated since by those who have dwelt 
within its limits, can fail to be impressed with the rich and co- 
pious streams of benevolence and beneficence, of private virtue 
and of public usefulness and devotion, which have flowed out 
from that old " Muddy River," around which those ten Saga- 
mores and their followers were assembled in 1632, when Gov- 
ernor Winthrop sent Captain Underbill and his twenty 
musketeers to discover and disperse them. 

And now, gentlemen, let me devote a few closing words to 
something more practical. The year before us is destined to 
be an eventful one in our condition as a society. The ap- 
proaching expiration of the lease of the lower story of our 
building, in Boston, renders it important that we should take 
seasonable measures for putting that building into a condition 
both for yielding us a larger rent, and for furnishing ampler and 
more secure accommodation for our own treasures ; and I hope 
that at this very meeting the Standing Committee, or some 
other committee, may be authorized and instructed to employ 
a careful architect to examine the premises, and prepare plans 
and estimates for the work. Above all things, the building 
should, if possible, be made absolutely fire-proof. 

One other matter seems to me worthy of our consideration. 
Our Society is now limited to one hundred members. We 
have ninety-nine living Resident Members on our rolls at this 
moment. A few of them, Mr. Savage, Dr. Felt, and Dr. 
Frothingham, we may hardly hope to see among us often, if 
ever, again. I cannot but think that the time is at hand for 
entering upon a moderate and gradual enlargement of our So- 
ciety, or certainly for obtaining liberty for such an enlarge- 
ment. We shall be obliged to go before the Legislature 
without much further delay, to obtain permission for holding 



1869.] LETTER OF COLONEL BRANTZ MAYER. 103 

so large an amount in real estate as our building is now ap- 
praised at ; and when we do this, we may well consider 
whether the addition of thirty or fifty to our number would 
not afford us greater opportunity of doing justice to the claims 
of others, as well as of subserving our own interests and pro- 
moting the cause in which we are associated. 

With these general suggestions, I leave the whole matter 
with the Society ; only expressing, in conclusion, the great 
gratification it affords me to find so goodly a gathering here 
this afternoon. 

The President announced as a gift to the Library from the 
government of Nova Scotia, through Thomas B. Akins, Esq., 
Commissioner of Records, a volume of public documents, en- 
titled, " Selections from the Public Documents of the Province 
of Nova Scotia." 

The President read a number of letters describing a valuable 
collection of Colonial and Continental currency, made by Dr. 
Joshua P. Cohen, of Baltimore ; who wishes to sell it, and who 
asks 85,000 for it. One of the letters, that of Colonel Brantz 
Mayer, President of the Maryland Historical Society, here 
follows : — 

Baltimore, 23d June, 1868. 

My dear Sir, — I have lately had an opportunity of examining 
thoroughly the superb collection formed by Dr. Joshua P. Cohen, of this 
city, during the last forty years, of the Colonial and early Continental 
or Congressional Currencies of North America. This large assemblage 
of the various issues embraces nearly three thousand specimens, com- 
posed of the " bills of credit " (as they were called) put forth by the 
British Colonies in America before and after the declaration of inde- 
pendence, as well as by the Continental Congress, from 10th of May, 
1775, to the last issue, on the 14th January, 1779. 

Let me describe the sets with a little more detail. 1st. The Con- 
tinental series made by Dr. Cohen — being the one issued wholly by 
Congress — is entirely complete. It embraces fine specimens of each 
denomination, and of each date of every issue, exhibiting, by two 
specimens, the obverse and reverse of each bill. Besides these, Dr. 
Cohen has, very properly, included in his collection many specimens 



104 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

of counterfeit and altered notes, with a complete set of the extremely 
rare bills of May 20, 1777, and April 11, 1778, which, in consequence 
of the immense quantity of forged notes of the same date, issued from 
New York, then in possession of the British, were, on the 2d of 
January, 1779, ordered by our Congress to be recalled from circula- 
tion, and to cease being passed as values. This collection is con- 
tained in one large folio volume, neatly mounted, and in regular 
sequence. 

2d. The bills issued by the Colonies or States, including those of 
Vermont in 1781, are very extensive, dating from a very early period 
in the history of this species of American currency. Many of them 
were printed at the press of Benjamin Franklin, while the cuts that 
ornament or distinguish them were in several instances either actually 
made by him or under his immediate direction. I am justified in 
saying, that this numerous series embraces some of the very rarest 
Colonial or State bills, and that no other set of equal value is now 
in existence, or could probably be formed by the most industrious of 
our collectors. 

Dr. Cohen has made it by extensive correspondence, and by repeated 
visits to State capitals, and friends in other cities ; and I know that it 
has been his zealous labor of love during a lifetime. This series is 
embraced in thirteen volumes, similar in all respects to the volume, 
previously described, containing the Continental series. 

As a companion of these two sets of currency there is, also, a 
bound volume, compiled with care and skill by Dr. Cohen, embracing 
in manuscript all the enactments of Congress authorizing the various 
issues, all the scales of depreciation, a large collection of illustrative 
materials, and contemporary opinions of Washington, Franklin, Madi- 
son, Jefferson, and other illustrious founders of the republic. 

As mere curiosities, these fifteen important volumes would be of 
inappreciable value to any enlightened collector. But, as a unique 
assemblage of American currency during our early periods, — an assem- 
blage which it will not be possible to duplicate hereafter, — I regard the 
set as a national historical work ; which (if Dr. Cohen parts with it) 
should not be suffered to pass into any other collection than that of 
our government. Congress should be eager to obtain it. If now 
neglected, in a few years our successors will be surprised at the in- 
difference of an ancestry which allowed such a record to escape it. 

I beg leave, most respectfully, to call your attention to the matter, 
as I understand Dr. Cohen would be willing to relinquish it for such 
a national destination. 



L869.] LETTER FROM HUGH BLAIR GRIGSBY. 105 

The several letters were referred to tlie Standing Committee. 

He also read a letter from Mr. W. A. Maury, of Richmond, 
enclosing a printed circular relating to the Virginia Historical 
Society, whose friends ask assistance to enable it to resume its 
operations. 

Dr. Ellis announced the volume of " Historical Lectures,'' 
delivered before the Lowell Institute, as ready for publication. 

He presented a pamphlet entitled " A Letter to the Reverend 
Andrew Croswell, <fec. By Simon, the Tanner." Boston, 1771. 

The President announced a new volume of " Proceedings," 
embracing the transactions of the Society for just two years, 
closing with the March meeting, 1869. Whereupon a vote 
of thanks to the Recording Secretary, and his associates of the 
Committee, was passed. 

The President said he had received letters from our Honor- 
ary and Corresponding Members, Mr. Bryant and Mr. Grigsby, 
who had been invited to attend this meeting, and who regretted 
their inability to be present" 

He read the following letter from Mr. Grigsby : — 

Edgehill, near Charlotte C. H., Virginia, June 5, 1869. 
Mr dear Sir, — I regret very much that I cannot be present with 
you at the meeting of the Historical Society at your residence on the 
10th instant. I have derived so much pleasure and instruction from 
the intellectual productions of the members, that I should like to see 
and know them in the body, more distinctly than I do at present. In- 
deed, there is hardly a day that passes, without my deriving valuable 
information and delight from the works of your associates. To omit 
the more elaborate works of Mr. Prescott, of Mr. Ticknor, of Mr. 
Motley, of Mr. Palfrey, of Mr. Savage, of Professor Parsons, and of 
others in letters and law, who may be said rather to represent the 
whole country than any part of it, the lighter things which the mem- 
bers now and then throw off, as a tree parts with its leaves to the 
wind, are most acceptable to me. The Life of Warren I recur to again 
and again. The Memoir of Chief-Justice Parsons is a treasure to 
every lover of the law. The Life of Prescott is the most fascinating 
picture of student-life contained in the several literatures into which 
my excursions lead me. It is as if some one who knew Gibbon as 

14 



106 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

well as Gibbon knew himself, had undertaken to annotate his autobiog- 
raphy. It will incite the young student to high and sustained effort, 
for generations to come. It will breed young historians, like rabbits, 
from Maine to California. The life of your late Senior Member by his 
son (which I also read in the admirable Memoir of President Walker) 
presents an interesting account of the middle parties, as contrasted 
with the earlier and later, of New England, and is quite as fair a map 
of the tertium quid party of Mr. Jefferson's administration as any we 
possess. It also contains traits of John Randolph's history and charac- 
ter to be found nowhere else. I am waiting for the completion of Mr. 
Pickering's life of his father, before I begin the earlier volumes. The 
face of Mr. Timothy Pickering's old enemy, by Stuart, — Mr. Giles, — 
is looking down upon me as I trace these lines ; but it says not a word, 
as John Randolph, Mr. Pickering's old friend, is looking over his 
shoulder. 

I have already told you how much I was delighted with your two 
volumes of the life of your own glorious ancestor ; and I think I have 
told you more than once that a life of his illustrious namesake and de- 
scendant, Professor John Win thr op, of Harvard, ought to be forthcoming. 
Judging from the rude materials which I possess or can recall, a very 
fair life of the philosopher is practicable. You know that with Frank- 
lin and Rittenhouse, he made up the philosophic trio of the Revolution. 
Where is Mr. Sibley, with such a theme at his elbow ? But I would 
exhaust your patience, were I to proceed to enumerate the works of 
your associates which I have been reading for more than forty years, 
and which I still read, — for good books, like good wine, improve with 
age ; and although so many of those eminent and excellent men have de- 
parted, I should like to see the survivors once more, before they, too, 
disappear. And here I ought not to omit the confession of the per- 
petual entertainment and instruction which I derive from the solid 
phalanx of your " Proceedings " and " Collections." On the topic of 
Virginia alone, they are very valuable. 

But, liberal as have been the contributions of your associates and 
your own to letters, I am ready, like Oliver Twist, to ask for more. 
Here, on the banks of the Roanoke, and in the shadow of the forests 
that gird the stream of Shells ; and at the distance of a morning's 
drive from the dust of Patrick Henry and John Randolph ; and facing 
that far distant Land of Flowers, which is the fairest trophy of his 
genius, I call for a full, broad, overflowing Life of John Quincy Adams. 
It is one of the grandest themes in our history. Here is a man who 
may be said to have begun his career in 1777, when he went over with 



1869.] LETTER FROM HUGH BLAIR GRIGSBY. 107 

his father to France, — for he was an observer from his childhood, — 
and who died in full harness as late as 1848 ; if I mistake not, in your 
own room in the Capitol ; a lapse of seventy teeming years, during 
which he came in contact with the most remarkable figures of that vast 
range in Europe and America. Personally, he was in some depart- 
ments a very great man, in many admirable, in all respectable. With 
the exception of Mr. Jefferson, he was the most self-reliant and fearless 
of all our statesmen. This is a striking trait with posterity. Had his 
profound sagacity been sustained by a Southern cabinet, Texas would 
have been ours, without a drop of blood or a word of quarrel, half a 
century ago. I know the delicacy of the task in some domestic aspects, 
but it must be done at one time or other ; and it ought to be done at 
once by the hand of a son, whose large and liberal experience and 
knowledge of the world will teach him to sink the partisan in the patriot, 
and view men and things through the medium of a masculine and 
generous philosophy. What a flood of light the Diary of Mr. Adams 
will throw on the persons and events of more than three-fourths of a 
century past ! He saw almost all that was worth seeing from Edmund 
Burke to Tom Marshall (on the last of whom he bestowed exalted 
praise) and Davy Crockett ; and the images of them all may be re- 
posing in his cabinet. By the way, I spent the morning with Mr. 
Giles, in 1828 or '29, the day after he received the "National Intel- 
ligencer" containing his letters, which Mr. Adams published at his 
defiance, and remember the animation with which he commented on 
each letter in detail. 

There should also be a Life of Mr. Everett, before his classmates and 
early contemporaries all pass away. In exact, elegant, abounding 
scholarship, it may be said of him what Grattan said of the elder Pitt, 
that he stood alone. By all his contemporaries at home and abroad, 
he was, in some important respects, unapproachable ; and he mellowed 
kindly. His latest works are his best. The last work which I received 
from him. and the last of his works that I have read, was his speech 
on the 4th of July, 1860. He is the only illustration that I can recall 
in recent times, of the possibility of thorough and almost universal 
scholarship in a public man in a land of universal suffrage. In this 
respect alone, his life would afford an invaluable lesson in this country 
to youth, to middle age, and to gray hairs. We must seek his proto- 
type, not in this country or in the Anglo-Saxon race, but on the con- 
tinent ; and it has often occurred to me that a very fair parallel may be 
run, to some extent, between him and Grotius. There was in both 
the same amazing precocity in their early attainments, especially in 



108 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

Latin and Greek ; both spent a term at the Dutch or German colleges ; 
both engaged, almost in boyhood, in the most responsible public offices ; 
both received the honors of the Universities wherever they went ; both 
put forth their tracts De Veritate; both, forsaking their legitimate 
professions, embarked in political affairs ; both became Members of 
Congress, and, I think, Secretaries of State, and wrote State papers ; 
both were accredited Ministers to the Court of St. James ; if Mr. Ev- 
erett was Governor of Massachusetts, Grotius was Pensionary of Rot- 
terdam, a far more responsible office in the sixteenth century. Had 
Mr. Everett nourished during the administrations of Jefferson and Mad- 
ison, we see from his writings that he, too, would have sent forth a Mare 
Liberum, which, in a certain sense, he has done ; both were engaged 
throughout their whole lives in honored literary pursuits that embraced 
many provinces ; there was the same mildness of character and purity 
of domestic life in both. Had Mr. Everett finished his long contem- 
plated work on the Laws of Nations, of which he has given us a fore- 
taste, we should have had a De Jure Belli et Pacis, as well as a De 
Veritate and a Mare Liberum. The fortune of the two men was very dif- 
ferent. Imprisonment for life, exile, confiscation, the insatiable hatred 
of Richelieu, the base ingratitude of his adopted country, are the lead- 
ing events in the life of Grotius ; and I am not aware that Mr. Everett 
ever met with discomfiture through life, except a failure to be re- 
elected governor by a single vote ; and I never heard that he had an 
enemy. On the score of speeches, or rather of the elaborate speci- 
mens of what Mr. Adams after Cicero calls demonstrative eloquence, 
there is no comparison, as these are the inventions of the present cen- 
tury. Grotius made his speeches at the bar, and at the bar he did not 
remain much longer than Mr Everett remained in the pulpit. 

And while I am asking, let me add one thing more. The next year 
will be the semi-centennial anniversary of your Convention of 1820. 
That was an extraordinary gathering. Yet the memory of it is almost 
gone. Though I can call up many of the members who composed it, as 
I have no copy of the journal, I cannot tell whether Governor Gore 
was there or not. When a youth I knew the character of Gore, who 
was the colleague of William Pinkney in London as a commissioner 
under the British treaty ; and I knew he lived some eight or ten miles 
out of Boston. And, as I was making a pedestrian tour through Mas- 
sachusetts, I looked, on leaving Boston, at every elderly person I met 
with on the road, hoping to see the fine old man walking into the city, 
as was his wont, from his home at Waltham. Had I met him, might 
I not have ventured to inquire whether William Pinkney did really 



1869.] LETTER FROM HUGH BLAIR GRIGSBY. 109 

and truly stop chewing and smoking tobacco while he was a commis- 
sioner, or postponed the sacrifice until he became Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary ? I still have my doubts on the subject. But no one should 
undertake the management of such a theme as your great convention, 
without a long notice, and without a deliberate design to do full justice 
to the subject. 

If I seem to lay too great a stress upon this topic of the lives of men, 
it is because I am convinced that one of the chief elements of patriot- 
ism is the household growth of the names and deeds of their great and 
good men in the hearts of a people. This, more than any thing else, 
constitutes the homogeneity of a commonwealth. The tide of change 
and time and foreign blood is perpetually breaking away the continuity 
between the past and the present ; and we are in constant danger of 
becoming an utterly new people, — a bastard people, — a people that 
know not father or mother, — that saddest and most dangerous of 
things, a people without a past. Now, the affections, if I may so speak, 
are practical ; and, to be in earnest, must fix upon persons, rather than 
things. We think more tenderly and lovingly of a good deed, and so 
of the doer, than we think of a mountain, or a plain, or a stream, or a 
bit of paper, write on it what you will. Thus flesh and blood, though 
long reduced to dust, become reinvested with life, and are made our 
contemporary and friend and counsellor, and, far more than inanimate 
nature, kindle our love, quicken our aspirations, and tend to keep the 
great family, past and present, of the State one and the same. More- 
over, we are told by a high authority, that men who do not celebrate 
the worth of those who preceded them, are not apt to leave any thing 
behind them worthy of remembrance ; and I recall to your recollection 
the sentiment of Tacitus, which I am fond of repeating — contemptu 
famcB contemni virtutes, — that we do despite to Virtue herself, when 
we fail to keep alive the memory of those whom she has crowned with 
honor. 

On my return from Massachusetts in 1867, I was frequently asked 
what struck me most of all that I saw. The field of observation was 
vast indeed. I observed the wonderful increase of your city in the in- 
terval of forty years, of Cambridge, and of the neighboring towns ; your 
public schools with their twenty or thirty thousand pupils ; your col- 
lege with its new halls and overflowing libraries, borrowing fresh youth 
from the centuries ; your private and public structures ; the Dowse Libra- 
ry and the Winthrop manuscript ; your many valuable institutions, your 
munificent endowments ; your intellectual men and brilliant women and 
sweet children ; the dust of your illustrious dead, reposing amid the 



110 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

smoke and strife of the city, or beneath the fragrant airs of Mount 
Auburn ; your unequalled and endless succession of rural villas, which 
looked as if your whole land was keeping holiday ; and many other 
things ; and I was chastened and delighted with them all. Yet there 
were two things, which, in such a harvest of life and art, were almost 
insignificant, but which touched me most of all. The first was the large 
number of lads and lasses in common apparel, who were ranged on the 
benches in the Public Library, quietly awaiting their time to be served 
with fresh books in place of those that had been returned ; a moral 
spectacle, which, as my mind ran over its innumerable antecedents and 
consequents, affected me almost to tears. And the other thing was 
the marble statue of James Otis in the chapel of Mount Auburn. I 
was struck by it just as Benjamin West was struck by the first sight 
of the Apollo Belvidere. I was surprised and delighted to see and 
know that the spirit of the great patriot orator of the North was en- 
shrined in so God-like a form. I shall never forget my indebtedness to 
the kind friend who showed me two such sights. I had never heard 
of the statue of Otis. He was my darling character of the more 
modern colonial New England, as John Winthrop was of the earlier 
time. He stands with us of the South in inseparable union with Pat- 
rick Henry. Then his afflictions and timely death placed him, like his 
compatriot, Josiah Quincy, Jr., by a peculiar and fortunate canoniza- 
tion, beyond the atmosphere of faction, and preserved his lustre unde- 
fined by the passion and the dirt of later times. The beauty of his 
daily life ; his literary accomplishments, which enabled him, not merely 
to draw some vague meaning from a Latin or Greek composition, 
which is too often the bound of the knowledge of many modern law- 
yers, but to enter into all the worth of its structure, and to relish the 
minutest graces of its rhythm, — an art he taught others to acquire in 
his tract on prosody; his splendid powers of argumentation, his 
vivid eloquence ; his moral heroism ever so conspicuous, his patriotism 
ever so pure ; the treatment of his person on that disastrous day so re- 
volting, and his magnanimity in forgiving it all so majestic ; that cloud 
that came over his lordly intellect when in full blaze and shut him 
out from communion with his kind; that memorable death, com- 
ing just as his country's independence was achieved and assured and 
soon to be acknowledged by the parent-land, and summoning him 
instantly away, as it were, by a special messenger from the Most 
High, — all these attributes and qualities, which would have imparted 
dignity to the humblest figure, embodied in the noblest, appealed with 
resistless force to my heart. As I gazed upon that statue, I strained 



1869.] JUNE MEETING. HI 

my ear and my memory to catch the tones of some patriotic harp 
that had hymned its praises, either in the bowers of the University 
which claimed the original as one of its brightest jewels, and in the 
presence of scholars and divines and statesmen, and those merchant- 
princes who so frequently take their coursers from the car of com- 
merce and hitch them to the car of philosophy, or in the retirement 
of the closet, or in its own hallowed temple ; but I strove in vain. 
The Muse of Song, if she ever deigned to pause in the presence of 
one of her most skilful worshippers, passed in silence by ; and evet 
since that day I have watched the footsteps of Dr. Holmes and Mr. 
Longfellow more closely than ever. All know the genius of those 
two eminent associates of yours, and their glowing patriotism which 
has sparkled on many a brilliant occasion, and who, in their connection 
with you, handsomely and happily do homage to History, as one of 
the Sacred Nine ; and I have an inward and cheering assurance that, 
though the statue itself may perish by time, or fire, or force, or, like 
our own Washington, be lifted from its pedestal and borne away by 
the invader, posterity, in common with the present generation, will 
behold the reflection of the image of New England's most illustrious 
patriot-orator of the era of the Revolution, in the immortal verse 
of at least two of her greatest poets. How blessed and enrapturing 
is the influence of true poetry ! It embalms and popularizes the sub- 
limest forms of sculpture and art. Even the Apollo has gathered 
new immortality from Childe Harold ; and I never think of the Pres- 
cott Swords, but the pleasing strains ' of Dr. Frothingham come over 
me. 

With an expression of renewed regret that I cannot be with you, 
and with the highest respect for the members of the Society, 
I am, as ever, truly yours, 

Hugh Blair Grigsby. 

To the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 
Boston, Mass. 

The President recurred to the subject of the approaching 
expiration of the lease of that part of the Society's building 
now occupied by the Savings-Bank, and thought the Society 
should soon take some steps toward an alteration in the build- 
ing, both for a future tenant and for the Society's accommoda- 
tion. Whereupon it was — 

Voted, To refer this whole subject to the Standing Com- 
mittee, with full power. 



112 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

The necessity of soon applying to the Legislature for leave 
to hold more real and personal property than the present char- 
ter allows, and of enlarging the number of our members, was 
again alluded to by the President, and it was — 

Voted, To refer the subject last named to a committee, con- 
sisting of Messrs. Clifford, Ellis, Gray, Deane, and Davis, to 
consider the subject, and report to the Society. 

Mr. Parkman, who had recently returned from a visit to 
Europe, alluded to some papers of considerable value which 
he had seen in possession of the Marquis of Montcalm in 
Paris ; and particularly to one letter of some historical sig- 
nificance, supposed to have been written by General Montcalm, 
who fell at Quebec. Mr. Parkman's remarks were substantially 
as follows : — 

During the last spring I had a number of interviews with 
the Marquis of Montcalm at Paris. He informed me that he 
had in his possession among his family papers the corre- 
spondence of his ancestor, General Montcalm, with his rela- 
tives in France during the last French war in America. He 
allowed me to examine these papers and have copies of them 
made. They proved to be of great interest and value, consist- 
ing of forty-nine letters, some of them very long, from Mont- 
calm to his mother and sister, besides a considerable number of 
other letters written by persons in immediate connection with 
Montcalm in America. I caused the whole of them to be 
copied. 

Among these papers was the remarkable letter written by 
Montcalm a short time before his death, in which he prophe- 
sies that the fall of Canada will eventually occasion the revolt 
of the British Colonies. This letter, together with several 
others purporting to be written by Montcalm, was published 
in London by J. Almon during the Revolutionary war.* Its 

* The letter to which special reference is here made purports to have been written by 
General Montcalm to M. de Mol<$, from Quebec, Aug. 24, 1759. This was three weeks 



1869.] REMARKS OF MR. PARKMAN. 113 

authenticity was, it seems, called in question at the time, ana 
has ever since remained in doubt. In course of conversation 
with the marquis, — before he had shown me the papers, — he 
remarked that the personal and military qualities of his an- 
cestor were tolerably well known ; but that he had one quality 
which was not sufficiently recognized, and this was his political 
foresight, which was proved, he added, by one of his letters 
in which he made a remarkable prophecy concerning the 
American Revolution. I told him I knew the letter to which 
he alluded, as it had been published in England in a small 
volume. He expressed great surprise and interest at this, 
saying that he had never seen the volume or heard of it, 

before the fall of that fortress, which was coincident with the death of General Montcalm, 
and was followed by the surrender of Canada to the British power. 

The letter was first printed, both in French and in an English translation (the pages 
of each made to face those of the other), in 1777, in a small pamphlet, with the following 
title: "Lettres de Monsieur le Marquis de Montcalm, Gouverneur-General en Canada; 
a Messieurs de Berryer & de la Mole. Ecrites dans les Anndes 1757, 1758, & 1759. 
Arec une Version Angloise. * * * ALondres: Chez J. Almon, vis-a-vis de Burlington- 
house, Piccadilly, m.d.cc.lxxvii." A corresponding English title follows on the 
opposite page, facing this. Besides the letter to Mole\ the pamphlet contains two letters 
addressed to " M. de Berryer, first Commissioner of the Marine of France," — one written 
in the year 1757, and the other in 1758, — both dated from Montreal. 

In the " Gentleman's Magazine" for July, 1777, at page 342, is a notice of this publi- 
cation, the writer giving an extract from one of the letters, and concluding thus: " The 
whole is worth perusal, and shows that M. de Montcalm was tarn Mercurio quam Marti. 
It is proper to add, that the authenticity of the work was lately attacked in the House 
of Lords by Lord Shelburne, but ably defended by Lord Mansfield." This debate 
will be found in the Parliamentary Register (Supplement), vol. vii. pp. 122, 126, 127. 
under the date of May 30, 1777. On the titlepage of a copy of Almon's pamphlet, 
among the Ebeling collection in Harvard-College Library, Mr. Sparks has written: 
" The letters are unquestionably spurious." Of course, these criticisms apply to the 
two letters addressed to Berryer, as well as to the letter to Mole*. 

A French writer, the Abbe" Pierre de Longchamps, in a " Histoire Impartiale des 
Ev^nemens Militaires etPolitiques de la Derniere Guerre," &c, published at Amsterdam 
and at Paris in 1785, at vol. i. p. 6, cites an opinion of an eminent Englishman ("with- 
out giving his name), expressed during the French war; namely, that Canada was 
the guard of the English Colonies, and he wondered why the ministry wished to conquer 
it. Leading from the reference to this Englishman in the text, the writer has a foot- 
note as follows: "L'auteur anonyme des Lettres imprim^es sous le nom de Montcalm, & 
faussement attributes a ce General. Quoique publics pour la premiere fois en 1777 
elles avoient 6te composees des 1757. C'est le premier ouvrage ou Ton trouve la revo- 
lution actuelle de 1'AmeVique prexlite d'un ton ferme & ses causes clairement ^nonc^es." 

Mr. Sparks, who copied this note of Longchamps upon the titlepage of the copy of 
Montcalm's Letters in the College Library, has written under the note the following: 
" Query. — Were the letters written in 1757 ? " — Eds. 

\l 



114 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

though he was aware that a part of the letter had been pub- 
lished by Carlyle in his " History of Frederick the Great." * 
On the following day I called again, by appointment, upon the 
marquis, who had meanwhile arranged his ancestor's papers 
in the order of their dates upon a table for my inspection. 
The letter in question was among them, the ink and paper 
being apparently of the same age with those of the other let- 
ters. The handwriting, however, was different, being neither 
that of the general himself nor of his secretary. The letter 
was evidently a copy written with sufficient care to make it 
distinctly legible. Accompanying it, however, was what 
seemed to be the original draft, written in an exceedingly 
small and almost illegible hand, with many erasures and inter- 
lineations. It was in two columns on a small and soiled sheet 
of paper. Not being aware at the time that the authenticity 
of the letter had been seriously challenged, I cannot say posi- 
tively whether or not the handwriting was that of Montcalm. 
My belief is that it was so, and that the small, cramped let- 
ters corresponded with those which caused so much trouble 
to my copyist in the other papers of the general. Being 
unable from weakness of sight to compare the original draft 
of the letter with the engrossed copy, I directed the person 
whom I employed to transcribe them to do so for me ; making 
a copy of the engrossed letter, and noting on the margin of 
it any variations which might appear in the first draft. As 
he made no such notes I infer that the texts were substantially 
the same. 

Two other letters ascribed to Montcalm were published in 
the London volume in connection with the letter in question. 
Neither of these was to be found among the family papers of 
the marquis. 

Mr. Parkman further stated that he had compared the copy 
of the letter to Mole* procured from the Marquis of Mont- 

* In Volume V. of Harper's edition, at pages 449-451. — Eds. 



1869.] REMARKS OF MR. PARKMAN. 115 

calm's papers, with that published by Almon in 1777 ; and 
he had noticed many verbal variations, though both copies he 
believed would be found to correspond in meaning. These 
verbal discrepancies must have arisen, he supposed, from 
alterations made in the letter which was actually sent, from 
the wording of the original draft. The letter, published by 
Almon, we may conclude to have been printed from the des- 
patched letter, which may have been captured by the English 
fleet, and thus diverted from its destination. The two copies 
may be seen below, the corresponding portions, side by side 
on the same page, and on the opposite page the English ver- 
sion as published by Almon. 



116 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[June, 



[FROM THE PAMPHLET PUBLISHED BY 
ALMON.] 

Co-pie aVune Lettre du Marquis de Montcalm d 
Mons. de Mole, premier President au Parle- 
ment de Paris. 



[PROM THE MONTCALM PAPERS.] 

Lettre de Mr le Marquis de Montcalm, Gendral 
des forces francaises en Amerique d Ml Mole 
en 1759. 



Monsieur & cher Cousin, — Me void, 
depuis plus de trois mois, aux prises avec 
Mons. Wolfe : il ne cesse, jour & nuit, de bom- 
bardier Quebec, avec une furie, qui n'a gueres 
d'exemple dans le siege d'un place, qu'on veut 
prendre & conserver. II a deja consume par 
le feu presque toute la basse ville, une grande 
partie de la haute est ecrassee par les bombes ; 
mais ne laissa-t-il pierre sur pierre, il ne vien- 
dra jamais a bout de s'emparer de cette capitale 
de la colonie, tandis qu"il se contentera de l'at- 
taquer de la rive opposee, dont nous lui avons 
abandonne la possession. Aussi apres trois 
mois de tentative, n'est-il pas plus avance dans 
son dessein qu'au premier jour. II nous ruine, 
mais il ne s'enrichit pas. La campagne n'a 
gueres plus d'un mois a durer, a raison du 
voisinage de 1'automne, terrible dans ces pa- 
rages pour une flotte, par les coups de vent, 
qui regne constamment & periodiquement. 

II semble, qu'apres un si heureux prelude, 
la conservation de la colonie est presque assure. 
II n'en est cependant rien : la prise de Quebec 
depend d'un coup du main. Les Anglois sont 
maltres de la riviere: ils n'ont qu'a efiectuer 
une descente sur la rive, ou cette ville, sans 
fortifications, & sans defense, est situee. Les 
voila en etat de me presenter la battaille, que 
je ne pourrai plus refuser, & que je ne devrai 
pas gagner. M. Wolfe, en effet, s'il entend son 
metier, n'a qu'a essuyer le premier feu, venir 
ensuite a grand pas sur mon armee, faire a 
bout partant sa decharge, mes Canadiens, sans 
discipline, sourds a la voix du tambour, & des 
instrumens militaires, deranges par cet escarre, 
ne scauront plus reprendre leurs rangs. Ils 
eont ailleurs sans bagonettes pour repondre a 
celles de l'ennemi : il ne leur reste qu'a fuir, & 
me voila, battu sans resource. Voila ma posi- 
tion ! — Position bien facheuse pour un gene- 
ral, & qui me fait passer de bien terribles mo- 
La connoissance que j'en aye m'a fait 



Mon cher Cousin, — Depuis plus de trois 
mois Monsieur Wolf me presse vivement, il ne 
cesse de bombarder nuit et jour Quebec, avec 
un acharnement dont on pourrait a peine citer 
un example dans le siege d'une place que l'en- 
nemi desire de prendre et de garder. L'artil- 
lerie a detruit, quasi en entier, la ville infe- 
rieure, une grande partie de la superieure est 
ruinee par les bombes; mais quand il n'y resterait 
plus pierre sur pierre, les ennemis ne viendront 
jamais a bout de leur dessein, tant qu'ils con- 
tinueront a nous attaquer par le cote que nous 
leur avons abandonne des l'instant de leur de- 
scente. Aussi apres trois mois de siege, ils ne 
eont pas plus avances que le premier jour. 
L'ennemi nous ruine et ne s'enrichit point. La 
campagne ne peut durer gueres plus d'un mois; 
tant a cause des approches de 1'automne, qui est 
terrible pour une flotte sur ces parages, que 
des vents periodiques qui y soufflent avec la 
plus furieuse impetuosite. II semblerait done 
qu'apres de si heureuse commencements, la 
surete de la colonie n'est plus en danger : rien 
cependant, n'est moins certain. Le sort de 
Quebec depend d'une seule chose : les Anglais 
sont maitres de la Riviere ; ils n'ont qu'a faire 
une descente du cote ou la ville est sans de- 
fense, sans fortifications; ils sont en etat de 
nous presenter la bataille que je ne pourrai re- 
fuser, et que je ne puis esperer de gagner. Le 
General Wolf, s'il entend son metier, n'a qu'a 
supporter notre premier feu, et s'avancer vive- 
ment en faisant une decharge lente et generate, 
mes Canadiens, sans discipline, n'entendant 
point le son du tambour ni des autres instru- 
ments militaires, excites encore au desordre par 
le carnage ne sauront plus reprendre leurs rangs. 
D'ailleurs ils n'ont point de bayonettes pour 
resister a celles de l'ennemi, il ne leur reste 
plus qu'a fuir, et je serai ainsi totalement de- 
fait. 

Telle est ma situation, la plus penible pour 
un general et qui me fait, en verite, passer les 
plus cruels moments. La connaissance que 



1869.] LETTER FROM MARQUIS DE MONTCALM TO M. MOLE. 117 



Copy of a Letter from the Marquis de Montcalm to Mons. de Mole, first 
President in the Parliament of Paris. 

Dear Cousin, — For more than three months has Mr. Wolfe been 
hanging on my hands : he ceases not, night or day, to bombard Quebec 
with a fury, of which an example can hardly be produced in any siege 
of a place which the enemy wished to take and to preserve. They 
have already destroyed, by their artillery, almost the whole of the 
lower town ; and a great part of the upper is demolished by their 
bombs: but, though they should leave not one stone upon another, 
they will not be able to carry their point, while they content them- 
selves with attacking us from the opposite shore, which we have aban- 
doned to them from the moment of their landing. Yet, after three 
months attempting it, they are no farther advanced in the siege, than 
they were on the first day. The enemy ruins us, but not enriches 
himself. The campaign cannot last above a month longer, on account 
of the approach of autumn, which is terrible to a fleet in these seas ; 
as the winds then blow, constantly and periodically, with a most vio- 
lent and impetuous fury. 

It should seem, then, that after such a happy prelude, the security 
of the colony is not much in danger. Nothing, however, is less cer- 
tain : the taking of Quebec depends on one masterly-stroke. The 
English are masters of the river : they have only to effect a landing in 
that part where the city is situated, unfortified and defenceless. They 
are in a condition to give us battle, which I must not refuse, and which 
I cannot hope to gain. General Wolfe, indeed, if he understands his 
business, has only to receive our first fire, and then advancing briskly 
on my army, and giving one heavy and general discharge, my Cana- 
dians, undisciplined, deaf to the sound of the drum and other military 
instruments, thrown likewise into disorder by the slaughter, would no 
more return to their ranks. Besides, they have no bayonets to make 
their ground good against those of the enemy ; nothing remains for 
them but to run ; and thus I shall be totally defeated. Such is my 
situation — a situation most grievous to a general, and which indeed 
gives me many bitter moments. The confidence I have of this, has 



118 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[June, 



tenir ju«qu"iei sur la defensive, qui m'a reussi ; 
mais reussira-t-elle jusqu'a la fin? Les evene- 
mens en decideront ! Mais une assurance que 
je puis vous donner, c'est, que je ne survivrois 
pas probablement a la perte de la colonie. II 
est des situations oa il ne reste plus a un gene- 
ral, que de perir avec honneur : je crois y etre ; 
&, sur ce point, je crois que jamais la posterite 
n'aura rien a reprocher a ma memoire ; mais 
pi la Fortune decida ma vie, elle ne decidera pas 
de mes sentimens — ils sont Francois, & ils le 
seront, jusque dans le tombeau, si dans le tom- 
beau on est encore quelque chose ! Je me con- 
solerai du moins de ma defaite, & de la perte de 
la colonie, par l'intime persuasion oa je suis, 
que cette defaite vaudroit un jour a ma patrie 
plus qu'une victoire, & que le vainqueur en 
s'aggrandissant, trouveroit un tombeau dans 
son aggrandissement meme. 

Ce que j'avance ici, mon cher cousin, vous 
paroitra un paradoxe ; mais un moment de re- 
flexion politique, un coup d'ceil sur la situa- 
tion des choses en Amerique, & la verite de 
mon opinion, brillera dans tout son jour. Non, 
mon cher cousin, les hommes n'obeissent qu'a 
la force & a la necessite; c'est-a-dire, que 
quand ils voyent armees devant leurs yeux, un 
pouvoir toujours pret, & toujours suffisant, pour 
les y contraindre, ou quand la chaine de leurs 
besoins, leur en dicte la loi. Hors de la point de 
joug pour eux, point l'obeissance, de leur part: 
ils sont a eux; ils vivent libres, parcequ'ils 
n'ont rien au dedans, rien au dehors, ne les 
oblige a se depouiller de cette liberie, qui est 
le plus bel appanage, le plus precieuse preroga- 
tive de l'humanite. Voila hommes ! — & sur ce 
point les Anglois, soit par education, soit par 
sentiment, sont plus hommes que les autres. 
La gene de la contrainte leur deplait plus qu'a 
tout autre : il leur faut respirer un air libre & 
degage; sans cela ils sont hors de leur ele- 
ment. Mais si ce sont la les Anglois de l'Eu- 
rope, c'est encore plus les Anglois de 1'Ame- 
rique. Un grand partie de ces colons sont les 
enfans de ces hommes qui s'expatrierent dans 
ces temps de trouble, ou l'ancienne Angleterre, 
en prove aux divisions, etoit attaquee dans ses 
privileges & droits, & allerent chercher en 
Amerique une terre, ou ils puissent vivre & 
mourir libres, & presqu'independants ; & ces 
enfans n'ont pas degenerees des sentimens re- 
jublicains de leurs peres. D'autres sont des 
hommes, ennemis de tout frein, de tout assu- 
jettissement, que le gouvernement y a trans- 
ports pour leurs crimes. D'autres, enfin, sont 
un ramas de differentes nations de l'Europe, 
qui tiennent tres peu a l'ancienne Angleterre 
par le coeur & le sentiment. Tous, en general 
ne se soucient gueres du roi ni du parlement 
d'Angleterre. 



j'en ai m'a toujours fait tenir sur la defensive, 
qui m'a reussi jusqu'a ce moment : en sera-t-il 
de meme jusqu'a la fin ? L'evenement le justi- 
fiera. Soyez au moins certain d'une chose: 
c'est qu'assurement je ne survivrai pas a la 
perte de la colonie. II est des positions ou il ne 
reste a un general qu'a mourir avec honneur. 
C'est Ik ma faqon de voir. La posterite n'aura, 
a cet egard, rien a reprocher a ma memoire. 
La fortune, quoiqu'elle decide de ma vie, n'in- 
fluera en rien sur ma fac,on de penser, qui est 
celle d'un vrai Francjais, et qui sera de meme 
jusques au tombeau, la si nous sommes encore 
quelque chose, je me consolerai de ma defaite et 
de la perte de la colonie par la ferme persuasion 
que cette defaite sera un jour plus avantageuse 
a ma patrie que la victoire, et que le conque- 
rant, en l'aggrandissant trouvera son tombeau 
dans le pays qu'il aura conquis sur nous. 

Ce que je dis, mon cher cousin, vous semble 
un paradoxe; mais une seule reflexion poli- 
tique, un seul coup d'ceil sur l'etat actuel de 
1' Amerique, et mon opinion est demon tree. 
Les hommes, mon cher cousin, n'obeissent qu'a 
la force et a la necessite. C'est a dire lorsqu'ils 
voient devant eux des troupes toujours prettes 
a les contenir, ou lorsque la chaine des besoins 
les soumet a la loi ; hors de ce cas, ils secouent 
le joug, ils n'agissent que pour eux: ils vivent 
libres par ce que phisiquement ni moralement, 
rien ne les oblige a contredire cette liberie, 
l'ornement le plus aimable et la plus belle pre- 
rogative de la nature humaine. 

Observez le genre humain, et vous verrez les 
Anglais sur ce point plus homme que les autres 
peuples. Cette espece de contrainte leur deplait 
plus qu'a tout autres ; ils doivent respirer un air 
libre et sans bornes, sans quoi ils ne se trouvent 
pas en leur element, si c'est la le genie des An 
glais,en Europe, ce l'est bien plus en Amerique 
Une grande partie de leurs colons sont les en 
fants de ces hommes qui abandonnerent 1' Angle- 
terre quand leurs droits et leurs privileges 
furent attaques au milieu des dissentions qui la 
bouleversaient ; ils vinrent en Amerique cher- 
cher des terres ou ils pourraient vivre et mourir 
libres et quasi independants. Ceux-ci n'ont pas 
degenere des principes republicains de leurs 
peres. D'autres, ennemis de toute contrainte 
et de toute soumission, sont ceux que le gou- 
vernement y a fait transporter pour leurs crimes ; 
d'autres enfin sont un ramassis de differentes 
nations de l'Europe dont le coeur n'est point 
anime de grands sentiments pour 1' Angleterre. 
Tous en general ont peu de respect pour le Roi 
ou le parlement d'Angleterre. Je les connais 



1869.] LETTER FROM MARQUIS DE MONTCALM TO M. MOLE. 119 

induced me always to act on the defensive, which has hitherto suc- 
ceeded ; but will it succeed in the end ? The event must decide. But 
of one thing be certain, that I probably shall not survive the loss of 
the colony. There are situations, in which it only remains to a gen- 
eral to fall with honour : such this appears to me ; and on this head, 
posterity shall not reproach my memory : though Fortune may decide 
upon my life, she shall not decide on my opinions — they are truly 
French, and shall be so even in the grave, if in the grave we are any 
thing ! I shall at least console myself on my defeat, and on the loss 
of the colony, by the full persuasion that this defeat will one day 
serve my country more than a victory, and that the conqueror, in 
aggrandizing himself will find his tomb the country he gains from us. 

What I have here advanced, my dear cousin, will appear to you 
paradoxical ; but a moment's political reflection, a single glance upon 
the situation of affairs in America, and the truth of my opinion must 
appear. No, my dear cousin ; it is to force and necessity only, that 
men obey ; that is, when they see armies before their eyes, always 
ready and sufficient to controul them, or when the chain of their neces- 
sities reminds them of the law. Beyond this, they submit to no yoke ; 
they act for themselves ; they live free, because nothing internal or 
external obliges them to throw off that liberty, which is the most 
lovely ornament, and the most valuable prerogative of human nature ! 
Search mankind ; and upon this principle the English, whether from 
education or sentiment, are more men than others. This kind of con- 
straint displeases them more than any other : they must breathe a free 
and unconfined air, otherwise they would be out of their element. But 
if this is the genius of the English of Europe, it is still more so with 
those of America. A great part of these colonists are the children of 
those men who emigrated from England when their rights and privi- 
leges were attacked in that country, which was then torn by dissen- 
sions ; they went in search of lands in America, where they could live 
and die free, and almost independent : these children have not degen- 
erated from the republican principles of their fathers. Others there 
are, enemies to all restraint and submission, whom the government has 
transported thither, for their crimes. Lastly, there are others, a col- 
lection of the different nations of Europe, who hold very little regard 
for England in their hearts and sentiments : all, in general, care very 
little either for the king or parliament of England. 



120 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[June, 



Je les connois <bien, non sur des rapports 
etrangers, mais sur des informations & des 
correspondances secrets, que j'ai moi-meme 
menages, & dont un jour, si Dieu me prete 
Tie, je pourrois faire usage a l'avantage de ma 
patrie. Pour surcroit de bonheur pour eux, 
tous ce8 colons sont parvenu dans un etat tres 
florissant : ils sont nombreux & ricbes ; ils re- 
cueillent, dans le sein de leur patrie, toutes les 
necessites de la vie. L'ancienne Angleterre a 
ete assez sotte, & assez dupe, pour leur laisser 
etablir cbez eux les arts, les metiers, les manu- 
factures ; c'est-a-dire, qu'elle leur a laisse bri- 
ser la chaine de besoins, qui les lioit, qui les 
attachoit a elle, & qui en fait dependans. 
Aussi toutes ces colonies Angloises auroient, 
depuis long temps, secoue le joug, chaque pro- 
vince auroit forme une petite republique inde- 
pendante, si la crainte de voir les Francois a 
leur porte n'avoit ete un frein, qui les avoit 
retenu. Maitres pour maitres ils ont prefere 
leurs compatriotes aux etrangers, prenant ce- 
pendant, pour maxime, de n'obeir que le moins 
qu'ils pourroient ; mais que le Canada vinl; £. 
etre conquis, & que les Canadiens & ces colons 
ne fussent plus qu'un seul peuple, & le pre- 
mier occasion, ou l'ancienne Angleterre sembls- 
roit toucher a leurs interets, croiez-vous, mon 
cber cousin, que ces colons obeiroient ? Et 
qu'auroient-ils a craindre, en se revoltant? 
L'ancienne Angleterre auroit-elle une armee de 
cent ou de deux cens milles hommes a leur op- 
poser dans cette distance ? II est vrai, qu'elle 
est pourvue de vaisseaux, que les villes de 
l'Amerique Septentrionale, qui sont d'ailleurs 
en tres petit nombre, sont toutes ouvertes, sans 
fortifications, sans citadelles, & que quelques 
vaisseaux de guerre dans le port suffiroient 
pour les contenir dans le devoir ; mais l'inte- 
rieur du pays, qui forme un objet d'un bien 
plus grande importance, qui iroit le conquerir 
a-travers les rochers, les lacs, les rivieres, les 
bois, les montagnes, qui le coupent par-tout, & 
ou une poignee d'hommes connoissans le terrein, 
suffiroit pour detruire de grands armees? 
D'ailleurs, si ces colons venoient a gagner les 
sauvages, & a les ranger de leur cote, les An- 
glois, avec toutes leurs fiottes, seroient maitres 
de la mer ; mais je ne serais s'ils en viendroient 
jamais a debarquer. Ajoutez, que dans le cas 
d'une revolte generate de la part de ces colo- 
nies, toutes les puissances de l'Europe, enne- 
mis secrettes & jalouses de la puissance de 
1' Angleterre, leur aideroient d'abord sous main, 
& avec le temps ouvertement, a secouer le joug. 



bien, non par les rapports des etrangers, mais 
par des instructions et des correspondances 
secretes que je me suis menage et que je 
ferai servir si Dieu prolonge mes jours a l'avan- 
tage de ma patrie. Que manque-t-il a leur 
bonheur les planteurs sont parvenus a un 
etat florissant, ils sont nombreux et riches, ils 
trouvent chez eux tout ce qui est necessaire a 
la vie. L'Angleterre a ete assez peu prevo- 
yante pour y laisser introduire les arts, le com- 
merce et les manufactures, par ou elle les a mis 
en etat de briser les chaines de la necessite qui 
les contenaient, les liaient a elle, et les mettai- 
ent sous sa dependance. Les Anglais des colo- 
nies auraient depuis longtemps secoue le joug 
si la crainte des Francais qu'ils voyent a leurs 
portes ne les eut retenus. Maitre pour maitre, 
ils aiment mieux etre soumis a leurs compatri- 
otes qu'a des etrangers, en observant la maxime 
de n'obeir que le moins possible. Mais quand 
le Canada sera conquis, et que les Canadiens et 
ce peuple n'en feront qu'un, a la premiere occa 
sion ou 1 'Angleterre semblera toucher a leurs 
interets, pensez-vous, mon cher cousin, que les 
colonies veuillent obeir? et qu'auront-elles a 
craindre d'une revolte ? l'Angleterre pourra- 
t-elle envoyer a cette distance une armee de 
cent ou deux cent mille hommes ? il est vrai 
que sa flotte est formidable, que d'ailleurs les 
villes du nord de l'Amerique Septentrionale sont 
en petit nombre et sans citadelles ou fortifica- 
tions, et qu'il suffit de peu de gens dans leurs 
ports pour les contenir dans le devoir. Mais 
la partie avancee dans les terres qui forme ua 
objet de la plus grande importance, qui osera 
entreprendre d'en faire la conquete, parmi les 
rocs, les lacs, les forests, et les montagnes qui 
la coupent partout dans tout les sens? et oh 
une poignee de gens suffirait pour detruire la 
plus grande armee ? Les planteurs attireront 
les sauvages dans leurs interests. Les Anglais 
avec leur flotte seront a la verite les maitres de 
la mer, mais je doute qu'ils puissent jamais 
faire une heureuse descente. Ajoutez que dans 
le cas d'une revolte de quelqu'une de leurs colo- 
nies, les autres puissances d'Europe, jalouses et 
en secret ennemis de la Grande Bretagne, les 
aideront, d'abord en cachette et ensuite pu- 
bliquement, a secouer le joug. II faut que je 



1869.] LETTER FROM MARQUIS DE MONTCALM TO M. MOlA 121 

I know them well ; not from the reports of strangers, but from infor- 
mation and secret correspondences, which I myself managed, and 
which, if God spares my life, I will one day turn to the advantage of 
my country. To add to their happiness, the planters have all arrived 
at a very flourishing situation : they are numerous and rich ; they 
centre in the bosom of their country, all the necessaries of life. Eng- 
land has been so foolish and weak, as to suffer them to establish arts, 
trades, and manufactures, and thereby enabled them to break the 
chain of necessity which bound and attached them to her, and which 
made them dependent. All the English colonies would long since 
have shaken off the yoke, each province would have formed itself into 
a little independent republic, if the fear of seeing the French at their 
door had not been a check upon them. Master for master, they have 
preferred their own countrymen to strangers, observing, however, 
this maxim, to obey as little as possible : but when Canada shall be 
conquered, and the Canadians and these colonies become one people, 
on the first occasion, when England shall seem to strike at their in- 
terest, do you believe, my dear cousin, that these colonies will obey ? 
and what would they have to fear from a revolt ? Could England send 
an army of an hundred or two hundred thousand men to oppose them 
at such a distance ? It is true, she possesses a fleet, and the towns 
of North America, besides being few in number, are all open, without 
citadels or fortifications, and that a few men of war in their ports 
would be sufficient to keep them to their duty ; but the interior part 
of the country, which forms an object of much greater importance, 
who would undertake to conquer it, over rocks, lakes, rivers, woods, 
and mountains, which every where intersect it, and where a handful 
of men, acquainted with the country, would be sufficient to destroy the 
greatest armies ? Besides, should the planters be able to bring the 
savages into their interests, the English, with all their fleets, would be 
masters of the sea ; but I doubt whether they would ever make good 
a landing. Add too, that in case of a general revolt, of any part of 
these colonies, all the powers of Europe, secret and jealous enemies 
of the power of England, would at first assist them privately, and then 
openly, to throw off the yoke. 

16 



122 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. 



[June, 



Je ne puis cependant pas dissimuler que l'an- 
cienne Angleterre, avec un peu de bonne poli- 
tique, pourroit toujours se reserver dans les 
mains une ressource toujours prete pour mettre 
a la raison ses anciennes colonies. Le Canada, 
considere dans lui-meme, dans ses richesses, 
dans ses forces, dans le nombre de ses habitans, 
n'est rien en comparaison du conglobat des colo- 
nies Angloises ; mais la valeur, l'industrie, la 
fidelite de ses habitans, y supplie si bien, que 
depuis plus d'un siecle ils se battent avec avan- 
tage contre toutes ces colonies : dix Canadiens 
sont suffisant contre cent colons Anglois. L'ex- 
perience journaliere prouve ce fait. Si l'an- 
cienne Angleterre, apres avoir conquis le Ca- 
nada scavoit se l'attacher par la politique & les 
bienfaits, & se le conserver a elle seule, si elle 
le laissoit a sa religion, a ses loix, a son lan- 
gage, a ses coutumes, a son ancien gouverne- 
ment, le Canada, divise dans tous ces points 
d'avec les autres colonies, formeroit toujours un 
pais isole, qui n'enteroit jamais dans leurs in- 
fcerets, ni dans leurs vue's, ne fut ce que par 
principe de religion ; mais ce n'est pas la la po- 
litique Britannique. Les Anglois font-ils une 
conquete, il faut qu'ils changent la constitution 
du pays, ils y portent leurs loix, leurs cou- 
tumes, leurs facons de penser, leur religion 
meme, qu'ils font adopter sous peine, au moins, 
de privation des charges ; c'est-a-dire, de la pri- 
vation de la qualite de citoyen. Persecution 
plus sensible que celle des tourmens ; parce- 
qu'elle attaque l'orgueil & l'ambition des 
hommes, & que les tourmens n'attaquent que 
la vie, que l'orgueil & l'ambition font souvent 
mepriser. En mot, etes-vous vaincu, conquis 
par les Anglois ? — il faut devenir Anglois ! 
Mais les Anglois ne devroient-ils pas com- 
prendre, que les tetes des hommes ne sont pas 
toutes des tetes Angloises, & sur-tout d'esprits ? 
Ne devroient-ils pas sentir, que les loix doivent 
etre relatives aux climats, aux moeurs des 
peuples, & se varier, pour etre sage, avec la 
diversite des circonstances ? Chaque pa} r s a ses 
arbres, ses fruits, ses richesses particuliers : 
vouloir n'y transporter que les arbres, que les 
fruits d' Angleterre, seroit une ridicule impar- 
donable. II est de meme des loix, qui doivent 
s'adapter aux climats ; parceque les hommes 
eux-memes tienne beaucoup des climats. 

Mais c'est la une politique que les Anglois 
n'entendent pas, ou plutot ils l'entendent bien, 
car ils ont la reputation d'etre un peuple plus 
pensant que les autres ; mais ils ne peuvent pas 
adopter un tel systeme par le systeme manque 
& defectueux de leurs constitutions. Sur ce 
pied le Canada, pris une fois par lea Anglois, 



le dise, avec un peu plus de prevoyance dans 
sa politique, 1' Angleterre aurait toujours eu en 
main, de quoi mettre les colons a la raison. 
Le Canada, considere en lui meme pour ses 
richesses, ses forces, et le nombre de ses habi- 
tants n'est rien en comparaison du reste des 
colonies anglaises ; mais la valeur, l'industrie, et 
la fidelite de ses habitants supplee si bien au 
nombre, que pendant plus d'un siecle, ils ont 
combattu avec avantage, contre toutes les 
autres colonies. Dix Canadiens valent autant 
que cent colons Anglais. L'experience l'ap- 
prend tout les jours. Si 1' Angleterre, apres la 
conquete sait la maniere de se les attacher par 
la politique et la bonte, et les garder pour elle 
seule, si elle leur laisse leur religion, leurs cou- 
tumes, leur langage, et leur gouvernement le 
Canada separe sous tous les rapports, des autres 
colonies, formera un pays distinct qui n'entrera 
jamais dans leurs vues, ne fut-ce que par prin- 
cipes de religion. Mais ce n'est point la maniere 
des Anglais. S'ils en font la conquete, ils 
changeront assurement la constitution du pays, 
et y introduiront leurs lois, leurs coutumes, 
leur maniere de penser, et leur religion ; ce qui 
sera une double peine pour les vaincus. Enfin 
ils les ecarteront de toutes les charges pu- 
bliques, espece de privation des droits de cito- 
yen, persecution plus sensible que les sup- 
plices, parcequ'elle attaque l'orgueil et l'ambi- 
tion des hommes; tandis que les supplices 
attaquent seulement la vie que l'orgueil et 
l'ambition nous font souvent mepriser. En un 
mot, soyez conquis par Les anglais, vous serez 
bien tot anglais. Mais ils devraient se souvenir 
que tous les hommes n'ont pas la tete anglaise, 
et qu'ils en ont encore moins l'esprit. Ne de- 
vraient-ils pas s'apercevoir que les lois doivent 
etre appropriees au climat et aux moeurs des 
peuples, et qu'elles sont prudemment vari- 
ces relativement aux diverses circonstances. 
Chaque pays a ses arbres, ses fruits, et ses ri- 
chesses particulieres. Vouloir transporter ail- 
leurs les arbres et les fruits d' Angleterre serait 
une folie inexcusable. II en est de meme de 
leurs lois qui doivent etre adaptees au climat, 
parceque les hommes tiennent eux-meme beau- 
coup du climat. C'est la une espece de poli- 
tique qu'ils n'entendent point, ou, a mieux 
dire, qu'ils entendent tres bien ; car ils passent 
pour le peuple le plus reflechi ; mais que l'im- 
perfection de leur constitution les empeche 
d'adapter. 

En revenant au Canada: une fois pris pal 
les Anglais, il souffrira beaucoup en peu d'an- 



1869.] LETTER FROM MARQUIS DE MONTCALM TO M. MOLE. 123 

I must however confess, that England, with a little good policy 
might always keep in her hands a resource ready to bring her ancient 
colonies to reason. Canada, considered in itself, in its riches, forces, 
and number of inhabitants, is nothing to compare to the bulk of the 
English colonies ; but the valour, industry, and fidelity of its inhabit- 
ants, so well supply the place of numbers, that for more than an age, 
they have fought with advantage against all the colonies : ten Cana- 
dians are more than a match for an hundred English colonists. Daily 
experience proves this to be fact. If England, after having conquered 
Canada, knew how to attach it to her by policy and kindnesses, and to 
reserve it to herself alone ; if she left them their religion, laws and 
language, their customs and ancient form of government, Canada, sep- 
arated in every respect from the other colonies, would always form a 
distinct country, which would never enter into their views and inter- 
ests, were it only from principles of religion ; but this is not the policy 
of Britain. If the English make a conquest, they are sure to change 
the constitution of the country, and introduce their own laws, customs, 
modes of thinking, and even their religion, which they impose under 
pain, at least, of disqualification to any public office ; that is, depriving 
them of the rights of citizens. — A persecution more sensible than 
that of torments ; because it attacks the pride and ambition of men, 
while torments affect only the life, which pride and ambition often 
make us despise. In a word, are you conquered, conquered by Eng- 
lishmen ? — You must become Englishmen ! But ought not the 
English to remember, that the heads of men are not all the heads of 
Englishmen, and much less their minds ? Ought they not to perceive, 
that the laws should be suitable to the climates and manners of the 
people, and that they should be prudently varied, according to the dif- 
ferent circumstances ? Each country has its peculiar trees, fruits and 
riches; to transport the trees and fruits only of England thither 
would be an unpardonable folly. It is the same with their laws, which 
ought to be adapted to the climate ; because men themselves derive 
much from climate. 

This is a species of policy which the English do not understand, or 
rather understand it well ; for they have the reputation of being a 
more thinking people than others ; but they cannot adopt such a sys- 
tem, on account of the imperfect and defective system of their own 
constitutions. Upon this account, Canada, once taken by the English, 



124 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[June, 



peu d'annees sufnroient pour le faire devenir 
Anglois. Voila les Canadiens transformed en 
politiques, en negocians, en hommes infatues 
d'une pretendue liberte, qui chez la populace 
tient souvent en Angleterre de la licence, & de 
l'anarchie. Adieu, done, leur valeur, leur sim- 
plicity, leur generosite, leur respect pour tout 
ce qui est revetu de l'autorite, leur frugalite, 
leur obeissance, & leur fidelite ; e'est-a-dire, ne 
feroient bien-tot plus rien pour l'ancienne An- 
gleterre, & qu'ils feroient peut-etre contre elle. 
Je suis si sur de ce que j'ecris, que je ne don- 
nerai pas dix ans apres la conquete de Canada 
pour en voir l'accomplissement. 

Voila ce que, comme Francois, me console au- 
jourd'hui du danger eminent que court ma 
patrie, de voir cette colonie perdue pour elle ; 
mais, comme general, je n'en ferai pas moins 
tous mes efforts pour le conserver. Le Roi, 
mon maitre, me l'ordonne : il suffit. Vous 
s^avez que nous sommes d'un sang, qui fut 
toujours fidele a ses Rois ; & ce n'est pas a moi 
a degenerer de la vertu de mes ancetres. Je 
vous mande ces reflexions, a-fin que, si le sort 
des armes en Europe nous obligeoit jamais a 
plier & a subir a la loi, vous puissiez en faire 
l'usage, que votre patriotisme vous inspirera. 

J'ai l'honneur d'etre, mon cher cousin, 
votre tres humble, &c. 

Montcalm. 

Du camp devant Quebec, 24 d'Aout, 1759. 



nees pour devenir Anglais. Les Canadiens de- 
viendront des politiques, des marchands, et des 
hommes infatues d'une pretendue liberte qui 
degenere souvent chez la populace anglaise en 
licence et en anarchie. Alors plus de valeur, 
de simplicity, de generosite et de respect pour 
tout ce qui porte l'empreinte de l'autorite ; 
plus de frugalite, de soumission et de fidelite. 
Us vont etre bientot en discussion et divises 
d'interet avec 1' Angleterre. J'en suis si assure 
que je ne donne pour le voir pas plus de dix 
ans apres la conquete du Canada. 

Voila ce qui, en vrai francjais, me console du 
danger imminent de perdre la colonie. Cepen- 
dant je ferai comme general, tout ce qui sera 
en moi pour la defendre. Le roi, mon maitre, 
me l'ordonne ainsi ; et cela me suffit. Vous 
savez que nous sommes d'un sang qui a tou- 
jours ete fidele a son autorite, et je ne degene- 
rai pas de cette vertu de mes ancetres. Je vous 
envoie ces reflexions, afin que si jamais le sort 
des armes nous obligeait a ceder et a recevoir 
la loi, vous en fassiez usage de la maniere que 
l'amour de la patrie vous fera paraitre le plus 
avantageuse. 

J'ai l'honneur d'etre, mon cher cousin, votre 
cher cousin, votre tres-humble et tres-obeissant 
serviteur, 

Montcalm. 

Du camp devant Quebec, 24 Aout, 1759. 



[While the Publishing Committee were preparing these sev- 
eral copies of the Montcalm letter for the press, a careful 
comparison of the English and French copies, as published side 
by side by Almon, was made, when it was soon perceived that 
the English copy could not be regarded as a literal transla- 
tion from that of the French. The same comparison was 
made at the same time with the other French copy recently 
obtained from the papers of the Marquis of Montcalm, and 
with a similar result. The English copy, it was found, could not 
have been translated from either of the French taken separate- 
ly : sometimes it corresponds with one, and sometimes with the 
other. The question then suggested itself to the editor of this 



1869.] LETTER FROM MARQUIS DE MONTCALM TO M. MOLE. 125 

would, in a few years suffer much from being forced to be English. 
Thus would the Canadians be transformed into politicians, merchants, 
and men infatuated with a pretended liberty, which, among the popu- 
lace in England, sinks often into anarchy and licentiousness. Fare- 
well then to their valour, simplicity, generosity, and respect to every 
thing in the shape of authority ; farewell to their frugality, obedience 
and fidelity : they would soon be of no use to England, and perhaps 
they would oppose her. I am so clear in what I now assert, that I 
would not give more than ten years after the conquest of Canada, to 
see it accomplished. 

See then what now consoles me, as a Frenchman, for the imminent 
danger my country runs of losing this colony ; but, as a general, I 
will do my best to preserve it. The King, my master, orders me to 
do so : that is sufficient. You know we are of that blood, which was 
always faithful to its kings, and it is not for me to degenerate from the 
virtue of my ancestors. I send you these reflections with this view, 
that if the fate of arms in Europe should ever oblige us to bend and 
to receive the law, you may make use of them in such manner as the 
love of your country shall direct you. 

I have the honour to be, my dear cousin, your most humble, &c. 

Montcalm. 
Caup before Quebec, Aug. 24, 1759. 



volume whether the English copy should not be regarded as the 
original, and the French copies as two independent translations 
from that. Such an hypothesis, of course, suggests another ; 
namely, that the letter is a forgery. The importance, there- 
fore, of ascertaining with certainty, whether the copy seen by 
Mr. Parkman in the possession of the Marquis of Montcalm, 
" on a small soiled sheet of paper," and which " seemed to be 
the original draft" of the French letter, " with many erasures 
and interlineations," was really or not in the handwriting of 
General Montcalm, will be obvious to all. Mr. Parkman kindly 
offered to write to the Marquis on the subject, and the printing 
of the " Proceedings " was accordingly suspended in the mean 



126 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

time. The following is the correspondence between Mr. Park- 
man and the Marquis of Montcalm : — 

(Translation.) 

Boston, Sept. 10, 1869. 

Monsieur le Marquis, — When I had the honor of meeting you 
at Paris, I made mention of a book printed at London during the 
American Revolutionary War, and containing three letters of your 
illustrious ancestor. One of these letters is that in which he predicts 
the revolt of the British- American provinces as likely to follow the fall 
of Canada. There are two copies of this letter among the papers 
which you had the goodness to place in my hands. One of them is 
clearly written, but in a hand different from that of the other letters. 
The other is written on a defaced sheet of paper, in a hand very small 
and difficult to read, with many erasures and interlineations. It ap- 
pears to be the first sketch of this famous letter. It is on this point 
that I wish to gain definite information, and I write in order to inquire 
whether or not it is in the handwriting of the celebrated Marquis. 

I make this inquiry for the following reason : Since my return, I 
have learned that the authenticity of this letter was seriously ques- 
tioned at the time of its publication. It was said, in the British par- 
liament, to have been forged for political reasons. To answer these 
doubts, I produced the copy of the letter made in your house, before 
the Massachusetts Historical Society. I was listened to with much 
interest, and those present agreed that its authenticity was almost cer- 
tain, since a copy of it was found among the family papers of its author. 
But if the original itself were to be found there, the proof would b f 
unanswerable. I therefore take the liberty of asking you if this? 
the case, and I shall be greatly obliged to you for any further inforniu 
tion which you can give me on the subject. I have compared the copy 
made for me by M. Jeanne with the printed letter. The ideas are the 
same, but the words are different throughout. As for the other letters 
in the English publication, I found none of them among the papers in 
your possession. They relate solely to the condition of the English 
colonies in America. 

Again thanking you for your extreme kindness, I beg you to accept 
the assurance of the distinguished consideration with which I am, etc., 

Francis Parkman. 



1869.] MARQUIS OF MONTCALM TO FRANCIS PARKMAN. 127 

The Marquis of Montcalm to Mr. Parkman.* 

My dear Sir, — On my return to Paris from a journey in Germany 
I found your kind letter of August last. Let me at once ask a thou- 
sand pardons for my long silence, which was caused entirely by my 
absence from France. 

It will be impossible for me to give you any real information as to 
the genuineness of the letter attributed to my great-grandfather. The 
only thing I can distinctly assert is that the copies found among my 
papers are not in his handwriting. They were, I think, sent over from 
England at the end of the last century, and then translated into 
French. This will explain the discrepancy you have noticed. The 
style, however, is that of my grandfather, concise, and a little jerky ; and 
the personal sentiments expressed in the letter agree with those found 
in his other correspondence. I am well aware that this is not enough 
to establish the genuineness of the letter. 

There is a tradition in my family that there exists somewhere in the 
national archives of England, a large number of papers relating to 
the Canada war, probably delivered to the English by a faithless 
secretary after my ancestor's death. Is it not possible that among 
them was the rough draft of the letter addressed to the First President 

* This correspondence was conducted in French, on both sides. The following is the 
original letter of the Marquis of Montcalm : — 

C'est en revenant (Tun yoyage en Allemagne, Monsieur, que j'ai trouve a Paris votre aimable 
lettre du mois d*Aout. Laissez-moi d'abord vous demander mille pardons de mon long silence, dont 
la cause seule est mon eloignement de France. 

II me sera difficile de tous donner un enseignement serieux sur l'authenticite de la lettre attri- 
buee a mon arriere-grandpere ; ce que je peux uniquement affirmer c'est que les copies trouvees dans 
mes papiers ne sont pas ecrites de sa main. Elles ont, je crois, ete envoyees d'Angleterre a la fin du 
dernier siecle, et traduites alors en fran^ais, ce qui explique les differences de termes que tous avez 
remarquees. pourtant le style a bien du rapport avec celui de mon grandpere, concis, un peu 
saccade, et les sentiments personnels qui y sont exprimes sont d'accord avec ceux qu'on trouve dans le 
reste de sa correspondance. Mais cela, je le comprends, ne suffit pas pour etablir une reelle 
authenticity. 

La tradition de ma famille est qu'il y a dans les archives nationales anglaises de nombreux papiers 
relatifs a cette guerre du Canada, papiers qui auraient ete livres aux Anglais, a la mort de mon 
ayeul, par un secretaire infidele. Ne serait-ce pas la qu : on aurait trouve le brouillon de cette lettre 
adressee au Premier President Mole, ou meme la lettre elle-meme intercepted par quelque 
croisiere anglaise ? En somme, je ne saurais, je le repete, Monsieur, lever les doutes que vous 
pouvez avoir a ce sujet. 

Je suis toujours heureux que cette circonstance me donne Toccasion de vous dire combien 
j'ai ete charme des trop courtes relations que nous avons eues. J'espere que malgrela largeurde 
I'Atlantique elles se renouvelleront encore, et que je pourrai de vive voix vous exprimer, Monsieur, 
le3 sentiments de reelle sympathie et de haute consideration avec lesquels, je suis 

Votre tres-humble et tres-obeissant serviteur, 
Paris, le 2 Octobre, 1869. Moxtcalm 

P. S. — Carlisle, dans l'histoire de Frederic le Grand, a donne la lettre en question, et il la cite en 
Fran^ais ; a quelle source a-t-il puise le document ? 



128 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

Mole, or even the letter itself, intercepted by some English cruiser ? 
After all, I can only repeat that I cannot solve your doubts in the 
matter. 

I am very glad that this incident has given me a chance to say to 
you that I have had much pleasure in our too short relations ; and to 
express my hope that, notwithstanding the extent of ocean separating 
us, they may at some time be renewed, and I may express in person 
the sentiments of real sympathy and great consideration with which I am 
Your very humble and obedient servant, 

Montcalm. 
Paris, 2d October, 1869. 

P.S. — Carlyle in his History of Frederic the Great gives the letter 
in question, and cites it in French. Whence did he get the docu- 
ment ? 

The result of this correspondence will not tend to strengthen 
confidence in the genuineness of the letter in question, as it 
appears that neither copy in the Marquis of Montcalm's pos- 
session is in the handwriting of his distinguished ancestor ; 
but both are copies of a later French version made from an 
English copy, procured from England. If Almon's publication 
were the source whence the letter in its English form was 
procured and sent to France at the time mentioned by the 
marquis, the question might be asked, why that which was 
represented to be the French original published side by side 
with it, and which we have reprinted above, did not accom- 
pany it ? 

May we not reasonably conclude that the letter attributed 
to General Montcalm was written originally in English, and 
£hat the general was not its author ? ] 

Note. — There were present at this meeting fifty-one members. Before calling the 
meeting to order, the members were grouped on the steps and the lawn in front of the 
house, and were photographed by Black. — Eds. 



18G9.] JULY MEETING. 129 



JULY MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting of the Society was held this day, 
Thuisday, the 8th of July, at eleven o'clock, a.m. ; the Presi- 
dent in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the last meeting. 

The Librarian announced the donations for the past month. 
These included several volumes of the manuscript records of 
the "New North Church," the " Central Universalist Church," 
(or, as it was subsequently called, the " First Restorationist 
Church,") and the " Bulfinch-street Church," in the city of 
Boston, — the last two named churches having been merged 
in the " New North." They were presented by the pastor of 
the " New North," the Rev. William R. Alger. 

The Librarian also noticed the gift, from Mr. John Carter 
Brown, of Providence, R.I., of the catalogue of his private 
library ; prepared by Mr. John Russell Bartlett. 

A number of volumes from the Historical Society of France, 
and also from M. Desnoyers, its secretary, — previously an- 
nounced as having been sent to the Society, — were placed 
upon the table at this meeting. 

The Rev. Barnas Sears, D.D., of Staunton, Va., was elected 
a Corresponding Member. 

The President called attention to a pamphlet of " Proceed- 
ings " placed upon the table, embracing the transactions of 
the Society at the April and May meetings. He stated that 
the Standing Committee had recommended that the volumes 
of " Proceedings " be now stereotyped, and issued in serial 
parts, from time to time ; and that the members can have 
their choice in taking the volumes, either to receive them in 
parts as they may be issued, or to wait till an entire volume 
appears. 

The President presented a copy of the " Second Annual 

17 



130 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [July, 

Report of the Trustees of the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology," by the curator, Professor J. 
Wyman. 

Mr. J. C. Gray made some remarks relative to the discipline, 
and mode of instruction, in Michigan University. 

The President read a letter from Mrs. H. W. Bowen, dated 
" Atchison, Kansas, June 4, 1869," and addressed to Dr. Pea- 
body, of Harvard College, stating that the grandchildren of 
General Arthur St. Clair are in possession of his papers, and 
are desirous of disposing of them. They include letters from 
all the signers of the Declaration of Independence, all the 
generals of the army, and all the prominent men of that day. 
Before the death of Mrs. St. Clair, thirty years ago, she de- 
clined an offer of $3,000 for them. The present owners 
have been offered for them a larger sum. The writer is desir- 
ous of knowing their value. 

The President stated that there had been sent to him re- 
cently, from New London, Ct., by a relative of our late Corre- 
sponding Member, Miss Caulkins, a manuscript poem, of some 
length, written by that lady, and found among her papers since 
her decease. It is entitled, " Cobwebs in the Sky, or Nell 
McMudge : A Story of Country Witchcraft. By Frances Man- 
waring Caulkins." The poem consists of one hundred and 
twenty-one pages of letter-paper, and is divided into seven 
cantos, each canto preceded by an " argument." In the pre- 
face the author says : " The following tale combines in one 
narrative various New-England traditions connected with the 
witchcraft of former days. Almost every village, a hundred 
years ago, had its reputed witch. The incidents in this story 
are legendary, or copies of popular belief, — borrowed very little 
from invention or imagination. They have been gathered 
from floating sources, — the memories of the aged, or local 
tradition, — and woven together as a faithful embodiment of 
the superstition of former days. The ubiquitory power here 
ascribed to the sorceress ; and the facility with which she could 



1869.] LETTERS FROM J. VERNON TO J. WILLIAMSON. 131 

change herself into other forms, or enter other creatures, soul 
and body together, or leave her body and make excursions 
without it, — are all in conformity with tradition," <fcc. 

The President read some passages from the poem ; and Dr. 
Holmes, who, at the request of the President, had read the 
poem throughout, expressed the opinion that it had consider- 
able merit as a rhythmical production, and that it embodied 
many curious New-England traditions. 

Mr. Frothingham, the Treasurer, stated that Mr. John A. 
Lowell, the Trustee of the Lowell Institute, had paid to him 
the sum of $703.41, — the balance due for the expense of 
printing and binding seven hundred and fifty copies of the 
volume of Historical Lectures, after deducting the $1,300 pre- 
viously received from him for the delivery of these lectures. 

Whereupon it was — 

Voted, That the President be requested to make a suitable 
acknowledgment to Mr. Lowell for this generous aid to the 
Society ; and that six copies of the volume of " Historical 
Lectures " be sent to him. 

On motion of Mr. R. Frothingham, it was — 

Voted, That the Librarian be requested to prepare an ab- 
stract of the volumes of records of the " New North Church," 
which have been presented to the Society, — to be printed in 
the " Proceedings." 

The President read the following letters, from copies made 
for him by Mr. Sainsbury, from the Public Record Office in 
London : — 

J. Vernon* to Joseph Williamson. 

Hague 26 January 1671/2. 
****** * 

Mf Ellis & I were this day to see a House of the Prince's called 
Honslaer Dyke, about 7 miles from hence; the way thither lyes 

* This Mr. Vernon was afterwards Secretary of State in William and Mary's, and 
Queen Anne's reigD. — Note by Mr. Salisbury. 



132 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [July, 

through a village called Loos-Duynen which is 3 miles from the 
Hague and is famous for that in that Church lyes buried the Coun- 
tesse of Henneberge, with her 365 children, which were all baptized 
in two brasse bazins that they now show, and are placed over the 
inscription which is in Dutch and Latin ; the same that your Worship 
hath read in severall books that mention it. # Not far from the Church 
they show a little round mount where the tradition is the Countess 
her house stood, & was swallowed up by the Earth that rises in that 
place ; thence we went to the Prince's house which is reckoned the 
best in Holland. It was built by the Prince his Grandfather, but part 
of the outhouses & some ponds have been added since ; the shape of 
the house is like Luxembourg at Paris, but it is nothing near so bigg 
and it is of bricke onely with some ornaments & trimming of stone- 
worke ; the staire case is upon the model of Luxembourg, but here 
they have remedyed the want of light & had it painted by severall 
able masters ; the house is built in water that I beleeve the foun- 
dations of it must bee very expensive, but Wee had nobody to informe 
Our selves of but a Woman. All the first floore is Marble layd in 
severall squares ; the Roomes are little enough for a Prince's house, 
the furniture ordinary but some good gold leather ; the pictures many 
of them deserved admiration. &° J. Vernon. 



J. Vernon to Jos. Williamson. 

2 February 1671/2. 

Most Honoured S? 

We came late to Harlem (in company with M* Watson, MT Parker 
& Major Scot) that we saw but little of it unlesse it were the Fish 
market, which is handsome & stands about the Church. The next 
day we made haste for Amsterdam where we arrived in the morning, 
it being but ten miles. Wee light at an English house where was 
Sir John Paul, Mf Banks, M r Griffin of Hambrough and Sf George 
Downing's son with his compagnions, who have been now a weeke 
abroad. Wee went first to see a rarity of a man that broake glasses 
with his breath, which he did severall Rhenish wine glasses though 
held by an other with the strength of his mind he would make them 
ring, tremble & breake what was particular sounding to one glasse he 

• See further, relating to this strange story, in " Coryat's Crudities," vol. iii. pp. 81- 
83, edition of 1776. — Eds. 



1869.] LETTERS FROM J. VERNON TO J. WILLIAMSON. 133 

said he found it was unequally made and then crying to it onely one 
piece of it flew out, whereas those that were more equall flew into 
shivers. The man himself is a lean ordinary man ; he was a rich 
marchant & cracked, but now he sells wine & breaks glasses, and that 
they say hath made him whole again. He is otherwise ingenious, and 
whereas in Taverns here there are bells hung to call the people, here 
the pulling of the roap makes a noise imitating the cry of some Fowle. 
Hence we went to see a table of marble inlayd with Mother of pearle 
representing severall flowers & insects in the naturall Col ? 3 which 
charged to admiration, being looked upon in severall places ; the fel- 
low of it was sent as a present to the King of Japan & cost 6000 11 
sterlin ; the Workeman hath been 30 years about them without inter- 
mission. Next Wee saw the great terrestriall globe all of Copper of 
6 foot Diameter which is not to bee sold under 1500 pounds sterlin. 
Wee past by Tryps house the great Marchant here which cost him 
12000 pounds before he brought it above ground. The next day We 
were to see the Admiralty where one enters with an Order. We 
w r ere carried through all the chambers of the Stores which have theer 
particular places assigned them, the sailes here, the ropes there, balls 
in another place, every thing in its order that it needs but open a 
doore in every chamber to throw every ships tackle into it, and in 
case of fire they can turne Cocks which will lett them in 1600 tun of 
water which is allways reserved on the top of the house for that use. 
The East India store house is near this, but Wee had not time to see 
both. Wee tooke a Boat & rowd round their men of warr which ly 
there to the number of 50, but most small ones ; there was allso of 
their great ones the Lyon, the Elephant, the Looking glasse & c . 
The Swiftsure lay here single, her backe is not broken but is as fitt 
to saile as any of the rest ; the Lanterne of the Royall Charles is 
kept in the Admiralty house. Thence we went to see Admirall de 
Ruyter who lives there upon the Quay in a pretty house ; he received 
us courteously and made us tast a glasse of Navarre wine a present 
lately made him by the Count de Guiche, he spoke all English and 
not ill. He told us hee was one of the oldest living that had been in 
the West Indies, where he was when a Boy with the first that went 
thither, and he is now 63 years old, yet he lookes very fresh coloured 
& lusty under his years, he looks & is drest perfect Citizen like, in 
a plaine velvet coat. Wee stayd but little with him, for it was the 
morning; he had invited us for the afternoone, but we were to be gone. 
Going from thence Wee saw Collonell SpeUman, he that conquered 



134 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [July, 

the Kingdom of Macassar, he is about 50 years old, a tall lusty man 
with a good bold looke. I saw some hospitals which are in all to 
the number of 50, for men women & children, that the Charity of 
Amsterdam is reckoned by some to equall the charity of the greatest 
part of France; for besides these publique houses which are well 
endowed, it is ordinary for great marchants upon the safe arrivall of 
their vessells to give two or 300 pounds to the poors purse. I saw the 
Exchange, their Bedlam, Spinhouse, Rasphouse & Stadthouse, which 
is to noble to bee attempted to bee described. My time was but short 
for these Gentlemens occasions called them to the Hague, so we left 
Amsterdam that Monday & came to Harlem the same night ; the 
next morning Wee had just time to see the Stadthouse where are all 
the Earls of Holland painted, & the Earle of Hollands house, an old 
building where is some rare pieces of painting ; above all one foot of 
a man which the Prince of Toscany ofFred 1500 pistols to cutt out from 
the piece ; in the garden is the picture of him that they pretend to 
have invented printing first, one Maurice Castoreus, a gentleman 
of Haarlem in the year 1440. I saluted Mons 1 * Casteline the Gazet- 
teer here from yoT Wor sp who is full of all estime & respect for yoF 
Wor sp . Wee left Haarlem that morning, wee past by those fields that 
are so famous for whitening of linnen, whether send all theirs, that all 
the summer time there bee many thousand Acres all covered, & here is 
a great wood which is the nearest they have to Amsterdam for the 
Citizens to come & divert themselves. Wee passed over the 3 great 
sluces that divide the salt & sweet sea, & came to the Hague on tues- 
day night. I shall in obedience to yof Wor p . s commands sett forward 
for London on Saturday next. I hope to see Leyden & Roterdam 
in the way. I am, most Honoured S. r 

Your Wor sp * most obedient & faithfull servant 

J. Vernon. 
Hague 2 Febr 72. 



1869.] LETTER FROM CAPTAIN G. V. FOX. 135 



AUGUST MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting of the Society was held this day, 
Thursday, the 12th of August ; Vice-President Aspinwall, in 
the absence of the President, in the chair. 

The Eecording Secretary read the record of the last meeting. 

In the absence of the Librarian, the donations for the past 
month were announced by the Recording Secretary. 

Among those especially noticed, was a copy of " The Official 
Correspondence on the Claims of the United States in respect 
to the ' Alabama,' " London, 1867, — presented by Mr. Adams. 
In reference to this publication, Mr. Adams remarked that 
it does not contain all the correspondence relating to the 
" Alabama " in which he took part, as the date upon the title- 
page of the volume would indicate. It was published by 
Lord Russell in vindication of himself. 

The thanks of the Society were presented to Mr. Adams 
for the gift. 

A copy of the original picture of the old house in Dock 
Square, built in 1680, and a copy of Paul Revere's picture of 
the Boston Massacre, were presented to the Society by Mr. 
William H. Keith, of Charlestown, for which the thanks of 
the Society were ordered. 

Mr. Whitney read the following letter from Captain G. Y. 
Fox, lately the Assistant Secretary of the Navy, addressed to 
Mr. Winthrop : — 

Lowell, Mass., July 10th, 1869. 
Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, 

President Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Mass. 

Sir, — Mr. H. A. Whitney, a member of your Society, is kind 
enough to inform me that it will be agreeable to yourself and asso- 
ciates to receive for preservation a number of rebel flags, which have 
been saved from those acquired during the rebellion by the navy under 
the administration of Mr. Welles. 



136 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Aug. 

Accordingly I have sent to him, for presentation to the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, eight flags, numbered and described as fol- 
lows : — 

No. 1. The flag of Fort Walker, Hilton Head, Port Royal, South Carolina. 
Captured by the naval forces under the command of Rear-Admiral S. F. Dupont, 
Nov. 7, 1861. 

No. 2. A flag found amongst the property abandoned after the above action. 
It is supposed to be the State flag of South Carolina. 

No. 3. The flag of Fort Henry, Tennessee River. Captured by the naval 
forces under the command of Rear- Admiral A. H. Foote, Feb. 6, 1862. 

No. 4. The flag of Fort St. Philip, Mississippi River. Captured after the 
memorable forcing of the defences to New Orleans by the navy, under Admiral 
D. G. Farragut, April 24, 1862. 

No. 5. The new flag adopted by the rebels in 1863. Captured by a naval 
force under the command of Commodore John Rodgers, June 17, 1863. An in- 
teresting letter from that distinguished officer, describing the capture of the iron- 
clad " Atlanta," is enclosed. 

No. 6. The flag of the iron-clad " Tennessee." Captured by a naval force under 
the command of Admiral D. G. Farragut, on the day of his successful entrance 
into Mobile Bay, Aug. 5, 1864. 

No. 7. The admiral's flag of the rebel Buchanan, who commanded the " Ten- 
nessee " in the above action. 

No. 8. The flag of Fort Caswell, left flying upon the flagstaff of that fort, 
after its evacuation, consequent upon the capture of the defences of Cape Fear 
River by the United-States forces, under the command of Vice-Admiral D. D. 
Porter and Major- General A. H. Terry. 

These are truly the flags which were forwarded to Washington, 
with the official reports announcing the victories which are enumerated. 
They were placed at my disposal by the Department, because it was 
deemed unadvisable to preserve at the National Capitol the evidences 
of internecine strife. 

Most respectfully your obedient servant, 

G. V. Fox. 

The letter of Commodore John Rodgers, referred to, de- 
scribing the capture of one of these flags (No. 5), under his 
command, here follows : — 

U. S. Navy Yard, Boston, 
Commandant's Office, June 14th, 1869. 

Sir, — It gives me much pleasure to repeat the history of the 
Confederate flag in your possession, captured on board the " Atlanta." 

The history of the flag is so connected with the performance of the 
15-inch guns, which you introduced into the service, that to tell the 
one involves some account of the other. 



1869.] LETTER OF COMMODORE JOHN RODGERS. 137 

The previous flag of the Confederacy had been the stars and bars ; 
but a strong current of adversity had set against the fortunes over 
which it waved, and the rebel government chose a new ensign. 

I was told that this new flag was first hoisted in action on board 
the iron-clad " Atlanta." 

The monitor " Weehawken," under my command, was sent to War- 
saw Sound by Admiral Dupont, to prevent the rebel iron-clad " At- 
lanta " from getting to sea from Savannah by that passage. Subse- 
quently the monitor " Nahant," Commander John Downes, was sent 
to the same place, to reinforce the " Weehawken." 

On June 17, 1863, it was reported to me at daylight that the 
' ; Atlanta " was coming down the Wilmington river. I was incredu- 
lous, not believing that she would venture to attack two monitors ; but 
a glance through a spy-glass convinced me that it was true. 

We were riding to the flood-tide, heading towards the sea, without 
room to turn. 

As before decided upon, in case an attack should be made while 
thus situated, we slipped the " Weehawken's " cable, and steamed down 
to a part of the channel which I had sounded and buoyed, in which 
the monitors could turn with a single sweep of the helm. 

The " Nahant " commenced rapidly heaving up her anchor. The 
'• Weehawken " passed the " Nahant " in going down, turned, and 
passed her in going up. The " Nahant " ran down necessarily to the 
same widening of the channel, turned as we had done, and came gal- 
lantly to our support. But her services were not needed. Captain 
Downes withheld his fire until he should be close alongside, under the 
impression that only then would his shot be effective. Before he 
reached the position he so zealously sought, the terrible 15-inch gun 
of the " Weehawken " had compelled the " Atlanta " to surrender. 

At about three hundred yards from the " Atlanta," the " Wee- 
hawken " fired a 15-inch cored shot, weighing three hundred and forty 
pounds, with a charge of thirty pounds of powder. 

I saw this shot strike on the side, and I saw splinters fly into the 
air. I learned, after the action, that it had driven about two barrels 
full of splinters of wood and iron into the vessel, these wounding 
every man of a gun's crew stationed opposite. It made a hole through 
the side, very ragged, but averaging six inches wide by three feet 
long ; and it knocked down, by the mere concussion, some forty men, 
who lay upon the deck stunned, and as though dead. 

The crew could not know that those insensible men were not killed. 

18 



138 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Aug. 

Surprised at the novel effect of the huge shot employed against them, 
they ran below. 

The next discharge was of two guns, the 11 and the 15-inch. The 
shot from one of these, I thought from the 15-inch, struck the top of 
the pilot-house, in which were four men, two pilots and two helmsmen. 
It crushed down the heavy wrought iron bars ; and the four men fell 
stunned and helpless upon the floor, thus preventing the trap-door 
leading into the pilot-house from being raised, and thus cutting off 
access to the steering gear. 

There remained no means of directing the course of the " Atlanta " ; 
and the crew had deserted their quarters. She surrendered. 

The first shot had taken away from the crew the wish to fight ; 
the second had cut off the means of escape. 

The flag in your possession, which had flown so confidently over the 
"Atlanta," was now hauled down, but was soon replaced by a smaller 
one, — a piece of white, hurriedly cut out of the lowered ensign. 

This white symbol, seen through smoke, looked blue ; and its char- 
acter thus misunderstood, two more guns were fired ; but they had no 
effect upon the action, since its result had been reached already. 

The new flag had not changed the fortunes of the Confederacy. 
So quickly had the terrible ordnance done its work, that the " Nahant " 
had no opportunity of firing a shot. 

Very truly yours, 

John Rodgers. 

Hon. G. V. Fox. 

The thanks of the Society were voted to Captain Fox for 
this valuable gift. The flags were exhibited in the room 
during the meeting. 

The Chairman spoke of the decease, since the last meeting, 
of our associate, the Hon. William Brigham, and presented 
from the Standing Committee the following resolutions : — 

Resolved, That this Society has heard with deep regret of the death 
of the Hon. William Brigham, and would here record their sense of 
the great loss which the Society has sustained thereby. 

Resolved, That the President be requested to appoint one from our 
number to write the memoir of our late associate, for the " Pro- 
ceedings." 



1869.] COMMUNICATION FROM HON. JOHN G. PALFREY. 139 

Mr. Waterston paid a fitting tribute to the character of 
Mr. Brigham, and the resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

The Recording Secretary read the following letter from the 
President, in which mention is made of the death of Mr. 
Brigham, and also of the decease of our Corresponding Mem- 
ber, Mr. William Winthrop, late Consul at Malta : — 

Stockbridge, 9th August, 1869. 
Charles Deane, Esq., Secretary Massachusetts Historical Society. 

My dear Sir, — As I had previously intimated, I find it impossible 
for me to be at our Monthly Meeting on Thursday next. 

I trust that some one or more of our associates will be prepared to 
pay a just tribute to our valued friend, William Brigham. I would 
name Dr. Bobbins, his classmate, for the customary memoir, if the 
selection is left to me. 

It is fit that I should announce, in a single word, the death of oar 
Corresponding Member, William Winthrop, Esq., the late United-States 
Consul at Malta. His repeated and valuable contributions to our 
Library, of which still another is on the way, and a handsome bequest 
to our funds, which will come to us after the expiration of one or two 
lives, entitle him to be remembered among our benefactors. But I 
must postpone all detailed notice of him until some future meeting. 
Yours faithfully, 

Eobert C. Winthrop. 

Henry Martyn Dexter, D.D., was elected a Resident Member. 
Mr. Deane laid before the meeting the following communi- 
cations from the Hon. John G. Palfrey: — 

Cambridge, 1869, Aug. 3. 
My dear Mr. Deane, — You know that after the discomfiture of 
the Stamp project, the Sons of Liberty used to celebrate the anniversary 
of the enforced resignation of the distributor (Hutch, iii. 201). Pos- 
sibly some future antiquary may like to inform himself as to the com- 
position of the company which met for that purpose just a century 
ago, and which, it may be presumed, celebrated not less hilariously be- 
cause within a fortnight they had seen the last of Governor Bernard. 
By placing the accompanying paper, if you think fit, in the Collections 
of the Historical Society, will you provide for the satisfaction of such 
a curiosity, should it arise ? 

Faithfully, dear sir, your friend and servant, 

John G. Palfrey. 



140 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Aug. 



An Alphabetical List of the Sons of Liberty who dined at Liberty Tree, Dorchestet 

Aug. 14, 1769.* 



A. 

Adams, Samuel 
Adams, John, Esq. 
Avery, John, Esq. 
Avery, John, Jr. 
Appleton, Nath. 
Austin, Benj., Esq. 
Austin, Samuel 
Ayres, Joseph 
Abbot, Samuel 
Avis, Samuel 

B. 

Brattle, Thos. 
Bradford, John, Capt. 
Bowes, Nicholas 
Barber, Nath. 
Bant, William 
Boyer, Peter 
Barrell, Joseph 
Balch, Nath. 
Blake, John, Capt. 
Blanchard, Caleb 
Brimmer, Martin 
Brimmer, Hermon 
Black, Andrew 
Burt, Benjamin 
Brigden, Zachary 
Bowes, William 
Bruce, Stephen 
Bass, Moses Belcher 
Bass, Henry 
Boynton, Richard, Capt. 
Breck, William 
Barrett, Samuel 
Bradford, Jos., Jr. 
Brown, John 
Baker, John 
Brattle, Brig. General 
Bowdoin, James, Hon. 
Burdet, Benj. 
Barnard, Benj. 
Brackett, Joshua 
Bell, William 
Belcher, Sarson 
Boardman, Win. 
Boweyer, Dan. 
Bowman, Rev. Dan. 
Barrett, John, Esq. 
Burbeck, William 
Billings, Richard 
Brown, Enoch 
Binney, Capt. 
Bryant, .lames 
Bryant, John 



c. 

Cushing, Mr. Speaker 
Cooper, William 
Cushing, John 
Church, Benj. 
Church, Benj., Jr. 
Church, Edward 
Cleverly, Stephen 
Carnes, Edward 
Cobb, Capt. 
Collins, Ezra 
Copely, John 
Cudworth, Benj. 
Cudworth, Nath. 
Cheever, Wm. Downe 
Colson, David 
Colson, Adam 
Cunningham, Major 
Cunningham, James 
Chardon, Peter, Esq. 
Cranch, Richard 
Cunningham, Jno. 
Cazneau, Andrew, Esq. 
Carter, James 
Cattle, Wm., Esq., Carolina, 
Crofts, Thomas 
Cheever, Ezek., Jr., Esq. 
Chase, Thomas 
Cunningham, William 
Crane, John 
Clap, Ebenezer 
Cox, Lemuel 
Carnes, Joseph 



Dana, Richard, Esq. 
Dickinson, Mr., Brother to 

the Farmer. 
Dawes, Thomas, Capt. 
Dennie, William 
Davis, William 
Deshon, Moses, Esq. 
Dalton, James, Capt. 
Dalton, Peter Roe 
Davis, Edward 
Dashwood, Capt. 
Dorr, Ebenezer 
Don-, Harbottle 
Dean, John, Capt. 
Davis, Caleb 
Davis, Aaron 
Davis, Robert 
Danforth, Samuel, Dr. 
Davis, Solomon 
Dolbeare, Benj. 



Dorrington, John, Capt. 
Dickman, William 
Doane, Elisha, Major 

E. 

Erving, John, Hon. 
Erving, George, Esq. 
Edes, Benjamin 
Edwards, John 
Eliot, Deacon 
Eliot, Joseph, Jr. 
Edes, Thomas 
Emmes, Samuel 
Edwards, Alex. 

F. 

Freeman, Jon., Capt. 
Fleet, Thomas 
Fleet, John 
Foster, Deacon 
Foster, Timothy 
Foster, Bossenger 
Foster, William 
Fitch, Timothy 
Flagg, Josiah 
Fowle, William 
Farmer, Paul 

G. 

Greenleaf, William 
Gore, John, Capt. 
Gore, John, Jr. 
Green, George 
Gill, John 
Gill, Moses 
Grant, Samuel 
Green, Francis 
Gardner. Joseph, Dr. 
Greenleaf, John 
Gardner, John 
Gridley, Col. 
Green, Joshua 
Green, Edward 
Greenwood, Capt. 
Griffiths, John 
Gooding, Benj. 
Griffen, Wm., Esq., of Vir- 
ginia. 
Green, John 
Green, Joseph 
Greenleaf, Oliver 
Greenleaf, Stephen 
Greene, Benj., Jr. 



* This paper is in the handwriting of Col. William Palfrey, the grandfather of th( 
Hon. J. G. Palfrey. — Eds. 



1869.] 



SONS OF LIBERTY WHO DINED AT DORCHESTER, 17G9. 



141 



Gray, William 
Gwin, Capt, Newbury. 
Gooding, Joseph 
Gray, Lewis 
Greaton, John 
Green, Nath. 

Gardner, Thomas, Member 
for Cambridge. 



Hancock, John, Esq. 
Henshaw, Joshua, Esq. 
Hopkins, Caleb, Capt. 
Head. John 
Heath, William, Capt. 
Hill, Henry 
Henshaw, Joseph 
Henshaw, Joshua, Jr. 
Henderson, Joseph 
Hatch, Jabez 
Homer, John, Capt. 
Holmes, Benj. Mulbury 
Holmes, Nath. 
Hichborn, Thomas 
Hichborn, Thomas, Jr. 
Harris, Samuel 
Henchman, Samuel 

Har-kins, John 
Henshaw, Andrew 

Hamock, Charles 
Hill, Alexander 
Hill, John, Esq. 

Holbrook, Samuel 

How, Samuel 

Houghton, John 

Hickling, William 

Hall, Joseph 

Homes, William, Esq. 

Henshaw, Daniel 

Hinckley, John 

Hunt, Mr., Schoolmaster. 

Harris, Stephen 

Harris, Stephen, Jr. 

Hinckley, Ebenezer 

Hoskins, William 

Hill, Dr. 

Hewes, Robert 

Honeywell, Richard 
. Horry, Thomas 



I, J. 

Jackson, Joseph, Esq. 
Inches, Henderson 
Jeffries, John, Dr. 
Jan-is, Charles, Dr. 
Johonnot, Francis 
Jones, Deacon 
Jarvis, Edward 
Jackson, Joseph 
Ingraham, Duncan 
Jeffries, David, Esq. 
Johonnot, Zechary, Esq. 
Johonnot, Gabriel 



Johonnot, Andrew 
Jones, William 
Ingersol, John 
Jenkins, John 

K. 

Kent, Benj., Esq. 
Knox, Thomas 
Knox, Thomas 
Kennedy, William 
Kneeland, Barth. 

L. 

Langdon, John 
Lucas, John 
Lovell, James 
Lasinby, Joseph 
Langdon, John, Jr. 
Langdon, Timothy 
Leach, John 
Laggett, Thomas 
Loring, John 
Loring, Caleb 
Leverett, John, Capt. 
Leverett, Thomas 
Lowell, John 

M. 

Mason, Jonathan 
Marshall, Thomas, Colonel 
Marston, John, Capt. 
May, John 
May, Ephraim 
Malcom, Daniel, Capt. 
Matchett, John, Capt. 
Molineaux, William 
May, Aaron 
McDaniel, Jacob 
Morton, Joseph 
Morton, Dimond 
McDaniel, Hugh 
Miller, Charles 
McLain, John 

Noyes, Nathaniel 

o. 

Otis, James, The Hon. jr. 
Otis, Samuel Allyne 
Otis, Joseph 

P. 

Pemberton, Samuel, Esq. 
Partridge, Samuel, Capt. 
Pitts, John 

Pitts, James, The Hon. 
Pitts, William 



Pitts, James Jr. 
Palfrey, William 
Prince, Job, Capt. 
Parker, Daniel 
Perkins, James, Jr. 
Peck, Thomas Handasyd 
Pattin, William, Capt. 
Peirpont, Robert 
Proctor, Edward 
Proctor, Samuel 
Pool, Fitch 
Pulling, John, Jr. 
Price, Thos. Maurice, Capt. 
Pico, Joshua 
Palmes, Richard 
Pecker, James, Dr. 
Price, Ezekiel 
Proctor, John 
Phillips, William, Esq. 
Pierce, Isaac 
Power, Mr., Carolina. 
Pierce, Mr., Carolina. 

Q. 

Quincy, Samuel, Esq. 
Quincy, Josiah 

R. 

Ruddock, John, Esq. 

Revere, Paul 

Rand, Isaac, Dr. 

Ray, Caleb 

Richardson, James 

Reid, Mr., Secretary to Gov. 

Franklin, Jerseys. 
Read, William, Esq. 
Ruggles, Samuel 
Robinson, Lemuel 
Ratcliffe, Mr., Carolina. 
Roberts, Peter 

s. 

Swift, Samuel, Esq. 
Sweetser, John, Jr. 
Smith, John 
Spear, Nathan 
Spear, David 
Salter, Richard 
Savage, Habijah 
Savage, John 
Smith, William 
Symmes, Eb., Capt. 
Symmes, John 
Spooner, William 
Sharp, Gibbins 
Scott, John 
Simpson, Ebenezer 
Snelling, Jona., Major 
Sprague, John, Dr. 
Spooner, George 
Soley, John 
Scollay, John, Esq. 



142 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Aug. 



Storey, Elisha, Dr. 
Sellon, Samuel 
Seaver, Ebenezer 
Surcomb, Richard 
Stanbridge, Henry 
Scott, William 
Searle, Samuel 
Stoddard, Jonathan 
Scott, James, Capt. 



Trott, George 
Trott, Jonathan 
Turner, William 
Thompson, Major 
Trott, Samuel 
Trott, Thomas 
Turell, Joseph 
Tyler, Joseph 



Tyler, Roval, Hon. 
Tyler, Thomas, Esq. 
Tileston, Capt. 
Thompson, James 
Tuckerman, Edward 
Tileston, John 
Tileston, Thomas 



Vose, Joseph 
Vernon, Fortescue 

w. 

Whitwell, Samuel 
Welles, Arnold, Esq. 
Waldo, Joseph 
Wendell, John Mico 
Wendell, Oliver 



Welsh, John 
Warren, Joseph, Dr. 
Webb, Joseph 
Walley, Thomas 
Waldo, Daniel 
Wyer, Robert, Capt. 
Whitwell, William 
Wheelwright, Job 
Wheatly, Nath. 
Waldo, John 
Wendell, Jacob 
Waters, Josiah, Capt. 
White, Benjamin 
Williams, Joseph, Colonel 
White, William, Capt. 

Y. 

Young, Thomas, Dr. 

355, — about 300 dined. 



Mr. Waterston here introduced to the meeting Mr. William 
H. Dall, who gave an interesting account of his explorations, 
at the head of a scientific corps, among the Rocky Mountains, 
embracing the " Alaskan Range.' ' He exhibited and pre- 
sented to the Society a map from a drawing made at the 
United-States Coast Survey Office, under his direction, from 
his own surveys, which had been photographed from the 
drawing. 

The thanks of the Society were presented to Mr. Dall for 
the map and for his interesting remarks. 

Mr. Parkman exhibited copies from some interesting un- 
published maps of the Mississippi, and the Western lakes and 
rivers, made chiefly by the early Jesuit missionaries, recently 
piocured in Paris. 

On motion of Mr. R. Frothingham, it was — 

Voted, That Mr. Parkman be requested to prepare a paper 
on these maps for the Society's " Proceedings." 

Mr. Parkman stated that he should be quite willing to pre- 
pare an account of these maps, with fac-similes of them as 
suggested ; but he was now engaged in publishing a work 
which would embrace much of this material. 

Mr. Waterston, as the chairman of a committee from the 
Natural History Society, called the attention of the members 



1869.] SEPTEMBER MEETING. 143 

to the approaching celebration of the Centennial Anniversary 
of the birth of Alexander von Humboldt, who was at the time 
of his death an Honorary Member of the Society, and sug- 
gested that those who thought of attending should secure seats 
together at the Music Hall, where the address by Professor 
Agassiz, was to be delivered. 






SEPTEMBER MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting of the Society was held this day, 
Thursday, September 9, at eleven o'clock, a.m. ; Vice-President 
Aspixwall in the chair. 

The record of the last meeting was read. 

The Librarian read the list of donors to the Library for the 
past month. 

The Cabinet-keeper read a list of the donations to the 
Cabinet for the past month. These included a pair of tongs 
once owned by the family of Thomas Hutchinson; also a war- 
club from the Sandwich Islands, brought thence by Captain 
William Ballard, of Boston; given by his grandson, Mr. 
William Ballard, of Brooklyn, N.Y., through Mr. John J. May, 
of Boston. 

The Corresponding Secretary read letters of acceptance 
from M. Thiers, of Paris ; and from Mr. William S. Appleton 
and the Rev. Henry M. Dexter, of Boston. 

Mr. Davis spoke of the Montcalm letters which had been 
the subject of a communication from Mr. Parkman at the 
June meeting, in one of which appeared some remarkable 
predictions of historical events in this country, of sufficient 
importance to attract the attention of Mr. Carlyle in his 
" History of Frederic the Great." Mr. Davis said that Car 
lyle was mistaken in supposing, as he seemed to do, that 



144 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

these predictions originated with Montcalm. They undoubtedly- 
represented the common belief of all the French and many of 
the English statesmen of that day. As early as 1748, accord- 
ing to Bancroft, it was " announced by reasoning men in New 
York that the conquest of Canada, by relieving the Northern 
colonies from danger, would hasten their emancipation " ; and 
this opinion was published in Europe by a Swedish traveller 
who heard it that year in America. Similar opinions were 
expressed during the negotiations which led to the peace of 
1762, by Choiseul and Yergennes, by William Burke, by the 
anonymous writer of a letter from a gentleman in Guadaloupe, 
and by many others. 

Mr. Deane presented to the Library, in the name of the 
author, a book of 323 pages in the Spanish language, entitled 
" Historia Secreta de la Mision del ciudadano Norte- Ameri- 
gano Charles A. Washburn, cerca del Gobierno de la Republica 
del Paraguay. Por el Ciudadano Americano, Traductor titular 
(in partibus) de la misma Mision : Porter Cornelio Bliss, B.A." 

Mr. Deane stated some of the circumstances, as commu- 
nicated to him by Mr. Bliss, under which this fictitious narra- 
tive was written by the latter in Paraguay, while in a state of 
duress from the tyranny of Lopez. 



OCTOBER MEETING. 

The stated monthly meeting of the Society was held this 
day, Thursday, October 15, by invitation of our associate, Mr. 
Lawrence, and with the concurrence of the Standing Commit- 
tee, at his house in " Longwood " ; the President, the Hon. R. 
C. Winthrop, in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the previous 
meeting. 



1869.] DEATH OF REV. JOSEPH BARLOW FELT. 145 

The Librarian read the list of donors to the Library. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter of acceptance 
from the Re v. Barnas Sears, D.D., of Staunton, Va. 

Thomas B. Akins, Esq., of Halifax, N.S., and Pierre 
Margry, of Paris, were elected Corresponding Members. 

The President, referring to the death of the Rev. Joseph B. 
Felt, spoke as follows : — 

The Rev. Joseph Barlow Felt died at Salem, which was also 
his birthplace, on the 8th of September last. He had been a 
member of this Society for nearly forty years, having been 
elected in 1830, and having become the second, in order of 
election, on our living Resident roll. During this period, he 
was a member of the Standing Committee for one year, a mem- 
ber of the Committee of Publication for four successive vol- 
umes of our Collections, and Librarian for fourteen years. 
In all these relations he rendered the Society faithful and 
valuable services. But his labors as an antiquarian and histo- 
rian had a wider range. His Annals of Salem, his History of 
Ipswich, Hamilton and Essex, his Ecclesiastical History of New 
England, and his History of Massachusetts Currency, are im- 
portant contributions to the work in which we are engaged, 
and evince the greatest industry and the most careful research. 
As a Commissioner, too, appointed by Governor Everett, for 
arranging and classifying the ancient State papers, in the 
archives of the Commonwealth, in which capacity he visited 
England to procure duplicates or copies of papers, which were 
missing from the files of the State, he performed a most labo- 
rious and important work for illustrating and preserving the 
history of Massachusetts. His Memoirs of Roger Conant, 
Hugh Peters, of Francis Higginson, and of William S. Shaw, 
his Customs of New England, and his Collections for the 
American Statistical Association, furnish additional testimony 
to his patient and painstaking pursuit of historical studies. Edu- 
cated to the ministry, "he was for many years a devoted pastor 
of Congregational Parishes at Sharon, and at Hamilton, in 

19 



146 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY [Oct. 

Massachusetts, and had received the title of Doctor of Divinity. 
His later years, however, were devoted to historical and liter- 
ary labors, in recognition of which he received the degree 
of Doctor of Laws from Dartmouth College, which he had 
entered as a student in 1809. 

Born on the 22d of December, in the year 1789, Dr. Felt 
had almost completed his eightieth year, and death must have 
been a welcome release to one whose Christian faith and up- 
right life had given him so good a hope beyond the grave. 

With the authority of the Standing Committee, I propose 
the following Resolution : — 

Resolved, That the Massachusetts Historical Society desire to enter 
upon their records their deep sense of the valuable and faithful ser- 
vices in the cause of New-England History of their late respected 
Associate, Dr. Felt ; and that the President be requested to appoint 
one of our number to prepare a memoir of him for our Proceedings. 

The Resolution was unanimously adopted, and the Rev. Dr. 
Dexter was appointed to prepare the customary memoir. 

The President also spoke as follows concerning the decease 
of our Corresponding Member, Mr. William Winthrop, of 
Malta, which had been announced at the August meeting by 
Vice-President Aspinwall : — 

Absence from the State prevented me from being present at 
either the August or September meetings of the Society. I 
should otherwise have added a few words to the simple an- 
nouncement which was made by my friend, Colonel Aspinwall, 
of the death of one of our Corresponding Members, — Mr. 
William Winthrop, late Consul of the United States at Malta. 
Mr. Winthrop was a son of the late James Andrews, Esq., of 
Boston. His mother, whose family name he had adopted, 
was in lineal descent from John Winthrop, the Massachusetts 
Governor, by Margaret Tyndal, the saintly wife who followed 
him to America in 1631. He was a great-nephew of Judge 
James Winthrop, one of the eight original founders of this 
Society. 



1869.] DEATH OF MR. WILLIAM WINTHR0P. 147 

It was this latter consideration, not unmingled, as I have 
reason to believe, with a kind regard for myself, which led 
him to make the Society the object of such bounty as his not 
very ample fortune allowed him to bestow. He has presented 
to us, during the last ten or twelve years, about 350 printed 
volumes, 230 volumes in manuscript, and 150 pamphlets. 
Some of these books and pamphlets have reached us since his 
death, it having been one of the last labors of his life — for 
it was a labor, though a labor of love, in his enfeebled health — 
to make up two parcels of books as a parting contribution to 
our library. 

But his regard for our welfare and our wants did not end 
there. In his last will and testament, executed shortly before 
his death, he charged his executors, after the death of his 
wife and his brothers and sisters, to whom his estate was 
primarily given, to pay to this Society the sum of three thou- 
sand dollars, to be held in trust as a fund for binding the old 
papers and pamphlets, — a fund which will come into our pos- 
session at no very distant day, and which will be welcomed 
by us all, whenever it comes, or by those who shall succeed to 
our places, as a most important and useful addition to our 
resources. 

Mr. Winthrop was for nearly thirty-five years the Consul of 
the United States at Malta, and in that capacity rendered 
faithful service to his country, and displayed great kindness 
and hospitality to Americans visiting that interesting island 
of the Mediterranean. He had a strong taste for antiquarian 
and historical pursuits, contributed frequently to the well- 
known English periodical, entitled " Notes and Queries," and 
edited more than one, I believe, of the Camden Society's 
volumes. He died on the third day of July last, in the sixty- 
first year of his age ; and his funeral obsequies were attended 
by a great concourse of the local authorities, and of the friends 
and acquaintances, to whom his many amiable qualities had 
endeared him. 



148 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

I venture to propose that the President be requested to 
express to his afflicted widow the grateful sense we cannot 
fail to cherish of his liberal benefactions to this Society, and 
of the respect we entertain for his memory. 

Whereupon it was voted, That the President be requested to 
communicate to Mrs. Winthrop, the widow of our late Corre- 
sponding Member, an expression of our condolence and ac- 
knowledgment. 

The President read the following communication from our 
associate, Mr. Whitmore, relative to the Rev. John Hutchinson, 
of England, with notices of other members of the family : — 

Hon. Robert C. Winthrop. 

Dear Sir, — Having observed that the death of one of our Corre- 
sponding Members, the Rev. John Hutchinson, has not yet been 
formally brought to the notice of the Society, I beg leave to com- 
municate the few facts relative to his life which I have been able to 
collect. 

Mr. Hutchinson had a certain hereditary claim to membership here 
as being the grandson of the famous historian. He insured it by his 
exertions to give to the public the concluding volume of the History 
of Massachusetts. As this Society was the main agent in bringing 
about the renewal of friendly relations with the descendants of the 
most distinguished Royalist of the Revolution, a brief recapitulation of 
the steps will be given. 

In 1814, the Society proposed to print Hubbard's History (see Coll. 
2d ser. vol. ii. p. 283), and therefore applied to the descendants of Chief 
Justice Peter Oliver in England for the use of a transcript made by 
him. This application was refused by Dr. Peter Oliver in an injudicious 
letter published in the Collections, 2d ser. vol. iii. pp. 288-9. At this 
time, however, a communication was received from Elisha Hutchinson, 
Esq.. son of Governor Hutchinson, and father of our late associate. In 
1818, the Society passed a vote requesting the representatives of Gov 
ernor Hutchinson to publish the third volume of his History of Massa- 
chusetts Bay ; and in the preface to that book (London, 1828) will be 
found copies of the letters sent to England by Charles Lowell, John Da- 
vis, and Christopher Gore, Esquires, in aid of this request. At that time 
Elisha Hutchinson was chosen a Corresponding Member of the Society, 
his election being dated 27th April, 1820 ; but his advanced age prob- 



1869.] COMMUNICATION FROM MR. WHITMORE. 149 

ably prevented Mr. Hutchinson from taking any active measures 
towards publishing the volume, and he died at Blurton Parsonage, 
24th June, 1824, aged 80. 

His son, the Rev. John Hutchinson, completed the work ; and the 
third volume was published in London, by Murray, in 1828. The 
publication was greatly facilitated by the exertions of our valued 
associate, the Hon. James Savage, who "secured the private circu- 
lation of five hundred copies of the volume in America," as the 
editor acknowledged in his preface. (See a paper on " Hutchinson's 
Historical Publications," in "Proceedings" for 1857, pp. 144-6.) 

It would be superfluous to remark at length upon the value of this 
continuation of Hutchinson's History. The enterprise of its editor 
was one which entitled him to all the honors which this Society could 
bestow. This work, however, was the only event in the life of our 
late member which brought him in contact with the American public. 
How useful and laborious he was in his chosen profession will be best 
shown by the following memoir published in the " Gentleman's Maga- 
zine " soon after his decease : — 

" 1865, April 27th. Died at Blurton Parsonage, Staffordshire, 
aged 71, the Rev. John Hutchinson, M.A., Incumbent of Blurton and 
Canon of Lichfield. He was ordained and licensed to the Curacy of 
Trentham in 1817 ; and from that date till his decease, a period of 
forty-eight years, the parish of Trentham continued to be the scene 
of his various and unremitting labors in behalf of the people under his 
pastoral charge. When he entered upon the discharge of his duties as 
Curate of Trentham, the only churches of the parish were the mother- 
church of Trentham and the chapel of ease at Blurton. Hanford 
Church was built in 1827 ; and this afforded, it is believed, the first 
and only instance of the consecration of a church in North Staffordshire 
for thirty-five years. The Church of the Holy Evangelists provided 
for the inhabitants of the district of Normacot (a district assigned to 
Blurton), and built at the sole cost of the late Duke of Sutherland, 
was consecrated in 1847 ; and he was subsequently instrumental in pro- 
curing the erection of seven others. He labored hard in the work of 
church education ; and, as a Canon, he entered warmly into the restora- 
tion of Lichfield Cathedral, the revision of its statutes, and the pro- 
motion of the Diocesan Choral Union. He edited the third volume 
of Governor Hutchinson's ' History of the Province of Massachusetts 
Bay,' published by Murray in 1828." 

It may be proper to add here a few notes relating to the descend- 
ants of Gov. Hutchinson, by his wife Margaret Sanford. He had two 



150 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

sons and one daughter, who married and left issue.* Of these, the 
second son, Elisha Hutchinson, was a graduate of Harvard in 1762 ; 
afterwards a merchant, and one of the obnoxious consignees of the 
cargoes of tea sent to Boston. • He was a refugee, and passed the 
remainder of his life in England. As already mentioned, he was a 
Corresponding Member of this Society. He married Mary, daughter 
of Col. George Watson, of Plymouth, Mass.,t by whom he had five 
children. The only son who continued the line was the Rev. John 
Hutchinson, Canon of Lichfield, who married, in 1836, Martha Oliver 
Hutchinson, daughter of his first cousin, Rev. William Hutchinson. 
The issue of this marriage were two daughters and one son: the 
latter, John Rogers Hutchinson, was born in 1848. 

Thomas Hutchinson, Jr., eldest son of the Governor, had three sons, 
— Thomas, Andrew, and (Rev.) William. Of these, Thomas (third) 
had Thomas, who d. s. p., and Frederick Oliver, who has a large 
family. Andrew was the father of Young Bingham Hutchinson and 
Peter Orlando Hutchinson, the latter of whom has recently written to 
" Notes and Queries " in relation to the family papers in his possession.^ 
The Rev. William Hutchinson had sons, William P. H. and Henry S., 
and several grandsons. The family bids fair to continue for future 
generations. 

Mr. Denny, the Cabinet-keeper, announced as a gift to the 
Cabinet, a framed photograph, finely finished in India ink, of 
the members of the Society, taken in June last as they were 
assembled at the house of the President in Brookline, — pre- 
sented by the President. 

Mr. Deane presented in the name of Miss M. Wheaton, of 
Cambridge, daughter of the late Henry Wheaton, a small 
cabinet picture, said to be a portrait of Benjamin Franklin. 
It was presented to Mr. Wheaton as such, about the year 
1845, in Bamberg, Bavaria, by the United-States Consul. 

* William Sanford Hutchinson, third and youngest son of Governor Hutchinson, 
was born at Milton, July 30, 1752 ; was graduated at Harvard College in 1770 ; embarked 
for England with his father June 1, 1774, accompanied by Margaret, an unmarried daugh- 
ter of Governor H. William died in 1780, only a few months before the death of his 
father, — probably unmarried. — Eds. 

f Mrs. Mary Hutchinson was the sister of Mrs. Martin Brimmer, and of the wife of 
Sir Grenville Temple. 

X Mr. Peter 0. Hutchinson published, in 1857, a pamphlet relating to his family, 
from which I have taken the above items. 



1569.] REMARKS OF MR. LAWRENCE. 151 

The grateful acknowledgments of the Society were ordered 
for the gift. 

Mr. Lawrence made the following remarks : — 

There are some reminiscences connected with this place 
which will have an interest to this Society. 

On this very spot, a portion of the Sewall farm, were en- 
camped Colonel Prescott's regiment, and a regiment from 
Rhode Island, from the time of the battle of Bunker Hill 
until the evacuation of Boston, nine months afterward. They 
built and garrisoned the large fortification overlooking Charles 
River, a few rods to the north of this, which was partially 
destroyed by the building of the Worcester Railroad, but 
which remained in part for many years after this settlement 
was formed in 1850. 

The headquarters of Colonel Prescott were at the house of 
Mr. Wolcott, a son-in-law of Mr. Henry Sewall, now occupied 
by Mr. Charles Stearns, half a mile west of this, on Beacon 
Street, distinguished by its large elms. All around here have 
been found the traces of this occupation, especially in the 
grove on the north side of the house. 

The Sewall farm belonged, in 1T39, to Samuel Sewall, who 
was the son of Chief- Justice Samuel Sewall. Henry, who 
was the owner in 1775, adhered to the Royal cause and left 
Boston. His estate was confiscated and lost to his family, 
except a portion which was recovered by his daughter after 
the war. In the garden are the signs of ancient cultivation ; 
and especially noticeable are two pear-trees of a remarkable 
size. 

This neighboring fortification was one of the line of redoubts 
which surrounded Boston during the siege. The next one 
on the north-east is on the opposite side of the river, in Cam- 
bridge, and is still perfect. The next, on the other side, could 
be seen until a few years since, east of Muddy Creek, in what 
is now called Appleton Place, in Roxbi^ry. 



L52 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

After the war, Colonel Prescott came with his son, William 
(afterward Judge), and visited Mr. Wolcott. At that time 
the father pointed out the objects which most interested him in 
this vicinity and at Bunker Hill, to his son. Many years 
after, the Judge pointed them out to Mr. Ebenezer Francis, the 
owner of this estate (himself the son of an officer who was 
killed at Lake George) ; and he gave the same information to 
me in 1849. It was the more interesting to me because my 
grandfather, living in Groton, was a devoted neighbor of 
Colonel Prescott, and was serving here as his adjutant in 
1775. 

The President presented a printed copy of a letter of the 
Jesuit missionary, Father Gabriel Druillettes, addressed to 
John Winthrop, Governor of Connecticut, in January, 1651, 
while Druillettes was on a visit to Boston and its neighbor- 
hood. For an account of his visit, see " Proceedings " for 
June, 1855, p. 33, and " Collections of the New York Histor- 
ical Society," Second Series, Vol. III., part 1, p. 314. The let- 
ter, which was written in Latin, was discovered among the family 
papers of the President, and is printed by Joel Munsell, of 
Albany, with an introduction in French, by John G. Shea, 
LL.D., of New York. The President also presented the origi- 
nal manuscript to the Society. The following English trans- 
lation of the letter was read by him to the meeting. 

To the Illustrious Sir John Winthrop, Esquire, 

At Pequott River. 

Excellent Sir, by me much to be respected, 

Since the deep snow of winter now at hand will prevent my having 
the privilege of waiting upon you, and setting forth at greater length 
how much is expected from your singular goodness of heart by the 
very honorable Governor of New France, in Canada, near Quebec, 
who has appointed me his ambassador to all the magistrates in your 
New England : I come into your presence by these letters, beg- 
ging and beseeching you, by that tutelar deity of greatest good-will 
towards all, especially towards our New France, which Master Win- 






1869.] LETTER OP FATHER DRUILLETTES. 153 

throp, of happiest and kindliest memory among all men, left surviving 
in you as his only heir, not to refuse your patronage to the cause 
which has brought me to these shores. For, indeed, it is a cause 
which your father, of sweetest memory, undertook, in the year 1647, 
by letters which he gave in . the name of your Commonwealth to our 
Lord the Governor of New France at Quebec ; and which he would 
long since have accomplished, as I learn from many men of weight, 
had not death prevented. The great and good God ordered thus, I 
think, that we might be indebted to you for the happy issue of that 
cause whose inception and beginning we owed to your father, whose 
memory we shall always greatly cherish. I had explained more at 
large this cause before the Governors in Boston and Plymouth, and 
was expecting to undertake, with prayers of them all, a journey to the 
country where you are now living ; and the troublous snows did not 
so much stop me as the authority of many men of station to whom I 
owe respect, who dissuaded me and recalled me from Plymouth to 
Boston. Your kindness to foreigners, however uncivilized they might 
be, gave me so much hope that my rudeness of speech (for I have 
spent nine years among the savages, teaching in the forests, far from 
intercourse with Europeans) would find no cause for fear of you. 
Nay, I thought there was nothing I might not hope from your kind- 
ness known among all men, and your wonderful operation of Piety and 
Religion towards the Indian catechumens of Christian faith and pro- 
fession ; verily they are beyond all other mortals that hundredth sheep, 
wandering and lost in the desert, which alone, leaving the ninety and 
nine, the Lord Jesus Christ seeks with great loving anxiety, that, 
having found it, He may place it, rejoicing, on His shoulders (Luke xv.). 
The man who burns with zeal for that same Lord Jesus Christ must, 
in the tenderest embrace of his heart, enfold that hundredth sheep on 
which alone the great Teacher, the Lord Jesus, seems to have spent 
all His love. And your tender love to your — because Christ's — 
beloved, the savage catechumens, makes me easily believe that this 
my testimony by letters, however slight it may be, of a grateful mind 
and of my trust in you, will not be unpleasing in your eyes : where- 
fore, suffer me to implore by letter your Patronage, on which, I think, 
almost all my hope after God must be rested, in the cause of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, in the defence of the Christians against the Mo- 
hawks ; who not only have been, for a long time, attacking the Chris- 
tians in Canada, near Quebec, and most cruelly torturing them by 
slow fire, in hatred of the Christian Faith, but now intend (with great 

20 



154 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

slaughter) to destroy my Kennebeck catechumens, living on the banks 
of that river, because they have been (for many years) the allies of 
the Canadian Christians. For this reason, our honorable Governor at 
Quebec commands me to offer you, in his name, the most ample com- 
merce and a large contribution to the expenses of the war, if he 
obtains from New England some auxiliary force for the defence of the 
Canadian Christians against the Mohawks, which he undertook a long 
time since, and which, by a united effort, he desires, from his love for 
the Indian Christians, to push forward in favor of the catechumens at 
Kennebec, his allies, who are inhabitants of New England, and the 
peculiar clients of the Plymouth colony. 

Wherefore he hopes, that just as your Connecticut colony allayed 
the fury of the Narragansetts in favor of your clients on the Pequot 
river, the Mohigens, — so with equal justice the Plymouth colony will, 
with the consent of the court they call the commissioners, undertake 
war against the Mohawks, the cruel enemy of their clients at Ken- 
nebec and their allies in Canada, the Christians at Quebec. 

A friend, to whom I have for the purpose given a copy to be sent 
to you, will add to my letter an abstract, translated from my very bar- 
barous Latin into English, of my double embassy, in the name of our 
Lord Governor of New France at Quebec, and, separately in the 
name of the Indians, Christian catechumens at Kennebeck. There- 
fore I add no more, but beg you by your kindness to the savages and 
your famed love to the poor of Jesus Christ, to explain at length the 
whole affair to your general court, which, I hear, is usually held in 
Hartford, in the month of June, and to push it forward among your 
own magistrates ; and to use your endeavors to commend a favor- 
able decision to those two delegates of your colony whom you 
call commissioners, when they go to the place where the commis- 
sioners' court is held. Meanwhile, wherever on this earth the Lord 
Jesus, who has appointed me to spend my life and meet my death in 
teaching these savages, shall place me, I will live and die for your 
whole family ; especially, excellent Sir, I am bound closely to you in 
the Lord Jesus, for Whom, because I do it for His brethren the In- 
dian Christians, I am acting as ambassador. 

Gabriel Druillettes, S. J., 

Priest and Teacher in Kennebec. 



1869.] NOVEMBER MEETING. 155 



NOVEMBER MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting of the Society was held this day, 
Thursday, November 11, at 11 o'clock, a.m. ; the President 
in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the last 
meeting. 

The Librarian read the list of donors to the Library. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter (dated May 15, 
1869) from James W. Sever and Charles Faulkner, a com- 
mittee of the New South Church, stating that at a meeting 
of the proprietors of said Church the following votes were 
unanimously passed : — 

" Voted, That the Records of the New South Church and Society 
be deposited with the Massachusetts Historical Society for safe-keep- 
ing, subject to the order of the Proprietors. 

" Voted, That the articles deposited under the corner-stone of the 
New South Meeting-house, in Summer Street, be presented to the 
Massachusetts Historical Society as a memorial of the New South 
Church, on the condition that said articles be kept together in the 
Cabinet of the Society, with a proper label indicating their character." 

The Committee proceed to say, that, " in compliance with the above 
votes, the committee specially authorized for this purpose herewith 
send to the Massachusetts Historical Society, for deposit and safe- 
keeping, four volumes of the Records of the Proprietors of the New 
South Meeting-house, in Boston, from its organization July 14th, 
1715, to June, 1850 ; also, five books connected with the Treasurer's 
department, containing the valuation of pews, assessment of taxes, &c. 
They also have the pleasure to present to the Historical Society the 
silver-plate placed under the corner-stone of the church when rebuilt, 
at the junction of Summer and Bedford Streets, in 1814; and regret 
to add, that the quarter-eagle in gold, and the American silver and 
copper coins, from a dollar down to half a cent, deposited by the Rev. 
Mr. Thacher, together with the silver-plate, as appears by the Rec- 
ords of the Society, were not delivered to the Committee by the persons 
in charge of the demolition of the church." 



156 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Nov. 

Whereupon it was — 

Voted, That the Corresponding Secretary be requested to 
communicate to James W. Sever, Esq., Chairman of the Com- 
mittee of the New South Church, the thanks of the Society 
for the deposit of four volumes of the Records of the Proprie- 
tors of the New South Meeting-house, and five books con- 
nected with the Treasurer's department ; and also for the 
donation of various articles deposited under the corner-stone 
of the New South Meeting-house, — all which books and arti- 
cles the Society gratefully accepts on the condition proposed 
by the Proprietors.* 

The President then spoke as follows : — 

The ocean cable has informed us, gentlemen, within a few 
days past, of the death of our great American philanthropist, 
George Peabody ; and we have just learned, through the same 
magic medium, that his funeral is to be solemnized to-morrow, 
in Westminster Abbey, by order of the Queen. 

Meantime, as you all know, the public journals of our city, 
and of the whole country, have already recalled to remem- 
brance — if, indeed, it could ever have been forgotten — the 
whole story of his extraordinary life, from its humble origin 
at Danvers, in our own Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on 
the 18th of February, 1795, to its lamented close, in London, 
on the evening of Thursday last, the 4th of November. 

Nothing could well be added at this moment to these spon- 
taneous attestations to his marvellous career and his matchless 
munificence. Nothing, certainly, needs to be added for his 
own fame. His all-sufficient and only sufficient commemo- 
ration will be found in the noble institutions which he has 
established or endowed in both hemispheres, and in the bless- 
ings which will be breathed upon his name, generation after 

* See " Proceedings " for May, 1868, p. 207, where is a record of the presentation of 
the original records and papers of the New South Church, of which the above com- 
munication is a modification. They are now " deposited" — Eds. 



1869.] DEATH OF MR. GEORGE PEABODY. 157 

generation to the end of time, from the grateful hearts of 
those to whose welfare his exhaustless bounty will have minis- 
tered. 

I cannot trust myself to say more of him on this occasion, 
when we are waiting to receive his precious remains, and to 
accompany them to the spot selected by himself for their last 
repose, amid the scenes of his birth and childhood, and near 
to the graves of his father and mother. I may perhaps find 
an opportunity, here or elsewhere, at some future day — when 
I am less oppressed by the loss of one who had so honored 
me of late by his closest confidence and friendship, and for 
whom I must ever cherish so warm an affection — to offer a 
more deliberate tribute to his memory. But I must be par- 
doned for confining myself now to the simplest official an- 
nouncement of the event to this Society, of which he was both 
an honorary member and a munificent benefactor, that it may 
be entered in due form upon our records, and that we may not 
seem insensible to the close of a career — to the going down 
of a sun — which has shed so pure, so brilliant, and so enduring 
a radiance on the history, not only of our own Commonwealth 
and country, but of the age in which we live. 

Mr. Winthrop then submitted the following Resolution from 
the Standing Committee : — 

Resolved, That by the death of George Peabody this Society has 
lost one of its most honored members and benefactors ; — a man who, 
nobly preferring to dispense with his living hand the abundant fruits 
of patient and sagacious industry, has laid up treasure in the hearts of 
two great nations, and dying has bequeathed an inspiring example to 
both ; — who has sought to heal the wounds of war and spread the 
arts of peace ; to bring knowledge to the people and comfort to the 
poor ; — who has planted establishments of science and resorts of 
study ; — and whose republican simplicity was unshaken by the 
applauses of the multitude and the attentions of the great. 

The Resolution was seconded by the Hon. Charles Francis 
Adams, who made some interesting statements respecting 



158 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. TNov. 

Mr. Peabody's charities in London. Ex-Governor Clifford and 
Colonel Aspinwall also addressed the meeting, and the Reso- 
lution was unanimously adopted. 

The President was requested to forward a copy of the Reso- 
lution to the family of Mr. Peabody. 

The President read a letter from Mr. Secretary Fish, stating 
that he had sent to the Society a number of maps, — being 
photo-lithographic copies of the detailed maps of the North- 
West Boundary, from Point Roberts to the Rocky Mountains, 
between the United States and the British Possessions, under 
the treaty of June 15, 1846, — Nos. 1-7. 

The thanks of the Society were ordered for the gift. 

Mr. Theodore Lyman, of Brookline, was elected a Resident 
Member. 

The President read an account of the stone image, called 
the " Cardiff giant," said to have been recently discovered 
at Cardiff, near Syracuse, N.Y., from the "Worcester Daily 
Spy," written by our associate, the Hon. Stephen Salisbury, 
of Worcester, which elicited remarks from Drs. Bigelow and 
Green. 

Mr. Appleton exhibited a number of engravings of pictures 
of Hugh Peters, and a photograph of a painting of him, ex- 
hibited last year at the South Kensington Museum, differing 
from the common portraits of Peters. 

A recently engraved copy of an early map of Boston by 
Burgess, of date 1728, was presented by Mayor Shurtleff. 

A new work, by our associate, Mr. Parkman, entitled " The 
Discovery of the Great West," was presented by him. 



1869.] DECEMBER MEETING. 159 



DECEMBER MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting was held this day, Thursday, 9th 
December, at 11 o'clock, a.m. ; the President, Mr. Winthrop, 
in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the previous 
meeting. 

The Librarian read a list of the donors to the Library, which 
included Mr. Savage, the senior member of the Society, in 
whose name a number of valuable manuscripts and pamphlets 
were presented by his daughter, Mrs. Rogers. 

The Corresponding Secretary said he had received a letter 
of acceptance from Mr. Theodore Lyman, who was present at 
this meeting. 

Mr. Edmund Quincy, of Dedham, was elected a Resident 
Member. 

A copy of a lithographic portrait of the late Mr. George 
Peabody was presented by the publisher, Mr. A. Trochsler, of 
Boston. 

The President read the following memorandum from Mr. 
Henry Gillman, of Detroit, presenting a number of interesting 
relics to the Society : — 

The following named relics appearing more in keeping with the 
objects of the Historical Society, I have reserved them from among 
those deposited at the Peabody Museum. 

No. 9. A portion of the flag-staff of Old Fort Mackinac (Michili- 
mackinac), on the south shore of the Straits of Mackinac. When the 
writer in 1851 visited the site, so interesting from its historical associa- 
tions, nothing remained on the bleak sandy point to denote the original 
works, save a few shapeless mounds, and the remnants of the pickets 
which once formed the sally-port, near which was the stump of the 
flag-staff, projecting about two feet above ground. These last were fast 
being undermined by the waters of the Straits which washed within a 



160 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

few feet of them, and in stormy weather swept clear over them, so 
that, in all probability, they have long since disappeared. The great 
massacre occurred on June 4, 1763. The place has not been occupied, 
since about ten years after that. See Schoolcraft's " N. A. Indians," 
with Mr. Henry's singular narrative, and other works. 

No. 10. Stemless brass button with initials R. A., and figure 2 en- 
closed by wreath ; found a few years ago on a lot near the site of the 
old Fort at Detroit — now one of the most thickly settled parts of the 
city. The initials no doubt denote Royal Artillery, and this button 
probably dates back to the occupation of the British. 

No. 28. Copy of map of " The Town and Fortifications of Detroit, 
as they stood before the year 1796. T. Smith, 30 May, 1816 (Copy)." 
This shows the town as it was in the time of the British occupation, 
all standing within pickets, which was rendered necessary by the 
Indians. Among other interesting details, it shows the position of the 
river Savoyard, — a stream which then ran through the town, and was 
large enough for the citizens and their wives to amuse themselves on 
in their canoes of a summer evening ; but which has long since dis- 
appeared through the march of improvement. 

Henry Gillman. 

December 6, 1869. 

A new book, entitled the " Primeval World of Hebrew 
Tradition," was presented by the author, our associate, Dr. 
Hedge. 

A memoir of the late Col. T. B. Lawrence was presented 
by Mr. Abbott Lawrence, through the Librarian. 

Mr. Adams exhibited, and afterwards presented to the So- 
ciety, a manuscript, labelled " Tory Account of Whig Characters 
before the War," dated London, 18th April, 1775. He read 
some portions of the paper, which he thought, on the whole, 
hardly came up to the dignity of an historical document. 

The President presented a quantity of paper money of the 
Colonial period. 

The thanks of the Society were ordered for the various gifts 
presented at this meeting. 

The President made some remarks, and read a number of 
communications relative to the recent alleged discovery of a 



1869.] THE " CARDIFF GIANT " CONTROVERSY. 161 

petrifaction or ancient statue, called the " Cardiff giant," 
among which was the following from the Rochester " Daily 
Union " : — 

THE CARDIFF GIANT A HUMBUG. 

Prof. O. C. Marsh, who occupies the chair of Palaeontology in 
Yale College, has lately examined the " Cardiff Giant," and the 
'' Buffalo Courier " is permitted to publish a letter written from this city 
by him to a friend containing his views thereon. From such a source 
opinions are entitled to great weight on such a subject, and it must be 
admitted that the testimony of Prof. Marsh finally settles the claim of 
the monstrosity to be of antique origin. The following is the letter : — 

Rochester, Nov. 24, 1869. 

Dear , — I saw the " Cardiff Giant" last evening, and in accordance 

with your request I will tell you what I think of it, although I can now only 
give you my conclusions. The reasons for them would make a longer letter 
than I have at present time to write. 

By especial permission of the proprietors, I was allowed to make a more 
careful examination of the statue than is permitted to most visitors, and a 
very few minutes sufficed to satisfy me that my first suspicions in regard to 
it were correct; viz., that it is of very recent origin, and a most decided 
humbug. 

The figure is cut from a block of gypsum, similar to that found in Onon- 
daga county, and at other localities of the Salina formation in the State 
further west. 

The peculiar position of the body and limbs, which has occasioned so 
much remark, was apparently determined in a great measure, by the form of 
the block of stone, which was water-worn on at least three of its sides before 
the sculptor began his work. These rough water-worn surfaces were not 
entirely removed in cutting. Portions of them still remain on the sides of 
the head, and on the limbs and feet, and have erroneously been regarded as 
indicating for the work a high antiquity. 

The tool-marks are still very distinct on different parts of the statue, 
especially where they have not been obliterated by the imperfect polishing 
which evidently completed the work. On the more prominent portions of 
the figure these marks appear as small pointed depressions, but in the less 
exposed places, where the polishing was more carelessly done, or omitted, 
they are nearly as distinct and fresh as when first cut. In several places they 
are very near or immediately surrounded by the water-worn surfaces (t. e., 
in the opening of the right ear) , and therefore are evidently of subsequent 
formation. 

Now, as gypsum is soluble in about four hundred parts of water, a very 
short exposure of the statue in the locality at Cardiff would suffice to oblit- 



162 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

erate all traces of tool-marks, and also to roughen the polished surfaces, but 
these are both quite perfect, and hence the giant must have been very 
recently buried where discovered. 

Altogether, the work is well calculated to impose upon the general public ; 
but I am surprised that any scientific observers should not have at once 
detected the unmistakable evidence against its antiquity. 

The President concurred substantially in these views of 
Prof. Marsh ; but Mr. Salisbury, on the other hand, who had 
also seen the statue, dissented from some of the positions 
taken in this communication. 

The President read the following letter from Mr. Henry- 
Pickering, son of the late Octavius Pickering, placed in his 
hands by our associate, the Hon. Charles W. Upham: — 

Boston, April 9th, 1869. 
Rev. Charles W. Upham, Member of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Dear Sir, — My father, as you already know, intended giving to 
the Massachusetts Historical Society the bound volumes of Col. 
Timothy Pickering's manuscript correspondence, and such of his un- 
bound papers as should be thought proper to accompany them, — with 
the exception of the first four volumes containing private and family 
letters, — and a will was drawn in which was embodied the above be- 
quest to the Society. My father did not live to execute this will, and 
the property in the manuscripts and papers passed to me as his sole 
heir. 

It is my desire to carry out my father's intention by presenting to 
the Society the books and papers now in your hands : it being under- 
stood that they are to remain with you, or in the hands of such person 
as shall carry on or complete the biography of Col. Pickering, as long 
as may be necessary for that purpose. 

Will you oblige me by laying this communication before the Society, 

or asking their acceptance of the bound manuscripts and of such of 

the unbound papers as you consider worthy of preservation for the 

objects of the Society, in any way you think proper ; and when you 

have finished your examination of them, and have no further use for 

them, will you give them into the hands of the Society as their own 

preperty ? 

I am, Sir, yours very respectfully, 

Henry Pickering. 
Rev. Chas. W. Upham. 



1869.] DECEMBER MEETING. 163 

Voted, That the Society gratefully accept the papers presented 
by Mr. Henry Pickering, and that they will take charge of them 
when deposited in the Library. 

The President announced a new number of the " Proceed- 
ings," embracing the transactions for June, July, and August, 
1869. 

The President exhibited a manuscript, comprising notes of a 
course of Lectures by Prof. John Winthrop of Harvard College, 
taken by a student about the year 1740 ; and presented it to 
our associate, Mr. Sibley, for Harvard College Library. 

The President read a letter from our associate, Dr. Ellis, 
making some suggestions relative to another course of lectures 
to be delivered by members of the Society at some future 
time. 

The Librarian read a letter from Mr. N. Goodwin, of Fram- 
ingham, explaining a passage in the journal of Mr. Samuel 
Davis, published in a late number of the " Proceedings ". 
In passing through Wethersfield, Conn., Mr. Davis says, he 
saw Beadle's House and Shop, both of which were closed, as 
no one would occupy them.* " Perhaps few if any persons 
know," writes Mr. Goodwin, " the cause of this house and shop 
being closed and avoided. Dr. Lazarus Le Baron, of Plymouth, 
grandson of Dr. Francis Le Baron, returned from Barbados 
after a residence of fifteen years there ; and, in 1756, October 
14th, married for his second wife the widow of Ansell Lothrop, 
— Mary (Thompson) Lothrop. At the time of her second 
marriage, Mrs. Lothrop had one child, a daughter, Lydia 
Lothrop. Soon afterwards the daughter was married to William 
Beadle of Wethersfield, Conn., a merchant or trader of con- 
siderable property. By her he had four children, all of whom 
with his wife he murdered, then cut his own throat. Hence 
arose the reluctance to occupy his house and shop." 
Mr. Appleton exhibited a rare picture of Bunker Hill, pro- 

* Ante, p. 14. 



164 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

cured by him in New York. It was probably by an American 
artist, and evidently taken soon after the battle of Bunker Hill. 
It is inscribed as follows : " An Exact Yiew of The Late 
Battle at Charlestown, June 17th, 1775," &c. By B. Romans. 
It is from a copperplate, 16 1-2 by 11 inches, and colored by 
hand. 

The President announced that the Standing Committee had 
accepted the invitation of our associate, Mr. Mason, for the 
Society to meet at his house on Tuesday evening, the 21st 
inst. 



SPECIAL MEETING. 

A social meeting of the Society was held at the house of Mr. 
R. M. Mason, No. 1 Walnut Street, corner of Beacon Street, 
on the evening of Tuesday, the 21st of December, at seven and 
a half o'clock ; the President in the chair. 

In his opening remarks, the President indulged in some 
reminiscences relating to the house in which the Society were 
assembled, it having once been the residence of his father, the 
Hon- Thomas L. Winthrop, a former President of the Society. 

The President read the following letter from our associate, 
Mr. W. S. Appleton, noticing the death of a Corresponding 
Member, Mr. John Bruce, F. S. A., of London. 

Boston, Dec. 10, 1869. 

Dear Mr. Winthrop, — Had I supposed that the death of our 
Corresponding Member, John Bruce, F. S. A., would not have been 
noticed at the meeting yesterday, I would have sent you an extract 
from some English paper announcing it. He died on the 28th of 
October, aged 67, and the following appeared in the " Illustrated Lon- 
don News " for Nov. 13 ; the " Athenaeum " and " Notes and Queries " 
have also printed memoirs : — 

" John Bruce, Esq., F. S. A., an eminent antiquary, has just died, 
aged sixty-seven. He was of a Scottish family, and passed some time 






1869.] LETTERS READ BY THE PRESIDENT. 165 

at the Grammar School of Aberdeen. He was originally brought up 
to the law, but relinquished that profession about the year 1840. He 
then devoted himself entirely to literature, taking especial interest in 
mediaeval lore, and editing several works of historical importance, 
amongst others, " Hayward's Annals of Elizabeth," " The Leycester 
Correspondence," " Verney's Notes on the Long Parliament," " Letters 
of Elizabeth and James VI.," and other productions of a similar 
character. One of his most recent and important works was a " Cal- 
endar of the State Papers," of the reign of Charles I. Mr. Bruce 
contributed also to the " Edinburgh Review " and to the " Gentleman's 
Magazine," of which latter periodical he was for some time editor, and 
he took a leading part in the management of the Society of Antiqua- 
ries, of which he was Treasurer and Vice-President. At the death of 
Lord Aberdeen, he became, in succession to that nobleman, one of the 
trustees of Sir John Soane's museum in Lincoln's-Inn-Fields." * 

I will only add that he was, most deservedly, elected a Correspond- 
ing Member of the Massachusetts Historical Society in June, 1867. 

Yours very truly, Wm. S. Appleton. 

The President read a letter from Dr. H. I. Bowditch, accom- 
panying the letters and memorials relative to the late Dr. 
Morton, and referred to in a former communication of Dr. 
Bowditch to the Society. (See proceedings of the meeting for 
January following.) 

He also read a letter placed in his hands by the Recording 
Secretary, from Mr. A James, of Halifax, N.S., dated Decem- 
ber 3, 1869, and addressed to Mr. Edward Russell, of Boston, 
in which the writer refers to a document in his possession that 
he thinks should find a place in one of the public libraries of 
the United States. The document is the " original notes, in 
the handwriting of Mr. Mason, of the survey of Mason and 
Dixon's Line, bound up with the original correspondence between 
the Proprietors of Pennsylvania and Maryland, (Lord Balti- 
more and Thomas Penn) ; the two Commissioners ; the Rev. 

* An interesting letter of Mr. Bruce to the Vice-President of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, prefixed to a " Defence of Sir Ferdinando Gorges against a Charge of having be- 
trayed the Earl of Essex, written by Himself," is published in the Appendix to Folsom's 
Catalogue of Original Documents relating to Maine; New York, 1858. — Eds. 



166 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

Mr. Maskelyn, the celebrated astronomer ; and the public men 
of the two provinces interested. " Mr. James expressed the 
desire that the manuscript should come to the United States 
rather than go to the British Museum, to which he had recently 
intended to offer it. 

No action was taken in reference to the communication of 
Mr. James. Mr. Deane stated that he had written to Mr. 
Russell (who had kindly forwarded to him Mr. James's letter), 
and expressed the hope that the manuscript might be sent to 
Boston for the inspection of the members ; the document re- 
ferred to being the same which was seen by Mr. Porter C. 
Bliss, while on a visit to Nova Scotia, in 1860, and noticed 
in the proceedings of this Society for August, 1865, p. 441. 

The President also read a letter from our associate, Dr. Ellis, 
relating to another course of lectures by members of the So- 
ciety. A number of subjects to be treated, and a list of persons 
to be invited to lecture, were read to the meeting. 

Dr. Ellis's letter was referred to a committee consisting of 
Dr. Ellis, the Recording and Corresponding Secretaries. 

Mr. Deane read a paper on " The Forms used in issuing 
letters-patent by the Crown of England " ; with some re- 
marks relating to the early history of the Massachusetts Char- 
ter of 4th Charles I. 

The Forms in Issuing Letters Patent by the Crown of England. 

Of the original thirteen States of this Union, the larger part, 
as we know, were settled under charters (Provincial, Pro- 
prietary, or Municipal) from the Crown of England ; and it 
should not be an uninteresting inquiry, to the student of our 
history, as to the official forms which were used in issuing 
these important documents. By these forms we see, that, 
although the grants were made by the Sovereign, in virtue of his 
prerogative, yet this exercise of his prerogative is surrounded 
by important formalities ; in order that " no detriment or 
injury may result to the property or persons of his Majesty's 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 167 

subjects, or to the rights and possessions of his Majesty's 
crown ; according to the principle which may be traced to the 
earliest periods of the English Constitution, that the preroga- 
tives of the Sovereign are not to be exercised arbitrarily, or 
without discretion, but legally, and for the general benefit of 
the Commonwealth." * 

During the first and second years of Queen Victoria's reign, 
a law was passed, entitled " An act for keeping the Public 
Records " ; pursuant to which arrangements were made by the 
Master of the Rolls, for ascertaining the condition of the 
records, scattered in various depositories in London, and 
finally for bringing them together into one large department, 
and arranging them for use. In this way large masses of 
most valuable papers were collected from the Tower, the Rolls 
Chapel, the Chapter House, Carlton Ride, the Rolls House, the 
Remembrance House, Somerset House, Whitehall-yard, West- 
minster Hall, and other places. The most of these have now 
been consolidated with the Public Record Office in Fetter Lane. 

Full reports were made to her Majesty, from time to time, 
of the progress of the work, by the Deputy Keeper of the 
Public Records, Sir Francis Palgrave, in which a most minute 
account is given of the nature of the papers, and of their con- 
dition. In his Second Report issued in 1841,f he also gives a 
full description of the " Offices and Documents connected with 
the Working of the Great Seal " ; showing " to your Majesty," 
to quote his own words, " that a large and very important portion 
of the Records of the Common Law side of the Court of Chan- 
cery is composed of the Enrolments of the documents which 
pass your Majesty's Great Seal, or of the Dockets supplying 
the place of Enrolments." " It therefore appeared expedient 
to his Lordship, the Master of the Rolls, that the origin and 



* Sir Francis Palgrave, in his Report cited below. 

t Second Report of the Deputy Keeper of the Public Records. (May 15, 1841.) 
Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. London : Printed 
by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street, for Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 1841. 



168 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

progress of all the several instruments which authorize the 
affixing the Great Seal, as well as of all the documents under 
the Great Seal, thus ultimately becoming Records of Chancery, 
should be traced through their different constitutional stages 
up to their source, the expressed or implied commands of the 
Sovereign. And by his Lordship's direction I have attended 
at the several offices and departments partially or wholly con- 
nected with the working of the Great Seal hereinafter no- 
ticed, and obtained the information now presented to your 
Majesty. . . . 

" The whole process of passing Letters-Patent under the 
Great Seal is, however, very complicated, and differing accord- 
ing to the nature of the documents. The subject will there- 
fore be rendered more intelligible, by first submitting to your 
Majesty a general view of the course or cycle of these docu- 
ments ; which course, in the numerical majority of cases, that 
is to say, in the cases for Patents for Inventions, Charters for 
Incorporations, and other instruments of the like nature, 
issued as of grace and favor, upon the application of your 
Majesty's subjects, is the following : — 

1. Petition addressed to the Crown, upon which is grounded the 

2. Reference to the Law Officer or Officers by the \ ^ „ aj _ . 

J (Secretary of State. 

j of the Attorney and Solicitor General, or one of them, 
^ ( and of the Privy Council, if required, as explained below. 

4. Warrant under your Majesty's Sign Manual, which is the authority for 

the 

5. Bill (called the Queen's Bill) [or King's Bill, according as the Sover- 

eign is a man or a woman] under your Majesty's Sign Manual ; which 
is the authority for the 

6. Bill of Privy Signet ; which is the authority for the 

7. Writ of Privy Seal ; which, being the recipi of the Lord Chancellor, 

is the authority for the 

8. Patent under the Grand Seal." * 

In some cases, instanced by the writer in his elaborate 
Report, some of these stages are dispensed with. The process 

* Palgrave's Report, p. 28. 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 169 

relating to Charters of Incorporation principally interests us 
here, and I have drawn up from his Report as briefly as I could 
(and in the language of the Report, where it is practicable) 
a description of it. It is possible that this inquiry may throw 
some light upon the Massachusetts charter, and upon some 
of the questions which have been raised as to the intention of 
the Crown in granting it. v 

Charters of Municipal Incorporation, or affecting commer- 
cial, colonial, or general interests, are obtained by petition 
addressed to his Majesty in Council. The draft of the 
proposed charter is annexed to the petition, or is transmitted 
with it. The petition is then submitted to the King (or 
Queen) in Council, who usually refers the same to the perma- 
nent committee of the Lords of the Council, denominated the 
Board of Trade and Plantations. There the expediency of 
the application is discussed, and persons are heard who may 
be opposed to the same. If the Board of Trade favor the appli- 
cation, an order is made referring the draft officially to the 
Attorney and Solicitor General for their joint opinion. Upon 
the draft being returned by the Law Officers with a favorable 
opinion, the Board usually report to his Majesty in Council 
that it will be advisable that he should grant the charter. The 
King commonly approves the same, and makes an order com- 
manding one of the principal Secretaries of State for the 
Colonial Department, to prepare a warrant* for the royal sig- 
nature, directing the Attorney and Solicitor General to pre- 
pare the Bill for passing the charter. f 

The business of preparing the Bill, called the " King's Bill," 
for his Majesty's signature, is conducted in a permanent office 
called the " Patent Bill Office," or, more commonly, the 
" Patent Office " ; of which the chief officer, styled " Clerk 

* The warrant is a mandate, under the King's sign-manual, and countersigned by 
one of the principal officers of the Crown (Report, pp. 26, 27). 
t Palgrave's Report, p. 29. 

22 



170 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

of the Patents to the Attorney and Solicitor General," is 
appointed by those officials. The King's Bill contains the 
whole form and settled draft of the King's charter, grant, or 
patent, in the words in which it is to pass the Great Seal, with 
the exceptions only of his Majesty's style at the beginning 
and the testing clause at the end ; but with the addition, at the 
foot, of the Docket, addressed to the King by the Attorney or 
Solicitor General, and signed by one or both of them.* The 
Bill is engrossed upon parchment, and two other copies are 
made, also upon parchment, exactly of the same form and 
size ; which copies become the original Bills of Privy Signet, 
and Writs of Privy Seal, when afterward perfected by the 
respective officers, f 

The King's Bill, bearing the signature of his Majesty, is 
then lodged in the Privy Signet Office, and the transcript upon 
parchment being received also from the Patent Office, this 
latter is collated, completed, and rendered a Bill of Privy Sig- 
net by the Clerk, who subscribes and affixes the King's Signet 
to the same, addresses it to the Lord Privy Seal, and forwards 
it to his office. $ 

When the Privy Signet comes into the office of the Privy 
Seal, the Keeper of the Records prepares the Bill or Writ of 



* The Clerk of the Patents reads the draft carefully, and calls the attention of 
the Attorney and Solicitor General to any matter which appears to him to require further 
consideration. The signing of the Docket by the law officer or officers, is procured by 
the Clerk of the Patents. The King's Bill, and the transcripts, are delivered to the party 
or functionary by whom the same is to be passed, who takes the first to the office of the 
Secretary of State for the Home Department, where the King's signature is obtained 
to the King's Bill. " The transcripts in the same manner reach the Privy Signet and 
Privy Seal offices, and, excepting in the addition of the formal parts, and the addition 
of the needful signatures, no alteration is ever made in those transcripts" {Report, 
p. 30). 

f Palgrave's Report, p. 30. 

| "The Documents retained by the clerk of the Privy Signet are the following: — 
The Docket Books. These books contain copies of the Docket at the foot of the Queen's 
[or King's] Bill, as the same is signed by your Majesty's law officer or officers They are 
neatly entered, and continue in a regular series from the year 1584 to the present time, 
forming about fifty volumes, written upon paper. They are carefully and fully 
indexed by names and subject-matters" (Report, p. 33). 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 171 

Privy Seal, by adding the formal parts to the transcript of the 
King's Bill, which he has received from the Patent Office ; 
and he presents the same to the Lord Privy Seal in order 
that the Privy Seal may be affixed thereto. The Seal is in the 
custody of his Lordship, and is kept at his house. There 
is one regular public Seal day every week. 

The Writ of Privy Seal is then taken by the agent or mes- 
senger of the private party or public department on whose 
behalf it is issued, to one of the officers of the Chancery, the 
Clerk of the Patents, by whom the Patent is to be made out. 
"When the Writ of Privy Seal reaches the Lord Chancellor he 
signs a memorandum called the Recipi at the foot of the same, 
and this signature is the authority to his officers for preparing 
the Letters-Patent, and affixing the Great Seal to the same.* 

We here see that the document passes through four processes, 
that it is repeated four times, before it reaches its final stage, 
the Letters-Patent. So it would seem that the greatest care is 
taken that nothing should be done surreptitiously.! 

If the inquiry should now be made whether there is any 
evidence that our charter of 4th Car. I. passed through all 
these processes before coming at last to the Letters-Patent 
which hang at the State House, I have only to refer to some 
investigations made for me by Mr. Sainsbury in Her Majesty's 
Public Record Office in London, for an affirmative answer. I 
will quote only a few passages from his correspondence on this 



* Palgrave's Report, p. 33. 

f There is another process, that of enrolment, which may be briefly stated. " The 
writ of Privy Seal is transmitted, by the officer who makes out the patents, to the Six 
Clerks, who enroll the same, and who transmit the enrolment and writ to the Clerks of 
the Petty Bag, who transmit the same to the Chapel of the Rolls " {Report, p. 26). The 
parchment roll on which the Massachusetts charter is engrossed was examined by me 
in the Public Record Office in London, in 1866. It is composed of strips of parchment 
of about one foot in width and about two feet in length, the ends overlapping, and 
firmly attached together by strings. A number of patents, having otherwise no connec- 
tion with each other, are thus attached together, and wound into one large roll from 
eight to ten inches in diameter. The words of the charter are merely engrossed upon 
the parchment with no attestation. 



172 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

subject. After going over in brief the same ground I have 
just occupied more at length, Mr. Sainsbury says : — 

" We have seen that the King's Bill or Sign-Manual, the Bill of 
Privy Signet, the Writ of Privy Seal, and the Patent under the Great 
Seal, are or should be exact copies one of the other. To prove this 
in the present case [that is, in the case of the Massachusetts charter], 
I have carefully collated these Documents and find that they really 
are copies one of the other." 

I have spoken of the " King's Bill," that which bears the 
sign-manual of the king. There, we have seen, the charter 
appears for the first time in its official form, and that is the 
authority for every thing that follows. We have seen also 
that the parchment on which the King's Bill is written, 
has at the foot the addition of a memorandum called the 
" Docket ", addressed to the king by the Attorney or Solicitor 
General (sometimes by both jointly), explaining briefly to his 
Majesty the nature of the instrument he is about to sign. 
Concerning these Dockets, Mr. Sainsbury says : — 

" According to the constitutional practice of England, the Sover- 
eign never signs any legal instrument without a Docket being at- 
tached explaining shortly the nature and contents of the Instrument to 
be signed." 

Mr. Sainsbury has sent me the Docket appended to the 
King's Bill of the Massachusetts charter,* which is as fol- 
lows : — 

Sign Manuals. 
Vol. x. No. 16. 

May it please yoT most Excellent Ma" e 

Whereas yof Ma*? 8 most deare and royall father did by his Ires 
Patents in the 18? yeare of his raigne incorporate divers noblemen & 
others by the name of y e . Councell for the planting of New Eng- 
land in America and did thereby grant unto them all that part of 
America w c ? lyeth betweene 40 degrees of Northerly latitude & 48 

* The King's (or Queen's) signature is invariably at the head or top of grants and 
letters. " In the case in point," says Mr. Sainsbury, " the signature is so very indistinct 
that only a person who knew where it should be would detect it." 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 173 

inclusive w 1 ? 1 divers priviledges & ymmunities under a tenure in free 
soccage & reservacon to y e . Crowne of y? fift part of yl gould & silver 
oare to be found there W ! 1 said Councell have sithence by theire 
Charter in March last granted a part of that Continent to S T . Henrie 
Rosewell & others their heires & associates for ever w 1 ? all jurisdic- 
cons rightes priviledges and comodities of the same. 

This Bill conteineth yo! Ma 1 " confirmacon & Grant to y e . said S r 
Henry Rosewell & his partners & their Associates & to their heires & 
assignes for ever of y e . said part of New England in America w^ 1 the 
like tenure in socage & reservacon of yl fift part of gould & silver 
oare Incorporating them also by the name of the Governor & Com- 
pany of the Mattachusetts Bay in New England in America w^ 1 such 
clauses for y? electing of Governors & Officers here in England for 
y e . said Company, and powers to make lawes & Ordinances for setling 
yl Governement & Magistracye for y e . plantacon there * & w*! 1 such ex- 
empcons from Customes & Imposicons & some [such ?] other privi- 
ledges as were originallie granted to the Councell aforesaid & are 
usuallie allowed to Corporacons in England. 

And is done by direccon from the Lo. Keeper f upon yoT Ma fe . 8 pleas- 
ure therein signified to his ~Lo p . by S* Raph Freeman.! 

(Signed) Ri. Shilton§ 

Indorsed, — " 1628, Expedit apud Westm* Vicesimo septimo die Februarij Anno 
Eegj Caroli quarto." || "p Woodward dep" 



* This last clause refers to the following in the charter : The Company have power 
" to make, ordain, and establish all manner of wholesome and reasonable orders, laws, 
statutes and ordinances, directions and instructions, . . for the settling of the forms and 
ceremonies of government and magistracy fit and necessary for the said plantation and the 
inhabitants there," &c, &c. : in virtue of which the Form of Government for the Colony, 
on page 177, was established. In the charter granted to the " Council for New England," 
established at Plymouth, the same power was given ; namely, " to make, ordain, and es- 
tablish all manner of orders, laws, directions, instructions, forms, and ceremonies of 
government and magistracy, fit and necessary for and concerning the government of the 
said colony and plantation," &c. 

t Sir Thomas Coventry was at this time Lord Keeper. 

i Sir Ralph Freeman was " Auditor of Imprests." 

§ Sir Richard Sheldon, who signs this Docket, was the Solicitor General. In the 
Docket as printed by Chalmers, and in that in the Signet Book, it says, " subscribed by 
Mr. Attorney General" ; which may be an inadvertence. Sir Robert Heath was at this 
time Attorney General. He must have been consulted, with his colleague the Solicitor 
General, when the application for the charter was before the Privy Council, and was also 
officially concerned in drawing up the King's Bill. 

|| The Writ of Privy Seal (Bundle 281, part 71) thus concludes: — "Given under our 
Privy Seale at our Pallace of Westm r . the eight and twentieth day of Februarie in the 
fourth year of Our Reigne." " Recipi 4 Martii 1628. r 



174 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

To what has already been said I purpose to subjoin a few 
remarks by way of applying it to some questions relating to 
the Massachusetts charter. 

That the intention of the Crown was to create a corporation 
to reside in England would seem to be sufficiently clear. Such 
is the interpretation given to the charter by the Attorney and 
Solicitor General to whom the draft was referred by the Board 
of Trade, for to this effect the Solicitor informs the royal 
mind in the Docket we have just read. He tells his Majesty 
that the charter he is about to sign contains provisions for the 
electing of Governors and Officers here in England for the said 
Company, and powers to make laws and ordinances for settling 
the government and magistracy for the plantation there ; with 
some [such ?] other privileges as were originally granted to the 
Council for New England ; which Council, by name, had a 
" local habitation" in England. 

The Council of Plymouth had, on the 19th of March, in the 
previous year, conveyed away so much of its territory as was 
embraced within the boundaries described in the Massachusetts 
charter. It also conveyed, so far as it legally could, all juris- 
diction over that territory. But this latter amounted probably 
to little more than an abandonment of the Council's jurisdic- 
tion ; so that the Massachusetts charter appears to have been 
intended to supply the place of the government thus withdrawn. 
The king, in this grant, reconveyed to the new patentees of 
this territory what had been before granted to the Council 
of Plymouth. The Chief Justices, in 1677, held that the 
Council of Plymouth, by its grant of 19th March, 1627-8, 
must be presumed to have " deserted the government." 

Chalmers, in his Political Annals, page 147, gives a Docket 
of the Massachusetts charter, or a copy of it, as found in the 
« Privy Seal Office." This varies a little in its language from 
that to the King's Bill ; but they agree as to the point in 
question.* " Incorporating them by the name of the Governor 

* Mr. Sainsbury says that each clerk, in the different offices, makes his own memo- 
randum or Docket of the papers that pass through his office. 



I860.] FORMS USED IX ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 17o 

and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in Xew England, in 
America, with such other privileges * for electing Governors 
and officers here in England for the said company, with such 
privileges and immunities as were originally granted to the 
said noblemen and others, and are usually allowed to corpo- 
rations here in England." f 

The significance of this language has either been overlooked 
by some later writers, or there has been a misapprehension 



* As corrected by the Signet Office books it should read, "with such clauses for the 
electing of governors," &c. 

f I give below a copy of the Docket printed by Chalmers, but corrected by Mr. 
Sainsbnry, on comparing it with the entry in the Signet Book: the Dockets there 
being usually the same as those in the Privy Seal Office. The heading to the 
paper printed by Chalmers is "A copy of the Docquet of the grant to Sir Henry 
Risewell and others, taken out of the Privy Seal Office at Whitehall." This, being in 
quotation marks, shows that it -was a " copy." found by Chalmers among the New- 
England Papers : and that he did not take it directly from the Docket Books, either ot 
the Privy Signet Office, or the Privy Seal Office. The heading to Chalmers's copy, as 
we hare seen, indicates that it was originally "taken out of the Privy Seal Office." 
The variation in the two copies is immaterial. The memorandum to Chalmers's copy, 
that "• their charter passed 4th March following," could not of course have been taken 
from either of the above sources, but was a piece of information subsequently ingrafted 
upon it. 

We are told by Sir F. Palgrave that the Docket Books in charge of the Clerk of the 
Privy Signet, contain copies of the Docket at the foot of the King's Bill. In the case 
of the Docket copied below from that office, it will be seen to be rather an abridgment 
or paraphrase of that appended to the Fung's Bill of the Massachusetts charter, as 
printed in the text, rather than an exact copy of it. There is, however, a substantial 
agreement in substance. 

Docket from Chalmers's ' ; Political Annals." p. 147. corrected from the Docket Books in the 
Signet Office, Vol. IX. 

" A grant and confirmation unto Sir Henry Rosewell, his partners & their associ- 
ates and * to their heirs and assigns for ever, of a part of America called New England 
granted unto him by a Charter from divers noblemen and others, to whom the same 
was granted by the late King James with a tenure in soccage and reservation of one 
fifth t part of the gold and silver ore : Incorporating them by the name of the Governor 
& Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England in America with such clauses 
for the electing of governors + and officers here in England for the said Company; with 
such other privileges and immunities as were originally granted to the said noblemen 
& others and are usually allowed to corporations § in England. His Majesty's pleasure 
signified by Sir Pvaphe Freeman upon the direction of the Lord Keeper of the Great 
Seal of England;^" subscribed by Mr. Attorney General; procured by the Lord Viscount 
Dorchester." 

* Chalmers omits "and '. t Chalmers savs "third part". 

£ Chalmers says u such other privileges for electing governors ". 

{ Chalmensavs "here in England". 

| Chalmers omits "the". J Chalme-s omits "of England". 



176 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

as to the nature of the Docket in its connection with grants 
of incorporation. A distinguished jurist, a member of this 
Society, who has written an elaborate and acute analysis of the 
Massachusetts charter, cites this Docket in Chalmers ; and 
admits, that it " is explicit enough to show that there was an 
intention when that minute was made, that the corporation 
should have a local habitation in England." But he regards 
this Docket as a mere " memorandum of the proceedings 
of the Council, prior to the grant of the charter." " This 
Docket," he proceeds, " taken in connection with the charter 
itself, and other admitted facts, furnishes most plenary proof 
that the intention thus appearing, was in fact changed when 
the charter was afterwards drawn and authenticated " ; his 
interpretation of the charter itself not coinciding with that 
given by the writer of the Docket.* But these views, as has 
been seen, are based upon a misapprehension of the nature of 
the Docket in question ; which is simply the precis, or con- 
tents, briefly set forth, of the charter already drawn, and 
before the writer. 

Having now seen what sort of a charter of incorporation the 
sovereign intended to grant to the Massachusetts patentees, or 
what his Solicitor-General informs him that he was granting, 
let us now briefly inquire what the grantees themselves sup- 
posed they were getting from his Majesty. 

We find Cradock, the Governor, a few days after the passing 
of the charter under the Great Seal, writing in the name of 
the Company to Endicott, at Salem, under date of the 17th of 
April, as follows : — 

" Since your departure we have, for the further strengthening of our 
grant from the Council at Plymouth, obtained a confirmation of it from 
his Majesty by his letters patents under the broad seal of England ; by 



* Joel Parker, LL.D., in his Lecture on " The First Charter, and the Early Religious 
Legislation of Massachusetts ,? ; pp. 381, 382, of the volume of Lectures on the " Early 
History of Massachusetts," published by this Society in 1869. 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 177 

which said letters patents we are incorporated into a body politic, with 
ample power to govern and rule all his Majesty's subjects that reside 
within the limits of our Plantation, as by the duplicate thereof, under 
the broad seal, which we have delivered to Mr. Sharpe to be delivered 
to you, doth fully appear." * 

Endicott is further told that he is confirmed Governor of the 
Plantation, and has a Council assigned to him in the Govern- 
ment of the Colony there. 

At a meeting of the General Court in London, on the 30th of 
April, this Form of Government for the Colony was adopted : 

" Whereas the King's most excellent Majesty hath been graciously 
pleased to erect and establish us, by his letters patents under the great 
seal of England, to be a body corporate, entitled The Governor and 
Company of the Mattachusetts Bay in New England ; and thereby 
hath endowed us with many large and ample privileges and immuni- 
ties, w 7 ith power to make good and wholesome laws, orders, and ordi- 
nances, for the better maintenance and support of the said privileges, 
and for the better and more orderly and regular government to be 
observed in the prosecution and propagation of our intended voyages 
and the Plantation there ; authorizing us to nominate and appoint and 
select fit persons amongst ourselves for the managing, ordering and 
governing of our affairs, both in England and in the places specified 
and granted unto us by virtue of his Majesty's said charter : We have, 
in the prosecution of the said power and authority given us, and in 
conformity thereunto, and to the purpose and intent thereof, and not 
otherwise, thought fit to settle and establish an absolute government at 
our Plantation in the said Mattachusetts Bay, in New-England ; which, 
by the vote and consent of a full and ample Court now assembled, is 
thought fit and ordered, as followeth, viz. : 

" That thirteen of such as shall be reputed the most wise, honest, 
expert, and discreet persons, resident upon the said Plantation, shall, 
from time to time, and at all time hereafter, have the sole managing 
and ordering of the government and of our affairs there ; who, to the 
best of their judgments, are to endeavor so to settle the same as may 
make most to the glory of God, the furtherance and advancement of 
this hopeful Plantation, the comfort, encouragement, and future benefit 
of us and others, the beginners and prosecutors of this so laudable a 

* Young's Chronicles of Massachusetts, pn. 141, 142. 
23 



178 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

work ; the said thirteen persons so appointed to be entitled by the 
name of The Governor and Council of London's Plantation in the 
Mattachusetts Bay in New-England" * 

On the 28th of May following, the Company, through Cradock, 
again write to Endicott : — 

" We have, sithence our last, and according as we then advised, at a 
full and ample Court assembled, elected and established you, Captain 
John Endicott, to the place of present Governor in our Plantation 
there, as also some others to be of the Council with you, as more par- 
ticularly you will perceive by an Act of Court herewith sent, confirmed 
by us at a General Court, and sealed with our common seal ; to which 
Act we refer you, desiring you all punctually to observe the same, and 
that the Oaths we herewith send you, (which have been here penned by 
learned counsel, to be administered to each of you in your several 
places) may be administered in such manner and form as in and by 
our said Order is particularly expressed ; and that yourselves do frame 
such other Oaths as in your wisdoms you shall think fit to be admin- 
istered to your Secretary or other officers, according to their several 
places respectively." f 

The form of the oaths, to be sent to New England to be 
administered there, " were here penned," says Cradock, " by 
learned counsel," — no less a person certainly than John Whyte 
the counsellor, who is supposed to have drawn the charter itself. 
A committee to frame the oaths had been appointed at a meeting 
of the General Court on the 30th of April. They had been 
prepared by the 7th of May, and were reported at a Court of 
Assistants held that day. J At a Court of Assistants held on 
the 21st of May, " Mr. Eaton took the oath of Assistant. And 
he is desired to accompany Mr. Humphrey to Mr. Whyte the 
counsellor, to be satisfied concerning the administering oaths 
to the Governor and Council in New England." All the 



* Young's Chronicles of Massachusetts, pp. 192, 193. 
t Ibid. p. 173. 

X See the form of the " Oaths of office for the Governor and Council" in New-Eng- 
land, in Young, as above, pp. 201-203. 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 179 

" Orders concerning the establishment of the Governor and 
Council in New England," were prepared at this meeting, and 
confirmed at the meeting on the following day ; and the Gen 
eral Letter to be sent to Endicott, bearing date the 28th of May 
(from which the above extract is taken), was " concluded on." 
They were despatched to him by vessels which sailed about the 
end of this month. 

These extracts from the Company's Records are familiar to 
all students of our history ; but, familiar as they are, they are 
too important to be omitted here. 

While the charter incorporated these patentees as the " Gov- 
ernor and Company of Mattachusetts Bay in New England," 
they, exercising their powers in London, establish a subordinate 
government on the soil, under the name of " the Governor and 
Council of London's Plantation in the Mattachusetts Bay in 
New England " ; and all this they say they do by virtue of the 
powers granted to them in their charter, John Whyte being 
their legal adviser throughout. 

By reference to the Company's Records it will be seen that 
the business of the Company was vigorously prosecuted dur- 
ing the months of March, April, May, June, and July, in view 
of the settlement of the Colony agreeably to this interpretation 
of the charter. We here see a perfect coincidence of opinion 
between the Sovereign granting, and the patentees receiving ; 
between the Solicitor of the Crown on the one hand, and the 
legal counsel of the Company on the other. 

About five months after the granting of the charter, at a 
meeting of the General Court, on the 28th of July, — 

" Mr. Governor read certain propositions conceived by himself, viz. 
That for the advancement of the Plantation, the inducing and encour- 
aging persons of worth and quality to transplant themselves and fami- 
lies thither, and for other weighty reasons therein contained, [it is 
proposed] to transfer the government of the Plantation to those that 
shall inhabit there, and not to continue the same in subordination to 
the Company here, as now it is." 



180 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec 

" This business," says the Record, " occasioned some debate" : 

" But by reason of the many great and considerable consequences 
thereupon depending, it was not now resolved upon, but those present 
are desired privately and seriously to consider hereof, and to set 
down their particular reasons in writing pro et contra, and to produce 
the same at the next General Court ; where they being reduced to 
heads and maturely considered of, the Company may then proceed to a 
final resolution thereon. And in the mean time they are desired to 
carry this business secretly, that the same be not divulged." * 

This, if I mistake not, is the first time we hear of such a prop- 
osition, which was to be regarded as strictly confidential. I 
have looked in vain through those admirable volumes — the 
" Life and Letters of John Winthrop" (of which I observe a new 
edition, with additional letters, is just published) — for some 
earlier intimation of such an intention. Although the proposi- 
tion is said by the Record to have been conceived by Cradock 
himself, we must believe that it was the result of a pre- 
vious conference among leading persons of the Company, and 
others who proposed conditionally to join it. The truth is, a 
new element had been brought into their counsels. John 
Winthrop was stretching his vision toward New England, and 
other prominent persons were looking in the same direction ; 
and in one month after Cradock' s proposition, their views had 
been so far matured as to be embodied in the " Agreement at 
Cambridge," of the 26th of August. Twelve prominent gen- 
tlemen, including six who had been members of the Company 
from the first, agreed on that day to embark for the Plantation 
by the first of the following March ; provided , that before the 
last of September, that is, before the expiration of four weeks, 
" the whole Government, together with the patent for the said 
plantation, be first, by an order of Court, legally transferred 
and established to remain with us and others which shall in- 
habit upon the said Plantation." f 



* Young's Chronicles of Massachusetts, pp. 85, 86. f Ibid. pp. 281, 282. 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 181 

Two days after the signing of this agreement, a special 
meeting of the General Court was called, — 

"To give answer to divers gentlemen, intending to go into New Eng- 
land, whether or no the chief government of the Plantation, together 
with the patent, should be settled in New England, or here. Where- 
upon it was ordered, that this afternoon Mr. Wright, Mr. Eaton, Mr 
Adams, Mr. Spurstowe, and such others as they should think fit to call 
unto them, whether they were of the Company or not, to consider of 
arguments against the settling of the chief government in New Eng- 
land ; and on the other side, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Mr. Johnson,* 
Captain Venn, and such others as they should call unto them, to pre- 
pare arguments for the settling of the said government in New Eng- 
land ; and, that tomorrow morning, being the 29th of August, at seven 
of the clock, both sides should meet and confer and weigh each 
other's arguments, and afterwards at nine of the clock (which is the 
time appointed of meeting for a General Court) to make report thereof 
to the whole Company, who then will determine the business." 

At the meeting of the Court on the 29th of August, a long 
debate was held, after which " Mr. Deputy put it to the ques- 
tion as folio we th " : — 

" As many of you as desire to have the patent and the government of 
the Plantation to be transferred to New England, so as it may be done 
legally, hold up your hands. So many as will not, hold up your hands. 

" When, by erection of hands, it appeared by the general consent of 
the Company, that the government and patent should be settled in New 
England, and accordingly an Order to be drawn up." 

A month later, at a meeting of the General Court, on the 
29th of September, the " Orders " for transferring the govern- 
ment and the patent were read, but they were not acted on ; 
that business, being of such " great and weighty consequence, 
is thought fit to be deferred for determination until Sir Rich- 
ard Saltonstall, Mr. Johnson, and other gentlemen be come up 
to London, and may be here present." 

"In the mean time it was propounded that a committee should be 
appointed, 

* Saltonstall and Johnson signed the " Agreement at Cambridge." 



182 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

To prepare the business ; 

To take advice of learned council whether the same may be legally 
done or no ; 

By what way or means the same may be done, to correspond with 
and not to prejudice the government here ; 

To consider of the time when it will be fit to do it ; 

To resolve on whom to confer the government ; and divers other 
circumstances material to be resolved on," &c* 

So cautious and doubtful were they as to the expediency and 
legality of this measure, that the Order for the transference of 
the government, &c, was never formally passed, although at 
the meeting on the 15th of October the Company seem to have 
assumed that it had been, and proceeded to make their arrange- 
ments accordingly.! A government for trade was to remain 
in London ; and articles of agreement between the adventurers 
and planters were drawn up by the legal counsellor of the 
company, Mr. Whyte, whose services and advice were so con- 
venient for every emergency. 

There would seem to be sufficient evidence in what has been 
said to show that the proposition for the transference of the 
chief government and patent to New England was a novel 
one to all parties concerned at the time it was made, and quite 
foreign to the purposes of the patentees when the charter was 
granted. 

The " opinion " of Mr. Whyte the counsellor, as to the legal- 
ity of this measure, has not been transmitted to us. We may 
suppose it to have run somewhat in this wise : — 

" In framing your letters-patents I drew largely, according to 
my instructions, upon the provisions of the Charter of the 
Council for New England, who aliened their right of govern- 
ment over the territory which they granted to you. By this 



* Young's Chronicles of Massachusetts, pp. 86-91. 

f The vote taken on the 29th of August was merely a preliminary one, to test the 
sense of the meeting. This is clearly shown by the proceedings on the 29th of Sep ■ 
tember. 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 183 

new franchise from his Majesty you thus far stand in their 
place. 

" The patent was drawn, and passed through all its forms, 
with no other view than that the chief government of the Com- 
pany incorporated thereby would be located here in England, 
and that a government in subordination to this would be es- 
tablished on the plantation. Such was my understanding 
when I drew the patent, such was the understanding of the 
Crown Officers whom I was then constantly consulting, 
and such was your own opinion when the patent passed into 
your possession. Nothing else was wished for, and all your 
proceedings thus far have jumped with this interpretation of 
your grant. In accordance with this view I framed the Form 
of Government for the Colony which you have sent over to 
governor Endicott, with the duplicate of the patent. 

"I will call your attention to some provisions which point 
directly to this use of the patent. There are clauses provid- 
ing for the election of the charter officers, — the Governor, 
Deputy Governor, Assistants, &c, of the Company ; and 
separate clauses for the appointing of ' such chief commanders, 
captains, governors,' &c, as shall be employed upon the plan- 
tation, or in the way by sea thither, or from thence, — a dis- 
tinct class of officers. The first are elected annually from the 
freemen, according to the directions given in the patent ; the 
6econd are ' named ' or appointed in virtue of the ' orders,' 
&c, of the Governor and Company, in any General (or spe- 
cial) Court assembled. Observe also, that the officers who 
are to be employed in the government in New England, and 
in passing to and from said plantation, are respectively to havo 
authority over all persons who shall go to inhabit there, — 
while going, while resident, and while returning. This cer- 
tainly imports that the corporation is to send out these per- 
sons ; for, if it was itself resident on the plantation, it would 
hardly expect to exercise control over his Majesty's subjects 
before their arrival. The clause making provision in case of 



184 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

fraud in exporting goods to a foreign country under pretence 
of carrying them to the plantation, clearly presupposes the 
residence of the Company within the realm. Many other pro- 
visions might be mentioned. 

" As your legal counsel, I feel constrained to advise you that 
there is no precedent for the course proposed. 

" It has been suggested that there is no clause in the patent 
absolutely forbidding its transference to the plantation. It is 
true there is nothing there prohibiting you to hold your meet- 
ings, or to elect your officers, either in Massachusetts Bay or in 
Nova Zembla ; and on this ground you might make your stand 
if driven to a defence. Should you transfer your patent and 
hold your meetings on the territory conveyed to the Company, 
you will naturally abolish your subordinate government, and 
thus make more simple the forms of your proceedings ; and if 
you are not molested by the crown, as I trust you will not be, 
with the great ocean between you and our State of England, 
carrying yourselves ever with great caution and prudence, your 
aims may have a quiet consummation. If your patent should 
be demanded for any reason, be slow in responding to such a 
call. There is sometimes great wisdom in delay. Always 
plead the necessities of your condition. Your great distance 
will be your protection. Remember this clause in the patent: 
that it ' shall be construed, reputed, and adjudged in all cases 
most favorably on the behalf and for the benefit and behoof of 
the said Governor and Company, and their successors.' There 
are many among you who feel that here ' the times are out of 
joint,' and who wish to aid in building up a new England in 
yonder distant wilderness. His gracious Majesty, perchance, 
would not grieve much at your departure. You have a wise 
leader in Master Winthrop, who proposes to join you, in case 
the chief government and patent are transferred hence. My 
advice to you is to take your letters-patents and exeant omnes" 

The rights and privileges granted in the Massachusetts 
charter have been subjected to severe analyses by legal minds, 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 1 15 

in the light of well-established principles of municipal law of 
the present day ; and sometimes opposite conclusions respect- 
ing some clauses of doubtful import have been arrived at. It 
may be suggested that this is not always the surest method to 
determine the historical question ; namely, as to the real inten- 
tion and understanding of parties to an instrument involving 
political franchises, drawn more than two centuries ago.* 

* Dr. Palfrey, who inclines to the opinion that John VVhyte, in drawing the charter, 
had a care to have it free from any phraseology which might interfere with the dis- 
position subsequently made of it, quotes the following passage from it, as significant of 
an express grant of power to that end. " The charter," he says, " empowers the Com- 
pany and their assigns, not to ' send, carry, and transport,' but, ' out of any our realms 
and dominions whatsoever, to take, lead, carry, and transport, for and into their voyages, 
and for and towards the said plantation in New England, all such and so many of our 
loving subjects, or any other, strangers, that will become our loving subjects and live 
under our allegiance, as shall willingly accompany them in the same voyages and planta- 
tion." {History of New England, I. 307.) But a reference to the Great Patent of New 
England will show that this precise language, word for word, is taken from that instru- 
ment, which empowers the Council for New England, professedly located in England, 
their successors and assigns, ''to take, lead, carry,"- &c, as above. (See Trumhu&'s 
Count. I. 555.) A similar provision will also be found in the first Charter of Virginia, 
granted in 1606. (Stith, App. p. 4.) 

It has been said that the Massachusetts Charter, unlike the Great Patent for New 
England, did not locate the Company, incorporated by it, in England. The " Council 
for New England " was substantially a re-incorporation of the "Adventurers of the 
Northern Colony of Virginia," placing them more on a footing with their rivals, the 
Southern Colony, whose franchise had been twice enlarged since the original charter of 
1606. By that charter two Councils were established: one located in London, the other 
in Plymouth. The new charter of the northern patentees would, of course, give them a 
location, as the former charter had done, to distinguish the tw r o Councils from each other. 
The Massachusetts charter incorporated one Company, which needed no location to dis- 
tinguish it from any other company. As I interpret the general policy of England at 
that time, this charter would, as a matter of course, locate the Company within the 
realm of England. I am aware that the practice of the Crown some years later became 
different. 

On the theory that the Crown intended the Massachusetts Company to be located in 
England, there has been a difficulty in some minds in accounting for the silence of the 
government at the bold proceedings of the Company in transporting their patent and 
government to New England. But it is not apparent how soon the rumor of the transfer 
reached the royal ear. His Majesty had more important matters to look after, than a 
few Puritan gentlemen trying to establish a trade or to settle a Colony three thousand 
mile* away in the wilderness of America. Complaints against the Colony, however, 
from time to time, reached the Council Table. On the 21st of February, 1633-4, 
Cradock, the former Governor, was summoned before the Council, and required to 
cause the Letters-Patents to be brought to the Board. " Cradock's reply," says Pal- 
frey, ' ; that the charter had gone to America, perhaps first apprised the government of 
that important fact." {history, I. 371.) 

The elevation of Laud to the Archbishopric of Canterbury was a signal for renewed 

24 



186 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

But of one thing we may be certain : if the Massachusetts 
charter was inadequate to the purpose of carrying on a colony 
while the charter and chief government were located in Eng- 
land, it certainly proved itself, after its transfer, wholly in- 
adequate as a constitution of government for the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay. It became necessary, almost from the 



proceedings against the Puritans in both Old and New England. The scheme for a 
General Governor, and for the revocation of all colonial charters, was eagerly pressed. 
The "Council for New England" surrendered their charter to the king in June, 1635, 
after dividing the territory among themselves. The charter of Massachusetts was to be 
vacated, as a matter of course. Proceedings were instituted against it in Westminster 
Hall, in September of this year, by writ of quo warranto, brought by Sir John Banks, 
who had succeeded Sir Robert Heath as Attorney General. Cradock and fourteen 
other members of the Company were then in England. 

Fourteen allegations of usurpation were brought. They may be seen in Hutchinson's 
Coll. Papers, pp. 101-103. Several of the members in England appeared, each of whom, 
except Cradock, severally pleaded that he had never usurped any of said liberties, and 
disclaimed; and there was judgment against them that for the future they should not 
intermeddle with any of the said franchises. Cradock came in, and having had time to 
interplead, made default, and judgment was given that he should be convicted of the 
usurpation charged, and that the said franchises should be taken and seized into the 
king's hands. 

The inquiry has sometimes been made, why, if the government had been unlawfully 
established in the Colony, an allegation to that effect should not have appeared in the 
indictment against the Company ? In reply it may be said, that it is doubtful how far 
the authorities were informed, at this time, as to the nature of the proceedings of the 
Company. They knew, the year before, that the charter had gone to New England, but 
they also knew that nearly one-half the grantees were residing in England, where nomi- 
nally a government of trade was kept up. How radical a departure from the intent of 
the charter had been made, they may not have been informed. However this may be, 
to the Attorney General it was a matter of little moment. He intended to lay the axe 
at the root of the tree. He struck a blow at the charter itself, as being void ab initio. 
It will be seen that his allegations of usurpation are, nearly all of them, an enumeration, 
more or less accurate, of the powers granted in the charter; and, no doubt, were in- 
tended to be so regarded. We therefore see here the Attorney General's analysis of the 
charter itself. The first charge in the list of allegations is that they claim " to be a body 
corporate and politique by the name of the Governor and Company of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England, and by that name to plead and be impleaded, answer and be answered 
in all courts and causes." If the company could not claim this, surely they could not claim 
to live. The seventh allegation is, " To keep a constant Council in England of men of 
their own Company and choosing, and to name, choose and swear certain persons to be 
of that Council; and to keep one Council ever resident in New England, chosen out of 
themselves, and to name, choose and swear whom they please to be of that Council." 
The Attorney finds these provisions in the charter, and, assuming the practice of the 
Company to have been in accordance therewith, he cites them as usurpations, — the in- 
strument granting these powers being invalid. This would seem to be his reasoning. 

(In the proceedings against the charter in the following reign, in 1684, which resulted 
in its forfeiture, the validity of the instrument was fully admitted. The usurpations 



1869.] FORMS USED IN ISSUING LETTERS-PATENT. 187 

first, to assume powers for which no warrant can be found in 
that instrument itself. 

In these remarks relative to the Massachusetts charter — 
which may be regarded as an appendix to the principal theme 
proposed to myself in this paper — the purpose has been to 



charged were confined to Levying Money ; Imposing Tunnage Duties ; Coining Money; 
and Imposing an Oath of Fidelity to the Colonial Government. The list might have 
been enlarged, but those charges were selected which could be the most easily proved; 
indeed, concerning which, as matters of fact, there could be no dispute.) 

One might almost be inclined to think that the purpose of the strange proceeding in 
1635 was, by denying the existence of the royal charter, to compel the patentees to 
produce the original in Court, in order, by legal means or otherwise, to obtain possession 
of it. But the grantees in London could easily have produced an authenticated copy 
from the Rolls Office, for the purposes of the trial, if they had chosen to contend. 

Emanuel Downing, a brother-in-law of Gov. "Winthrop, and a lawyer of the Inner 
Temple, was at this time living in London. He came to New England in 1638. In 
1641, when Hugh Peter was about sailing for England, Downing addressed him a letter, 
which contains the following passage: "The Bishop caused a Quo Warranto to be 
sued forth in the King's Bench against our patentees, thinking to damn our patent, and 
put a General Governour over us; but most of them that appeared I did advise to dis- 
claim, which they might safely do, being not sworn Magistrates to govern according to 
the patent ; and these Magistrates which do govern among us, being the only parties to 
the patent, were never summoned to appear. Therefore if there be a Judgement given 
against the patent, it's false and erroneous, and ought to be reversed, which, a motion 
in the King's bench, without any long suit, by Writ of Error, may set right again." 
(4 Mass. Hist. Coll. YI. 58.) 

The Writ of Error suggested by Downing was never brought. The Colony had paid 
no regard to the summons to return the charter, and the government continued on as if 
Westminster Hall had never spoken. The troubles at home gave many years of peace 
to the Colony here. 

" The Restoration," however, was a signal for letting loose the birds of prey against 
Massachusetts. Her charter was felt to be in danger. Many charges were brought 
against the Colony — some true, and some false. There were twenty years of alternate 
hope and fear. On the return of Stoughton and Bulkley, the agents to the Court at 
London, in 1679, they brought a letter from Charles II., in which he directs the Colony to 
send over other persons in six months, to attend lo matters connected, among other 
things, with the charter. " For since the charter," he continues, " by its frame and con- 
tents, was originally to be executed in this Kingdom and not in New England, otherwise 
than by deputation (as is accordingly practiced in all other charters of like nature) 'tis not 
possible to establish that perfect settlement we so much desire, until these things are better 
understood." (Hutchinson's Coll. Papers, p. 519. ) The king here expressed the truth. 
The Colony framed answers to this letter, in instructions to their agents, in which they 
claimed that their patent was on the same footing with those more recently issued. But 
no questions were ever raised respecting the charters of Rhode Island or Connecticut, or, 
indeed, that of Maryland to Lord Baltimore. It was always understood that these were 
to be executed upon the place. 

The Chief Justices, Rainsford and North, had given their opinion two years before that 



188 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

treat the subject discussed in a strictly historical point of view, 
and by the aid of contemporary documents. 



Professor Parker then addressed the meeting as follows : — 

I congratulate the Society upon the great industry and zeal 
for its interests which have been always evinced by the Record- 
ing Secretary ; and Mr. Deane, himself, upon the success which 
has attended his efforts to ascertain the mode in which charters 
were formerly granted in England, and the circumstances at- 
tending the grant of the First Charter of Massachusetts. He 
has laid before the Society a mass of curious information, 
which I venture to believe was not, until his investigation, in 
the possession of many persons in the United States, and 
respecting which probably few persons in England itself had 
accurate knowledge. It shows the very great caution which 
formerly prevailed there, respecting grants of acts of incorpo- 
ration, — a caution which might well be observed here, to some 
extent, — although doubtless the people of this country would 
never consent to adopt so many formalities as have heretofore 
attended the English mode of procedure. 

As this information was supposed to have some bearing 
upon a portion of the Lecture delivered by me at the Lowell 
Institute, last winter, Mr. Deane, with his uniform courtesy 
and kindness, informed me of his intention to lay the papers 
before the Society, and submitted copies to my inspection, 
which, from circumstances, was but a hasty one. 

From such consideration as I have been able to give to the 
subject, I do not regard the new matter now for the first time 
accessible here, as infringing, in any material degree, upon the 



the Charter of 4th Car. I., " made the Adventurers a corporation upon the place " ; and 
the Attorney General Sawyer, in the subsequent reign, expressed the opinion that the 
grantees might transfer their patent. But Chalmers intimates that they never carefully 
examined the patent, nor studied its history. (Annals, 173. ) 



1869.] ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR PARKER. 189 

views which I expressed in that Lecture, respecting the true 
construction of the First Charter. 

The only bearing which these papers have upon the subjects 
there discussed, is upon the right of the grantees to transfer 
the charter, and the government of the Colony, to this country. 

The additional evidence found in these papers, which it is 
supposed may affect that question, is in the information re- 
specting the mode in which charters were granted at that time, 
showing the different stages of the progress, from the petition 
in the first instance, to the final perfection of the grant, — and 
particularly in showing that the Docket, as it is termed, is a 
paper signed by the Attorney or Solicitor General, or both, 
addressed to the king, and appended to the King's Bill, as it is 
called, which Bill is a draft of the charter, submitted to the 
king for his approval. The purpose of this Docket, thus an- 
nexed, is, to set forth, briefly, the object and contents of the 
Bill, for his Majesty's information. It forms no part of the 
Bill, or charter, but is a mere representation to enable the king 
more readily to understand the Bill, or proposed charter. 

Chalmers professes to give a copy of the "docquet " as taken 
out of the Privy Seal office ; and from the terms of his copy, it 
would appear to be a memorandum of the character of the 
charter, and of the proceedings relating to it, made and kept in 
that office. It has none of the forms of a representation to the 
king, but is historical in its character, and, for aught which 
appears, might have been made up at different times. In fact, 
the last part of it evidently was made after the charter had 
finally passed, as it states the date of the passage. 

The description of the charter, as there set down, so far as it 
relates to the present question, is, " a grant and confirmation 
to Sir Henry Rosewell and others," — " incorporating them by 
the name of the governor and company of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England, in America, with such other privileges, 
for electing governor and officers here in England for the said 
company" &c. Finding no such language in the charter, and 



190 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY [Dec. 

no other terms confining elections to England, I was induced 
to suppose, naturally, I think, that this Docket, like the memo- 
randa of dockets in court, stated proceedings at different stages, 
and that a part of the charter relating to the election of gov- 
ernors, &c, had been altered afterwards, and the restrictive 
clause left out. 

The papers now furnished through the investigation of our 
distinguished associate and Secretary, show that this was a 
mistaken supposition, — that the Docket, or representation to 
the king, annexed to the charter, as presented for his signa- 
ture, contained that clause, whatever may be its signification, 
that he prefixed his signature, and that although three copies 
of the charter were made, there was no alteration, so far as 
appears, in it. 

I submit that all this in no way impairs the force of the 
argument which I had the honor to make respecting the true 
construction of the charter, — showing, as I thought, that the 
charter itself did authorize the establishment of the government 
in Massachusetts, in the manner in which the grantees did in 
fact establish it, and that it was then so understood. The 
phraseology which is found in the Docket, and which is used 
as an argument to show that the election of governors and 
officers was confined to England, is not in the charter, and, it 
would seem, was never in it. Whether it was once in the char- 
ter and struck out, as I at first supposed, or whether it never 
was there, as it now appears, is quite immaterial to the argu- 
ment and to the conclusion. It is not there. It was not in 
the charter when it was granted. It forms no part of it. 
That is the material fact. That the Docket contains it, is im- 
material. 

The king may, or may not, have read the charter, and the 
Docket, one or both. It is immaterial whether he read either. 
If he did read the charter, he must be presumed to have seen 
that the charter contained no clause confining the election of 
governors and other officers to England. If he trusted to 



1869.] ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR PARKER. 191 

the representations in the Docket, or, not reading that, to the 
verbal representations of his officers, and thus supposed the 
charter to be what it was not, that cannot affect the rules 
which must govern the construction of the charter. The 
Docket itself formed no part of the charter, notwithstanding 
it was annexed to the draft of it submitted to the king ; and 
neither that nor any verbal representations of his ministers, if 
there were such, could have been admitted to contradict or 
vary the construction of the instrument itself, which, in the 
absence of any ambiguity, or even in the case of an ambiguity 
arising from its terms, must be construed by a sound interpre- 
tation of its provisions, as appearing on the face of it. I appeal 
to learned gentlemen before me, who have held distinguished 
positions upon the bench of the Supreme Court of the Com- 
monwealth, if that is not the rule of law in relation to the con- 
struction of written instruments. They assent and sustain my 
position. But here is no ambiguity. The language of the 
charter, although it contains no express provision on this sub- 
ject of the transfer, is consistent with itself. There is, in fact, 
nothing that requires explanation by extrinsic evidence. To 
use the Docket to give a construction to it, would be to raise 
an ambiguity and an uncertainty, instead of furnishing a solu- 
tion of an existing doubt, while it would be a direct violation 
of one of the most ordinary rules of law. Whether the charter 
does or does not confer a power to establish government in 
Colony, must be determined by a consideration of what is con- 
tained in it.* 



* The Docket was not introduced by me as forming any part of the charter, but as 
furnishing evidence historically of the intention of the grantor. Distinguished histo- 
rians like Hutchinson, Chalmers, Robertson, and Graham, and jurists like Marshall and 
Story, have maintained, from an examination of the provisions of the charter itself, that 
it was intended to be executed within the realm, with power to establish a subordinate 
government and magistracy upon the plantation, — like the Great Plymouth Patent of 
Nov. 3, 1620. The eminent authority of Professor Parker is now brought to bear 
against this opinion. It seemed to me, therefore, not unreasonable, as to its bearing 
on the historical question, to introduce evidence to show the understanding of the crown 



192 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

The propriety of the general rule is made manifest in this 
very case. Whatever was contained in the Docket, was a 
matter between the king and his officers, and not between his 
Majesty and the grantees. Not only had the grantees nothing 
to do with making np the Docket, but there is not a particle of 
evidence to show that any one of them ever saw it, or had any 
knowledge whatever of its contents. It would be gross injus- 
tice to restrict or limit the powers which the charter purported 
to confer ; powers which, to a greater or less extent, induced 
the grantees to accept and act under it, — by a supposition on 
the part of his Majesty, wholly unknown to them, that it was 
restricted in a very important particular, of which supposition 
also they had no knowledge nor any means of knowledge. 

But the case does not rest on this argument. It does not 
rest on the rule excluding extrinsic evidence, nor upon con- 
struction, derived from the terms of the charter itself. The 
contemporary construction, as shown, both affirmatively and 
negatively, is wholly in favor of the existence of authority, 
derived from the charter of course, to establish the govern- 
ment within the limits of the Colony, and goes to prove that it 
was not supposed by the -king, or the law officers of the crown, 
that there had been any representations to his Majesty that the 
government had a i local habitation ' in England, which it could 
not lawfully change. 

The grantees, within a few months after the charter was 
issued, proceeded, on due deliberation, and with competent 

officers at the time of the granting of the charter, and the action of the grantees on 
receiving it. 

That Professor Parker has given ahove a sound exposition of the law for the inter- 
pretation of private contracts and other strictly legal papers, I am bound to believe. 
Whether the same doctrine will apply to the interpretation of Municipal Charters or 
other instruments of a political or semi-political character, to the exclusion of what is 
called " contemporary exposition," may well be questioned. In interpreting the Constitu- 
tion of the United States, an instrument framed within the memory of many now living, 
jurists and historians do not hesitate to cite the proceedings of the Convention which 
framed it, or the expositions of the writers of the " Federalist," or the doings of the 
First Congress. — Note by Mr. Deane. 



1869.] ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR PARKER. 193 

legal advice it would seem, to transfer the charter and the 
government to the Colony, and there to exercise all the 
authority which the charter conferred. 

This thing was not done in a corner, and must have been 
known, almost immediately, to the king and his council. The 
fact came before them officially, in a very short time, by 
reason of complaints respecting some of the proceedings of 
the colonists ; complaints, not of the organization and admin- 
istration of government in the Colony, but respecting the 
manner of its administration, as it affected individuals. 

If it had been supposed that there was no authority for such 
an organization within the Colony ; nay, if it had not been un- 
derstood, and well understood, that the authority existed, and 
that the colonists were lawfully acting under it, we should 
have before us plenary evidence of indignant remonstrance on 
the part of the crown officers, and such summary measures as 
the case admitted of, on the part of his Majesty, to put an 
immediate stop to the supposed unlawful proceedings. 

But instead of this we do not find a lisp of an objection on 
this point from the king, or the councillors. On the contrary, 
when in 1632, upon representation by interested parties of 
" great distraction and much disorder " existing in New Eng- 
land, the matter was referred to the Privy Council, and exam- 
ined by a committee, the council, so far from taking any 
objection to the government there, declared " that the appear- 
ances were so fair, and hopes so great, that the country would 
prove both beneficial to this kingdom, and profitable to the 
particulars, as that the adventurers had cause to go on cheer- 
fully with their undertaking ; and rest assured that if things 
were carried as pretended when the patents were granted, and 
accordingly as by the patent is appointed, his Majesty would 
not only maintain the liberties and privileges heretofore 
granted, but supply any thing farther that might tend to the 
good government, prosperity, and comfort of his people there, 
of that place." And his Majesty on the matter being repre- 

25 



194 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec. 

sented to him, is reported to have " said, that he would have 
them severely punished who did abuse his governor and the 
plantation." 

I submit that at this time, it could not but have been fully 
known that the charter was transferred, and the government 
established here, and that it is absolutely incredible that these 
proceedings should have been had, and these commendations 
expressed, if it had been understood by the law officers of the 
crown, that the government had a locality in England, as the 
Council of Plymouth had by its charter, and that the king 
had believed that the Docket so represented the purport and 
effect of the charter to him, and that he had been deceived in 
making the grant. 

Again ; if it had been understood that there was a legal 
objection to the transfer, and to the establishment of the gov- 
ernment here, that objection must have appeared in the writ 
of quo warranto issued in the King's Bench, in 1635, for the 
purpose of procuring a conviction of usurpation and judgment 
of ouster against the grantees. 

The establishment of the government here, if illegal, ren- 
dered all the acts done under it illegal. The objection, if 
valid, was open, palpable, and admitted neither of excuse nor 
evasion. But while more than a dozen other exceptions are 
taken, no objection of this character is raised or suggested. 
It transcends belief that there could have been an omission to 
take the objection if it had then been supposed that one of that 
character existed.* 

It hardly strengthens the position, that the establishment of 
the government here was not only warranted by the charter, 
but that it was so understood from the outset, when I repeat, 

* This process was not founded upon the mere assumption that there was no valid 
charter, but was, in part, upon an assumption that the company had no rights. There 
was judgment of seizure of the franchises. The objection that the company had no 
power to set up government in the colony, if well founded, would have been just as fatal, 
— just as good a ground for a conviction of usurpation, and judgment of forfeiture and 
seizure, — as the allegations which were, ostensibly, the ground of that proceeding. 



1869. j ADDRESS BY PROFESSOR PARKER. 195 

further, that in the several attempts by the Lords Commission- 
ers to obtain possession of the charter, for the purpose of revok- 
ing it, no objection of this character was made, and that it first 
appeared, in any official form, in the reign of Charles II. more 
than thirty years after the charter was granted and the govern- 
ment established here, and that it then had its origin with 
Randolph. 

SUPPLEMENTAEY NOTE. 

In the Lecture which has been published, I admitted that the words contained 
in the Docket, " with such other privileges for electing governors and officers here in 
England, for the said company" were explicit enough to show that when that 
minute was made there was an intention that the corporation should have a ' local 
habitation ' in England. And regarding this Docket as a memorandum made in 
the Council, I endeavored to account for the fact that the charter contained no 
such provision, and for the other circumstances tending to show that it was not 
supposed that the corporation was so confined and limited, by a supposition that 
this clause in the Docket was an early memorandum, and that there was a subse- 
quent change of that intention. 

When the papers now discovered in the inquiry instituted by Mr. Deane, 
were presented to my notice through his courtesy, my attention was naturally 
attracted to the fact that the Docket was a representation of the Attorney or 
Solicitor General to the King, respecting the object and purport of the proposed 
charter, and to the effect of that fact upon the argument ; and I did not subject 
the terms of it to any strict scrutiny. 

But a careful examination of it, and a comparison with Chalmers's copy of the 
memorandum found in the Privy Seal office, and which he called the " docquet," 
shows that there is a very material variance between them. To say nothing 
of the substitution in Chalmers's copy of the words, "such other privileges" 
instead of "such clauses" which last is the language of the true docket, but 
which may not be material ; there is an entire omission, in the document pub- 
lished by Chalmers, of an important clause directly following the words relating 
to the election of officers in these words, "and powers to make laws and ordinances 
for settling the government and magistracy for the plantation there." So that this part 
of the Docket reads thus, — " Incorporating them" &c. " With such clauses for the 
electing of governors and officers here in England for the said company, and powers 
to make laws and ordinances for settling the government and magistracy for the planta- 
tion there," &c. 

Now it might savor of presumption were I to say that here are two distinct 
clauses, intended for different purposes ; that the last supplements the first, with 
an additional and different power, which might supersede the use of the first; 
and that the true and undoubted meaning of this language is, that the charter 
gave power to elect governors and officers in England, and a further power to 
make laws and ordinances by which the government and magistracy might be 



196 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Dec, 1869. 

established [settled] in the colony, so that the governor and other officers might 
afterwards be elected there. 

But I do say that the clause is susceptible of that construction ; that such 
construction gives operation and significance to the whole of the language which 
I have quoted (which is required in construing instruments, if it may be done) ; 
that it renders the action of the grantees perfectly consistent with this language 
of the Docket, for they acted precisely in that manner (they elected a governor 
in England, and then made an ordinance for ''settling" the government and 
magistracy of the plantation within the colony), that it explains why no objection 
was made by king or council when the government was settled here, because the 
right to do so was known and recognized ; why no suggestion that such settle- 
ment was unwarranted was made when complaints were heard before the council 
of " great distraction and much disorder" in New England, and when the matter 
respecting that hearing was reported to the king ; why no allegation was inserted 
in the process of quo warranto that this "settling" or setting up government here 
was a usurpation; why the Lords Commissioners made no objections of that 
character; and why, for thirty years, nothing was uttered from any official 
source, against the lawfulness of this settlement of the government and magis- 
tracy here. 

With the real docket before me, I, at the least, should not have made an 
admission that there was evidence to show an intention, at any time, to confine 
the corporation to a local habitation in England. 

The further memorandum in the Docket, that the corporation is to have such 
other privileges as were possessed by the Council at Plymouth, cannot affect this 
question. That corporation had a local habitation at Plymouth, in the county of 
Devon, by the express terms of the grant, and it was a restriction, rather than a 
privilege. 

Mr. Deane made a brief rejoinder to some of the remarks 
of Professor Parker ; but he believes that what he said is sub- 
stantially included in the paper read by him, and in the notes 
appended thereto. 



Jan., 1870.] MORTON MEMORIALS. 197 



JANUARY MEETING, 1870. 

A stated monthly meeting was held on Thursday, the 13th 
instant, at 11 o'clock, a.m., the President in the chair. 

The record of the last meeting was read by the Recording 
Secretary. 

The Librarian read his usual list of donors to the library for 
the month preceding. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter of acceptance 
from Thomas B. Akins, Esq., of Halifax, N.S. 

The President announced as a gift to the library from our 
associate, Mr. Norton, now in Europe, copies of three letters 
of Columbus, in photographic fac simile, for which the grateful 
acknowledgments of the Society were ordered. (See p. 223.) 

The President read a letter of invitation to the officers of 
the Massachusetts Historical Society, from the Committee 
of Invitation at Peabody, Mass., to attend the funeral of the 
late Mr. George Peabody, to take place in his native town soon 
after the arrival of his remains in this country. Whereupon, 
on motion of Dr. Robbins, it was — 

Voted, That the officers of this Society be appointed and 
requested to represent the Society at the funeral of their late 
honored associate, George Peabody, in compliance with the 
request of the Committee of Invitation in behalf of the Trus- 
tees of the Peabody Institute, and of the Committee of the 
town of Peabody. 

The President called attention to the letter of Dr. H. I. 
Bowditch, relative to the Morton Memorials, read at the last 
meeting ; in connection with which there was exhibited upon 
the table the Box containing the medals, &c, and also a volume 
of Letters and Documents relative to Dr. Morton's discovery 
and claims. 

The Box contained a large Gold Medal from the National 
Institute of France, on the obverse of which is inscribed, 
" Institut National de France," and on the reverse, " Aca- 



198 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Jan. 



deniie des Sciences ; Prix Montyon Medecine et Chirurgie ; 
Concours de 1847 et 1848 ; Wm. T. G. Morton, 1850." Also a 
" Cross of the Order of St. Vladimir, Kussia " ; and a " Cross 
of the Order of Wasa, Sweden and Norway." It also encloses 
a large Silver Box, bearing this inscription : " This box, con- 
taining one thousand dollars, is presented to William Thomas 
Green Morton, by the members of the Board of Trustees of 
the Massachusetts General Hospital, and other citizens of 
Boston, May 8, 1848. ' He has become poor in a cause which 
has made the world his debtor.' " 

The yolume of Letters is inscribed on the outside of the 
cover, " Morton's Claims to the First Use of ^Etherization in 
Surgery." In this volume is written the conditions on which 
these memorials are deposited in the cabinet of the Historical 
Society. This volume, and the box containing the medal and 
crosses, are placed in a case of black-walnut, so that they can 
be easily seen. 

Dr. Bowditch also sent some papers to the President, ex- 
pressing the hope that gentlemen might be induced to sub- 
scribe to a fund for the erection of a simple monument over 
the remains of Dr. Morton, at Mount Auburn, and also to make 
some provision for his surviving family. 

These Memorials were referred to the Standing Committee, 
to be cared for agreeably to the terms on which they were 
deposited in the cabinet of the Society. 

The President asked the leave of the Society to have a cast 
taken from Powers's bust of Mr. Peabody in the Dowse Library, 
which was granted. 

Mr. Deane read the following letter from Mr. Thomas 
Carlyle : — 

5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 21 Dec, 1869. 
Dear Sir, — Many thanks for your serial number of Proceedings, 
which arrived duly the other night ; and which, especially the paper on 
Montcalm's letter, I have read with interest and pleasure. Mr. Park- 
man's faithful industry is worthy of all recognition, equally so Marquis 
de Montcalm's accuracy and candour, and your Society's wise decision 
on that strange document. 



1870.] LETTER FROM MR. THOMAS CARLYLE. 199 

Here in England, for above a year past, — when a new edition 

(7 volumes post octavo) of that book on Friedrich was sent forth, 

there has been no doubt left but the Almon pamphlet was a forgery. 
On page 117, vol. VI., of that new edition, there has — to the foot-note 
of edition 1865, in reference to that letter of Montcalm's, as you already 
have both foot-note and it — this conclusive postscript been added, 
which, since you evidently have not yet seen it, I here copy and en- 
close. 

The postscript here follows : — 

"A forgotten book" {note of first edition, 1865). "A copy is in 
the Boston Athenaeum Library, New England ; it is a pamphlet rather 
than a book ; contains two letters to Berryer, Ministre de la Marine, 
besides this to Mole, the cousin ; publisher is the noted Almon, — 
in French and English." {From Boston Sunday Courier, of 19th 
April, 1868, where this letter is reproduced.) 

In the Temple Library, London, I have since found a copy, and, on 
strict survey, am obliged to pronounce the whole pamphlet a forgery, 
especially the two letters to " Berrier, Ministre of Marine," who was 
not yet minister of any thing, nor thought of as likely to be, for many 
months after the date of these letters addressed to him as such ! In- 
ternal evidence, too, were such at all wanted, is abundant in these 
Berryer letters ; which are of gross and almost stupid structure in 
comparison to the Mole one. As this letter has already got into vari- 
ous books, and been argued in Parliament and high places (Lord 
Shelburne asserting it to be spurious, Lord Mansfield to be genuine : 
Report of Parliamentary Debates, in Gentleman 's Magazine for Novem- 
ber and for December, 1777 ; p. 515, 560), it may be allowed to continue 
here in the condemned state. Forger, probably some ex-Canadian or 
other American Royalist, anxious to do the insurgent party and their 
British apologists an ill turn in that critical year ; — had shot — off his 
pamphlet to voracious Almon, who prints without preface or criticism, 
and even without correcting the press. {Note of July, 1868, Vol. VI., 
p. 117, of Carlyle's Friedrich, London, 1869.) 

Mr. Carlyle then proceeds with his letter : — 
If Mr. Parkman ever thought of publishing those indisputable 
Montcalm letters, — still better, if the Marquis de Montcalm should 
think of going into the French archives, and publishing as well a judi- 
cious selection of the many that must be there, — I should be very 
anxious to see them. Believe me yours sincerely, 

T. Carlyle. 

To Charles Dea>*e, Esq., Recording Secrtary, cfc, #c. 



200 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

The reading of this letter called forth remarks from Mr. J. 
C. Gray and Mr. Parkman, 

In the course of some remarks relative to Montcalm, the 
President stated that the well-known work entitled " Hawkins's 
Picture of Quebec," was put in shape and edited by his old 
school-master, Dr. John Carlton Fisher, formerly a resident of 
this city, and a fine classical scholar, who came over from 
England under the auspices of Edward Everett. 

The President said he had received a letter from M. Jules 
Marcou, accepting membership in the Society. 

The President presented a number of old papers from his 
family files, containing some interesting memoranda, of which 
copies are given below. 

Mem? 1 Decerab r . y e 28 th 1712. [New London, Conn.] 

It being a fair warme morning, very unusuall for y e time of year, 
when, towards night, y e Hemispheer clouded, w*? y e wind at S.E. and 
began to Rain, and about eight of yf clock at Night it Lightned w*? very 
seveer flashes, on a sudden, y! it seem'd every where to be High day, 
immediately follow'd an extraordinary clapp of Thunder, I think y e 
Hardest & loudest y* ever I heard ; yf Tides also eb'd & flow'd 4 
Times in less y? an hours space, after a most surprizing manner, Six 
foot higher y? yf highest Spring Tides was ever known. It did con- 
siderable damage, but y e Thunder was amazing and very terrible, 
breaking yf House of one of yf neighbours in Severall places, and 
hurting some of the children of Mr Hall am, and at some distance run 
along y e ground, tore it up, splitt Trees, broke great rocks, kil'd 3. cows 
belonging to Mr. Edgcomb, and at a miles distance or more from this 
damage it shattered y e windows, &c. of an another House of Mr Harriss. 
A most seveer tempest of wind & rain follow'd for a short space, w ch 
broke up y e Coves & Rivers, in an instant, and y 11 cleared up, and a 
bright moon light night follow'd, a little before y e Full. M r Adams 
y e minister of y e Towne preacht from yf 26 th of Job & y e 14 th verse, 
y e Sabbath day following, and sung a part of yf 18*? psalm. 



Yf eating teeth of time devours all things. A Hogshead of ancient 
papers of value, belonging to of family, lost at Ipswich in New-Eng : 
A barrell full of papers, &c. Burnt in a warehouse at Boston. 



1870.] 



GIFTS FROM MR. H. A. S. D. DUDLEY. 



201 



The Names of those Worthy & ffamous Ministers of the Gospell 
who haue declared their Judgment in Print for the Congregation Way- 
According to the former Practice of the Churches of New England, 
Even the Premative Practic . . . 



Doer: Owen 

Doc: Ames 

Doe: Fulke 

Doc: Whittaker 

Doc: Renolds 

Doc: Willet 

Doc: Taylor 

Doc: Sibbs 

Doc: D. Tho: Goodwin 



: Brigtbman 

Calvin 

Cartwrigbt 

Fenner 

Parker 

Pirkins 

Baiues 

Iacob 

Wilson ye great 

Mitchell 



Bfeopea Ainsworth & 
Robinson 
Cotton 
Davenport 
Hooker 
Norton 
Burrougbs 
Howe 

Allen of Dedham 
Chancey P*:sident 



And many Otber Famous in their Generation 

Men of Renown? and y e five Decenting Ministers 

viz : Mess r <»: W m : Bridge ; Phillip Ney ; Jos: Carell ; Sydrack Symson.* 



3 re&3 Hooker Jun': 
Lathrop 
Streat 
Whiteing 
Rogers Sen': 
Simms 
Elliott 
Mather Sen': & J> 

of Dorchester 
Higginson 
Thatcher 
Shepard 
Stone 
Bartlett 



Indorsed, — The Names of Ministers &c in favor of the Congregational way 
of "Worship. No date. 






The President announced as a gift to the Society from Mr. 
H. A.. S. D. Dudley, of Roxbury, the portraits of Governor 
Joseph Dudley and his wife, Rebecca (Tyng) Dudley. These 
excellent pictures were probably painted in England, but there 
appears to be no tradition in the family as to the name of the 
artist. 

The President said that this gift was accompanied by some 
valuable manuscripts, and he would call upon the Recording 
Secretary, Mr. Deane, for a description of them. 

Mr. Deane said that the papers presented by Mr. Dudley con- 
sisted chiefly of parchment deeds. The earliest was the orig- 
inal of the celebrated conveyance of the Province of Maine, 
by Ferdinand Gorges, Esq., to John Usher, the agent of the 
Colony of Massachusetts, for .£1250, dated the 13th of March, 
1677-8. Gorges's signature is appended to the instrument, but 
the seal is wanting. Usher's conveyance to the Colony is 
dated two days after that of Gorges; namely, the loth of 
March. Copies of each are recorded in the office of the Sec- 
retary of State in Boston ; and both have been published in the 
Maine Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. II. pp. 257-264. 

* Thomas Goodwin was one of the five Dissenting Brethren. — Eds. 
2* 



202 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

The original Commission to Joseph Dudley, as Deputy- 
Governor of the Province of West New Jersey, is among these 
papers. It is doubtful if Dudley ever entered upon the duties 
of that office. Dr. Coxe, in the following year, 1691, conveyed 
the government and territories to a number of persons associ- 
ated under the name of " The West Jersey Society " (Smith's 
New Jersey, p. 207). 

The only printed document is a broadside proclamation of 
Governor Dudley, for a " General Embargo," issued the 9th of 
June, 1711, the day after the arrival at Boston of Col. Nichol- 
son, who went to England after the reduction of Port Royal to 
solicit another expedition against Canada, of which the ill-fated 
attempt of Sir Hovenden Walker, of that year, was the result. 
(See Hutchinson, II., 190.) 

In this list will be found the manuscript " Life of Mr. 
Thomas Dudley," written probably by Cotton Mather. In the 
" Magnalia," at pages 15-19 of Book II., is a brief notice of 
Thomas Dudley, in the course of which Mather says : " I 
had prepared and intended a more particular Account of this 
gentleman ; but not having any opportunity to commit it unto 
the Perusal of any Descended from him, (unto whom I am 
told it will be unacceptable for me to Publish any thing of this 
kind by them not Perused) I have laid it aside, and summed 
all up in this more General Account" The style of the manu- 
script, and the identity of certain passages and phrases in the 
two accounts, would seem to indicate one origin. The manu- 
script is not in Mather's handwriting, but in that of a con- 
temporary. It may have been copied from the original for the 
use of the Dudley family, through whom it has now found a 
resting-place in the Library of this Society. 

By referring to the printed " Proceedings " of this Society 
for February and April, 1858, it will be seen that Mr. George 
Adlard, of New York, forwarded to the Society a copy of this 
Life of Thomas Dudley (with some other papers) for publication. 
It had been transcribed by him from this manuscript, then 



1870.] GIFTS FROM MR. H. A. S. D. DUDLEY. 203 

temporarily in possession of a gentleman in this city. This 
transcript, with the other papers sent by Mr. Adlard, were 
referred to a committee, of which the late Joseph Willard was 
chairman. The committee were not satisfied of the verbal 
accuracy of Mr. Adlard's transcript, and were unwilling to 
recommend the publication of the paper unless an opportunity 
could be had of comparing it with the manuscript from which 
it was copied. As that opportunity was not afforded them, 
Mr. Adlard's papers were placed in the possession of the So- 
ciety, subject to his order. 

In 1862, Mr. Adlard issued a volume, entitled " The Sutton- 
Dudleys of England and the Dudleys of Massachusetts in Xew 
England," — a work of considerable interest. In this volume 
was printed the Life of Thomas Dudley, from the transcript 
made by him. By comparing this copy as printed, with the 
manuscript just deposited in the Library of the Society, it will 
be seen that the committee referred to were fully justified in 
the position they took ; namely, that it would not be safe to 
print from Mr. Adlard's copy alone. Mr. Deane thought it 
was the duty of the Society now to print this memoir according 
to the early manuscript just intrusted to the Society's care. 

The following is a list of the papers presented by Mr, 
Dudley, — a few of which are printed in full : — 

1. Deed from Ferdinando Gorges to John Usher, of the Province 

of Maine, March 13, 1677 (1678, N.S.). 

2. Oxford Patent granted to Joseph Dudley, "William Stoughton, 

Robert Thompson, and Daniel Coxe, by James II., dated Jan. 
11, 1687 (1688, N.S.). 

3. Deed of Tract of Land along the Charles River, granted to Joseph 

Dudley, signed by Sir Edmund Andros, Governor, July 5, 1688. 

4.. Confirmatory Deed of several Lots of Land in the Town of Rox- 
bury, from Sir Edmund Andros, Governor, to Joseph Dudley 
dated July 20, 1688. 

5. Grant of Land in the Nipmug country, called Manchaug. to Joseph 
Dudley and William Stoughton, dated Jan. 5, 1688 (1689, N.S.). 



204 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

6. Commission of Joseph Dudley as Deputy Governor of the Province 
of West New Jersey; signed by Dr. Daniel Coxe, Governor 
of said Province, Dec. 5, 1690. 

" To all People to whom this p r sent Writing shall come I Daniel 
Coxe of London Doct r . in Physick Governour of the Province of 
West New Jersey in America, and of the Islands and Territories 
thereunto belonging send Greeting, Know yee that I the said Daniel 
Coxe have nominated constituted and appointed in my place my well 
beloved Friend Joseph Dudley of Roxbury in New England Esq! to 
be Deputy Governour of the said province of West New Jersey and 
the Islands and Territories thereunto belonging, hereby granting unto 
the said Joseph Dudley the full power authority exercise and office of 
Deputy Governour of the said Province Islands and Territories, and all 
and every such and the like powers authorities priviledges Jurisdictions 
Fees profits and perquisites as any Deputy Governour there, under his 
late Majesty when Duke of York, or any other Deputy Governour there 
by force or vertue of the several Letters Patents of his late Majesty 
King Charles the Second bearing date the Twelfth of March in the 
Sixteenth year of his late reigne, and the twenty nineth of June in the 
sixteenth or twenty sixth year of his said Reigne, or any deputation or 
deputations by from or under his late Maj*r when Duke of Yorke, or 
by from or under any other Governour of the said province Islands 
and Territories or otherwise howsoever lawfully did might or ought to 
have used exercised or enjoyed in or Over the said province Lands 
territories People and Inhabitants therein or in any of them, To have 
use exercise execute and enjoy the said Office of Deputy Governour 
and all the said powers authorities priviledges and Jurisdictions, Together 
with all Fees profits and perquisites thereunto belonging or in any 
wise appertaining Unto the said Joseph Dudley For and during the 
full Terme and space of Three yeares next ensuing after the first 
arrival of the said Joseph Dudley in the said Province of West 
New Jersey aforesaid If I the said Daniel Coxe shall soe long live 
and continue Governour of the said province, Soe alwaies That the 
said Joseph Dudley in the use and Exercise of the said Powers au- 
thorities and Jurisdictions shall pursue such lawful Instructions and 
directions as he shall from time to time receive from mee the said 
Daniel Coxe Provided That if I the said Daniel Coxe shall arrive in 
the said Province before the arrival of the said Joseph Dudley, there, 
or at any time afterwards within the said space of Three yeares, That 
then and in any of the said cases This present Grant and deputation 



1870.] GIFTS FROM MR. H. A. S. D. DUDLEY. 205 

shall immediately from thenceforth be utterly void and of none effect, 
Anything herein contained to the contrary thereof notwithstanding 
In witnesse whereof I the said Daniel Coxe have hereunto set my hand 
and seal this Fifth day of December Anno domini 1690 And in the 
Second year of the reigne of Our Sovererigne Lord and Lady William 
and Mary by the grace of god King and Queen of England, &c, a " 

"DAN: COXE" 

" Signed sealed & deliv : by Dr. Daniell Cox 
in presence of Nicholas Hayward Notary 
Publick & Register of West New Jersey & of 
the witnesses underwritten." 

"Richard Haynes a 

T ^ Quod attestor rogatus, 

JnoiTudbb ^ * ' Civitas 

Daniel Wharley Nic Hayward, 

Tho : Richardson 1690. No. Pub. 

James Brain 

Benj: Brain" 



7. Commission of William Dudley as Major of Foot in the Province 

of Massachusetts Bay ; signed by Joseph Dudley, Governor, Dec. 
9, 1710. 

8. A Proclamation for a General Embargo, June 9, 1711 — a printed 

broadside. 

[This proclamation is printed on the following page, in order that it may be 
given entire on one page.] 

9. The Life of Thomas Dudley. 

[The Life of Dudley will be found, farther on, printed entire.] 



206 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 




By His EXCELLENCY, 

Jofeph Dudley Efq. 

Captain General and GOVERNOUR in Chief, in and over Her 
Majefties Provinces of die Maffachufetts-Bay and New-Hamp- 
Jhire in New-England, and Vice-Admiral of the fame. 

A PROCLAMATION 

For a General Embargo. 
In Obedience to Her Majefties Commands: 

IJBo, feg ano Smtfj tlje Wfoitiz of P?er iilaje&ties Council, fjerefjg 
©roer a strict Embargo upon all ©utmaro frouno jjHercoant 
iSljips ano Uessels; ano tljat none be permttteo to Sail from tire 
seberal Ports ano harbours inhere tljeg nom arc until further ©roer ; 
fExcept Filhing anO Goatling Provilion Sloops anO Veflels, Wood 
ano Lumber Sloops. <&i fcjjfcjj all tlje ©ulcers of P^er ifftajesttes 
Customs, ifraoal ano Impost Officers, Captains ano Commanocrs 
of Castles ano jFotts are strt'ctlg Commanoeo to take Notice ano 
(Eiooem tljemseloes accorotnejlg. &no not to ©rant Clearings or 
passes, nor to suffer ang Sljip or Uessel, otljer tfjan as aforesato, 
to &atl out of ano port or ^arbour, or to pass ang Castle, jFort or 
iFortiucatton, fottljout particular Cipress ©roer for tj)e same from 
mg &elt 

Given at the Council Chamber in Bojlon the Ninth Day of June, 1711. 
In the Tenth Year of the Reign of our Soveraign Lady ANNE, 
by the Grace of GOD of GREAT BRITAIN, France and Ireland, 
QUEEN, Defender of the Faith, &c. 

By Order of the Governour, by & 

with the Advice of the Council, J. DUD LET, 

Isaac &00tncjton Seer. 

GOD Save the Queen. 

___ 1 , 

BOS TON: Printed by B. Green, Printer to His Excellency the GOV. & COUNCIL, 1711. 



1870.1 LIFE OF THOMAS DUDLEY. 207 

THE LIFE 

OP 

MR. THOMAS DUDLEY, 

SEVERAL TIMES GOVERNOR OF MASSACHUSETTS COLONY, IN NEW ENGLAND." 



Mr. Dudley was born in the town of Northampton, in the 
year 1674.* His father was Capt° Roger Dudley, who was 
slain in the wars, when this his son & one only daughter were 
very [young] . But he might say in his experience that when he 
was forsaken of father and mother, then God took him up & 
stirred up some friends that took special charge of him even in 
his childhood. 'Twas said, that there was five hundred pounds 
left for him in an unknown hand, which was not so long con- 
cealed but that it came to light in due time, and was seasonably 
delivered into his own hands after he came to mans estate ; 
but before that time he passed through many changes, wherein 
he found the goodness of God, both in way of protection and 
preservation, by all which experiences he was the better pre- 
pared for such eminent services for the Church of God which 
he was in after time called unto. In his minority & child- 
hood it pleased God to move the heart of one Mrs. Puefroy, a 
gentlewoman famed in the parts about North-Hampton for wis- 
dom, piety and works of charity : by her care he was trained up 
in some Latin school, wherein he learned the rudiments of his 
grammar, the which he improved afterwards by his own indus- 
try to considerable advantage, so as he was able even in his 
age to understand any Latin author as well as the best clerk 

* An error for 1574. The true vear of his birth is said to be 1576. — Eds. 



208 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

in the country that had been continually kept to study ; which 
made it the more remarkable in the observation of some min- 
isters, in whose hearing he was sometimes occasioned to read 
something out of a Latin book, who, by his false pronunciation 
gathered* he did not understand what he read ; but upon further 
search and enquiry they found that he understood the language 
as well as themselves, althO for want of school literature he 
missed the true pronunciation according to the rules of gram- 
mar to which children are exactly held at school ; and probably 
after the decease of his parents he had not opportunity of that 
advantage, so long as many children under their parents wings 
[fai]led to enjoy it. But so soon as ever he had passed his child- 
hood he was, by those that stood his best friends, perferrd to 
be a page to the Earle of North-Hampton, under whom he had 
opportunity to learn courtship & whatever belonged to civility 
& good behaviour. With that Earle he tarried till he was ripe 
for higher services, and then was taken by Judge Nichols to be 
his clerk, who being his kinsman also, by the mother's side, 
took more special notice of him ; and from him, being a prompt 
young man, he learned much skill in the law, & attained to 
such abilities as rendred him capable of performing a Secre- 
tary's place, for he was known to have a very good pen, to draw 
up any writing in succinct and apt expressions, which so far 
commended him to the favour of the judge that he would never 
have dismissed f him from his service, but have preferred him to 
some more eminent and profitable employment under him, but 
that he was prevented by death to put in execution what he had 
designed for his further promotion. But by this time he had at- 
tained to so much skill as to know how to live in the world, and 
undertake businesses of considerable moment, as was well known 
afterwards when it came to the trial. But before any opportunity 
of that nature fell out, which called him to put in practice what 
he had learned, or was able to do by his pen, he was called 

* Mr Adlard prints, "false pronunciation altered." — Eds. 
f Mr. Adlard prints, " assigned him from his service." — Eds. 



1870.] LTFE OP THOMAS DUDLEY. 209 

to attempt something by his sword ; for being a young gent° 
well known in & about North-Hampton for his wit, metal and 
spirit, when once there came down a press from the Queen for 
the raising soldiers to go over into France, in the time of the 
civil wars in Henry the Fourths days, the young lads about 
North-Hampton were none of them willing to enter into the 
service till a commission was sent down to this young gallant to 
be their captain, and then presently there were fourscore that 
were willing to list themselves under him as their captain. 
With these he was sent over into France, which being at that 
time an Academy of Arms as well as of Arts, he had opportunity 
to furnish himself with such military skill as fitted him to com- 
mand in the field as well as on the bench. The service that 
he and his company were put upon in France was to help 
Amiens, before which city the King at that time lay. But Provi- 
dence so ordered it that when both parties were drawn into the 
field, by some interposition or other, a treaty of peace prevailed, 
which prevented engaging in any battle for that time. Where- 
upon young Captain Dudley, perceiving that the King of France 
was persuaded to put up his sword, and that the end of his ser- 
vice was obtained without sheding of blood, he returned back 
into England, having in this expedition learned so much skill 
and experience in military affairs as might enable him the 
better to manage designs of that nature, if he was ever like to 
be called thereunto. 

After his return into England he settled again about North- 
Hampton, & there meeting with a gentlewoman both of good 
estate and good extraction, he entered into marriage with her, 
and then took up his habitation for sometime in that part of 
the country, where he enjoyed the ministry of Mr. Dodd, Mr. 
Cleever, & one Mr. Winston, who was a very solid and judi- 
cious divine as any thereabouts, th.6 he never published any- 
thing in print as some others did. By the ministry of these 
men, as likewise of Mr. Hildersham, a man famously known, all 
England over, by his writings, it pleased the Almighty to sea- 

27 



210 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

son this Mr. Dudleys heart with the saving knowledge of the 
truth, so as ever after he became a serious Christian, a great 
lover of religion, & follower of those ministers that either 
preached, professed or practised it. And those ministers before- 
named, of whom he was a constant hearer, being such as were 
then called Puritans or Non-conformists, Mr. Dudley was him- 
self also moulded into the knowledge & persuasion of that 
way, so as he became a zealous asserter thereof, but yet so as 
they were only sober, orthodox divines & Christians, that he 
chose always to consort himself with ; for there was no man 
that more hated fanatics and wild opinionists than he did, not- 
withstanding he was so strenuous an oppugner of conformity 
& the ceremonies of the Church of England, of which this 
following story may be a sufficient evidence. 

As he was once riding up to London, out of North-Hamp- 
ton shire or Lincoln shire, that lyes more northward from Lon- 
don, he chanced to meet with a gent n upon the road, with 
whom he fell into discourse as they rode along. This gent" was 
in a little time ready to open his mind to Mr. Dudley, and being 
free of speech, intimated his dislike of conformity, and telling 
him that it was part or the principal end of his going to Lon- 
don, to move the Council Table for more liberty of conscience 
and freedom from the imposition of their ceremonies. Mr. 
Dudley was so well affected toward those things that he 
profferred * him when he came to London to bear him com- 
pany whither he went upon that design, & that he would to the 
utmost of his power stand by him, to bring about any motion 
of that nature. The remains of their travelling together that 
day was wholly taken up with discourse of that nature, till 
they came to the inn where they minded to lodge at night. 
And that they might be better acquainted together, Mr. Dudley 
was willing to lodge with him in the same chamber, althc> not 
in the same bed, because he was utterly a stranger to him, 

* Mr. Adlard prints, "he preferred time when he came to London." — Eds. 



1870.] LIFE OF THOMAS DUDLEY. 211 

saving what acquaintance he might have gained in the way. 
And so they spent the evening in amicable & religious dis- 
course till bed time, when they took leave of each other. But 
after their first sleep & past the middle of the night, this 
strange gent? being hot headed & full of wild notions, with 
which his brain was so much overheated that indisposed 
him to sleep ; this occasioned him to call out to Mr. Dudley to 
see if he were awake ; and finding that he either so was, or was 
willing to appear so, to gratify this his new friend, he p r sently 
entered upon strange & sublime fancys, to the amazeing of 
Mr. Dudley ; telling him that he was once persuaded that he 
himself was the Messias. How ! quoth Mr. Dudley, like one 
affrightend, what mean you by that ? I say, quoth he, I did 
once really conceit myself to be the Messias that was to come 
into the world ; and I do now still think that I am the King of 
Jerusalem : with which words Mr. Dudley was so astonished, 
that he immediately with the bed staff knocked for the Cham- 
berlain to carry him into another chamber, and prepare him 
another bed ; for, says he, here is one says he is King of 
Jerusalem, and I do not know but before morning he may, like 
John of Leydens, take me for one of the enemies of his king- 
dom, & endeavor to assassinate me in my bed, as he did some 
of his followers ; and therefore resolved to abide no longer 
with him in the same room, as was said of John the Evangelist, 
That he would not tarry in the same bath in which was Cerin- 
thus,* the apostate and grand heretic. They that love the 
Lord must of necessity hate evil ; and they that love his truth 
cannot but hate error that is contrary thereunto. By this first 
specimen of his zeal Mr. Dudley was the better prepared to 
encounter with the enemies of the truth in after time. By 
these and such like discoveries of his eminent worth and abili- 
ties, Mr. Dudley began to be well known in those places where 
his abode was, & by being a follower of Mr. Dod, he came into 

* Mr. Adlard prints this " Con'cwfar." — Eds. 



212 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [J AN . 

the knowledge of the Lord Say & Lord Cornpton, & other 
persons of quality, by whose means he was afterwards com- 
mended to the service of the Earl of Lincoln, who was then a 
young man & newly come into the possession of that Earle- 
dom, with the lands & hereditaments that belonged thereunto. 
The grandfather of this present Earle was called Henry, who 
being a bad husband had left his heirs under great entangle- 
ments, and his son, named Thomas, had never been able to 
wind out of that labyrinth of debts contracted by his father, so 
that all the difficultys were now devolved upon Theophilus, the 
grandchild, who was persuaded therefore to entertain Mr. Dud- 
ley as his Steward to manage his whole estate, who though it 
were so involved with many great debts, amounting to near 
twenty thousand pounds, yet his prudent, careful & faithful 
management of the demesns of that family, he in a few years 
found means to discharge all those great debts, wherein the 
young Earle was so ingulphed, that he saw little hope of ever 
wadeing through them all. But with Gods blessing on Mr. 
Dudleys pains & industry, he was soon freed of them. And 
another great and good service he did that family, by procuring 
a match between the daughter of the Lord Say and this Theophi- 
lus, Earl of Lincoln, who was so wise, virtuous, & every way so 
well an accomplished lady, that she proved a great blessing to the 
whole family. While Mr. Dudley was employed in this service 
under the Earl of Lincoln, there was a notable accident fell out, 
which discovered his eminent piety & prudence also ; whereby 
he showed himself both zealous for the honour of God and 
the purity of his worship, as well as politic to evade the subtle 
contrivances of profane persons that intended to have brought 
him into a snare in some bargain that was made about the 
sale of some lands or parke, or some appurtanances thereof, by 
the injurious drawing of the writings that concerned the pay- 
ment of the money. The day assigned thereunto happened to 
fall out upon the Lord's day. Now two Knights that were to 
make payment thereof, comeing to understand how the day fell 



1870.] LIFE OF THOMAS DUDLEY. 213 

out, and hearing that Mr. Dudley, the Earle's steward, was 
noted to be a strict Puritan, (with whom it was not usual to 
meddle with secular affairs, such as was telling of money, 
giving receipts, discharges, &c.,) resolved to try Mr. Dudley's 
conscience, whether he could not dispense therewith in an 
exigent of a great sum of money ; and to that end they deter- 
mined to come to the Earles house on the Lords day morning, 
bringing the money along with them ; Mr. Dudley perceiving 
their intent, and foreseeing the inconvenience which might 
follow if the money proffered should be refused. Mr. Dudley 
therefore found out a device to be even with them & yet not 
wrong his conscience in breaking the Sabbath ; for he told the 
Knights that if they would needs pay the money that day and 
no other, they might tell it out if they would (which was 
their sin and not his). And, saith he, I will wait upon my 
lord to the church, and then come back and wait upon your 
selves. So carrying them into the great Hall, he directed them 
to lay their money upon the table, and tell it over, if they 
pleased ; which being done by that time he came back from 
the church door, after his attendance upon his lord ; and then 
finding the money ready told upon the table, he caused some 
that were about him to turn the money immediately into a 
a great iron bound chest that stood at the end of the table, 
which having a spring lock the lid fell down and locked of 
it self. Now, says Mr. Dudley, I must return to the church to 
hear Dr. Preston, (who then preached before the Earl) and 
for your money I will take your tale of it, and never trouble 
my self at this time to tell it over again ; or if that like you not, 
here is the key of the chest, which you may keep for your 
security, if you please, till the next day, when we shall have 
more leisure to discours those points. The Knights perceiv- 
ing how handsomely they were caught, forthwith went with 
him to the church ; and the next day one of them gave him 
fifty pieces that he would not make them a country talk for 
this business sake. Sometimes the wke are taken in their 



214 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

own craft. By this instance it may appear that Mr. Dudley was 
not fit for such designs, and the Earle finding him so to be, 
would never after his acquaintance with him do any business 
of moment, without Mr. Dudley's counsel or advice. Some of 
those that overlooked his manuscripts found such an expres- 
sion as this, not long after he left the Earl's family : I found 
the estate of the Earl of Lincoln so much, and so much in 
debt, which I have discharged, and have raised the rents so 
many hundreds p r annum. God will, I trust, bless me & 
mine in such a manner as Nehemiah sometime did, appealing 
unto the judgment of God, that knew the hearts of all men, 
that he had walked in the integrity of his heart before God, to 
the full discharge of the duty of his place. Towards the latter 
end of King James his reign, when there was a press for 
soldiers to go over into Germany with Count Mansfelt, for the 
recovery of the Palatinate ; when the matter was first mo- 
tioned, the Earl of Lincoln, who was zealously affected toward 
the Protestant interest, was strongly inclined to have gone 
over with the said Earl or Count, and should have been a 
Colonel in the expedition, yet resolving not to go without Mr. 
Dudley's advice and company ; and therefore he sent down to 
Boston, in Lincolnshire, where Mr. Dudley then sojourned, to 
come forthwith to London, to order matters for this enterprise, 
and to be ready to accompany him therein. Mr. Dudley knew 
not how to refuse to wait upon his lordship, yet thought it best, 
as well for himself as for the Earl, to take the best counsell he 
could in a concern of so high a nature, not being unmindful 
of what Solomon said, " with good advice make war." There- 
fore he resolved with himself, in his passing up to London, to 
take Cambridge in his way, that he might advise with Dr. 
Preston about the design, who was a great statesman as well 
as a great divine, at least was conceived very well to under- 
stand the intrigues of the state in that juncture ; and he al- 
together dissuaded Mr. Dudley, or the Earl, from having 
anything to do in that expedition, laying before them the 



1870.] LIFE OF THOMAS DUDLEY. 215 

grounds of his apprehensions, on which he foresaw the sad 
event of the whole, as did really soon after come to pass. Dr. 
Preston, by reason of his frequent intercourse with the Earl of 
Lincolns family, was free to discover to Mr. Dudley all that he 
knew, and he improved it thoroughly to take off the Earle's 
mind from the enterprise ; altho he was so far engaged there- 
in as having shipt an whole troop of horse upon that account, 
and one brave horse for himself, valued at four-score or a 
hundred pieces, alth6 he were above twenty years old when 
he was sent away. 'Tis pity he had not been better employed, 
so as he might have answered the expectation of his lord and 
owner. 

At another time, when the Earl of Lincoln (who it seems 
was wont to be very quick in his motions sometimes,) under- 
stood that there was like to be a brave fight at the Hague, in 
Holland, by reason of an interview of some great princes that 
were then to be present ; it was but five days from the time 
when the Earl had the first notice of it till it was to be put into 
execution ; yet such was his eager resolution, that he resolved, 
whatever hazard or cost he were at, he would be a spectator 
there. And no body was able to direct in the expedition so well 
as Mr. Dudley, who on the sudden he judged could so order all 
matters belonging to the Earls retinue, that in two days' time 
they might go from the Earles Castle of Semperingham, to the 
Hague, in Holland, to be p r sent at that great solemnity. 
When they came there, the Earl his spirits arose to such an 
height that he would by no means address himself to court 
the Count Palatine upon the knees, although he had been 
crowned King of Bohemia. Mr. Dudley began now to think 
that the Earls last error was worse than his first ; however, 
he was forced to find out the best way he could to excuse it, 
which he did to the Palsgraves satisfaction. 

It was about nine or ten years that Mr. Dudley continued in 
the Stewards place under the Earl of Lincoln ; after which 
time, being wearied out with great employments, he was willing 



216 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

to retire himself into a more private capacity ; for which end he 
left the Earles family and hired an habitation at Boston, under 
Mr. Cotton, with whom he became intimately acquainted ever 
after. But it was not many years before the necessity of the 
Earl of Lincolns affairs required his intermedling therein a 
second time ; for he had been in a manner unto him as Joseph 
was to Pharaoh in Egypt, without whose assistance he could 
carry on no matter of moment : so that he was a second time 
called to accept of the Earl's employment, wherein he continued 
in a manner till he removed himself and his family into New 
England. For upon his second employment there the times 
began to look black and cloudy upon the Nonconformists, of 
which Mr. Dudley was one to the full ; and upon that occasion, 
when the enterprise for New England began to be set forth, 
Mr. Dudley embraced that opportunity, and so resolved to leave 
England and travel over the sea into the deserts of America, 
that there he might with other Nonconformists enjoy his liberty 
to the utmost of what he desired. Mr. Dudley was not among 
the first of them that embarked in the design for New England, 
which is the reason why he was not numbered among the 
Patentees. But after the rest of the undertakers began to be 
acquainted with him, they soon discerned his great wisdom and 
other abilities, which made them pitch upon him in the second 
place, after Mr. Winthrop, to be their Deputy Governor, when 
Mr. Humphreys, who had married one of the Earl of Lincoln's 
sisters, found himself so encumbered with businesses that he 
could not be ready to come along with the rest, in the year 
1630. After they arrived here Mr. Dudley was deservedly so 
esteemed for his wisdom, piety, justice and zeal, that he was 
always accounted fittest to be Deputy, when Mr. Winthrop was 
chosen Governor ; till a necessity of gratifying some other of 
the undertakers was adjudged necessary to prevent a spirit 
of envy & jealousy that was ready to be borne in the minds of 
others, who were not in like manner admitted to share in the 
dignity of the government, which is so glorious a thing in the 



1870.] LIFE OF THOMAS DUDLEY. 217 

eye of all mortals that it is oft>times very difficult to allay 
the spirit thereof. But when it was thought meet to make a 
change, the lot of advancement fell in the first place upon Mr. 
Dudley, who was the first that succeeded Mr. Winthrop in the 
Governor's place, into which he was chosen at the court of 
election in the year 1634 ; in which year there falling out some 
occurrences of more difficulty than before, Mr. Dudley was in 
a needful hour called to the government ; for in the case 
that concerned Hocking, of ,* who was slain at Ken- 

ebeck by some of Plymouth, Mr. Dudley differed from all the 
rest of the Bench, and yet was concluded afterwards to be in 
the right ; & peradventure, if he had not been so steadfastly 
fixed to his own principles and judgment, but to have been 
swayed by the byass of other men's inclinations, some incon- 
venience might have fallen out ; for the person murdered was 
one that belonged to the Lord Say, who was better known to 
Mr. Dudley than to any other gent" upon the Bench, yet that 
did not sway with him to alter his judgment, when he saw he 
had reason on his side ; yet did he not passionately oppose 
those that differed from him, but placidly bore their dissent. 
Mr. Dudley's wisdom in managing this business will best be 
understood by his own letter to Mr. Bradford, the ancient Gov- 
ernor of Plymouth, though at that time another was in place. 

" Sir, 
" I am right sorryTor the news which Capt. Standish and other your 
neighbors and my beloved friends will bring unto Plymouth, wherein 
I suffer with you by reason of my opinion which is different from 
others, who are Godly and wise amongst us here ; the reverence of 
whose judgments causeth me to suspect mine own ignorance, yet 
must I remain in it, till I be convinced thereof. I had thought not to 
have shown your letter to any, but to have done my best to reconcile 
differences betwixt us, in the best season and manner I could ; but 
Capt. Standish requiring an answer thereof publickly in the Court, I 
was forced to produce it, and that made the breach so wide, as he can 

* Piscataway. — Eds. 
28 



218 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

tell you. I propounded to the Court to answer Mr. Princes letter, 
your Governor, but the Court said it required no answer, it being an 
answer to a former letter of ours. I pray [you certifie] Mr. Prince 
so much, and others whom it concerneth [that no neglect or ill manners 
be imputed to me] thereabout.* 

"The late letters I received from England wrought in me divers 
fears of some trials which are like to fall upon us ; and this unhappy 
contention between you and us, and between you and Piscataqua, 
will hasten them, if God with an extraordinary hand do not help us. 
To reconcile this for the present will be very difficult, but time cooleth 
distempers; and a comon danger approaching to us both, will neces- 
sitate our writing again : I pray you therefore, sir, set your wisdom 
and patience at work, and exhort others to the same, that things may 
not proceed from bad to worse. So making our contentions like the 
barrs of a castle, by that a way of peace may be kept open, whereat 
the God of Peace may have entrance in his own time. If you suffer 
wrong it shall be your honour to bear it patiently ; but I go too far 
needlessly in puting you in mind of these things. God hath done 
great things for you, and I desire his blessings may be multiplied upon 
you more. I will comit no more to writing; but commending 
myself to your prayers, I am your truly loving friend in our Lord 
Jesus, 

Thomas Dudley." 

Newtown, June 4th, 1634." 

By this letter it appears that Mr. Dudley was a very wise 
man and knew how to express his mind in apt and gentle ex- 
pressions, not willing to provoke others, although he were 
never so confident that he was in the right ; *for by his wise and 
moderate proceedings in the case, he satisfied their neighbors 
at Plymouth, who thought they were injured by the unneces- 
sary intrusion of the jurisdiction of the Massachusetts, in a 
matter which did not really concern them, and maintained 
peace at home amongst them that so much differed from him 
in the case then depending before them. Mr. Dudley indeed 
was not remiss in matters of justice, but severe enough; but yet 



* The blanks in the MS. are supplied from a copy of this letter in Bradford's Hist 
of Plymouth Plantation, p. 320. —Eds. 



1870.] LIFE OF THOMAS DUDLEY. 219 

when matters were not clear he was slow to proceed to judg- 
ment, as most wise men used to be. 

He was highly accounted of always for his wisdom in man- 
aging of affairs of the greatest concernment, and therefore was 
at the first called to be one of the standing council of the 
Massachusetts, while that trust was put in the hands of the first 
three, where it remained for several years, when it was arrested 
out of their hands by the importunate striving of some gentle- 
men of a more popular spirit, and so was afterwards shared 
amongst all the assistants in common. And as the jurisdic- 
tion of the Massachusetts has large experience of Mr. Dudleys 
wisdom and zeal in many cases of moment and difficulty all 
the time that he was able to steer the affairs of the common- 
wealth ; so in an especial manner in the time of the familistical 
opinions* that were broched in the country, Anno 1636, 1637, 
when the countrey was in danger to have been over-run with 
that sort of men ; but for Mr. Dudleys courage and constancy 
to the truth, things issued well ; he being always found to 
be a steadfast friend thereunto, & one that would not shrink 
therefrom, for hope of favor or fear of enemies. 

After our Hooker and his church removed out of the bounds 
of the Massachusetts, Mr. Dudley, not willing to remove so 
far from the center, took up his station at a nearer stand, viz., 
at a place then known only by the Indian name of Agawam, 
since called Ipswich, and twenty six miles from Cambridge, 
alias Newtown, his first seat ; but the country soon found a 
need of his wisdom to help to- strengthen them, in that storm 
of trouble that began to arise immediately after his removal, 
so as the necessity of the Government and importunity of 
friends, enforced him to return back two or three years after 
his going away. The town he returned unto was called Rox- 
bury, within two miles of Boston, where he was near at hand 
to be counselled or advised with in any exigent; divers of 

* Mr. Adlard has it, " fanatistical op : nions." — Eds. 



220 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Jan. 

which did presently appear after his return ; of him it was 
verified what the poet saith, " Virtutem presentem odimus, 
sublatam ex oculis quserimus invitis." At one time in the year 
1641,* to accept the place of 

he was chosen unto 
kindness he met withal, yet comforted him 

his coming to Roxbury, 
it pleased God to take away his first wife, by whom he had one 
son and four daughters ; the first of which four was, in her 
father's lifetime, endowed with so many excellencies, as not 
only made her known in the gates of her own city, but in the 
high places of the world, by some choice pieces of poetry, pub- 
lished with great acceptation, as may be seen by the testimony 
of sundry gent" well skilled in that art, prefixed thereunto. 
Of her may Solomon's words be really verified, — "though 
many other daughters had done wonderfully, yet she excelled 
them all." But to return ; the loss of Mr. Dudley's former 
wife made way for a second choice, by whom he had three 
children, the eldest yet surviving, who may be likely to inherit 
his father's honor & dignity, as well as his name, place and 
virtues. He was a man of a great spirit, as well as of great 
understanding ; suitable to the family he was, by his father, 
descended from ; and envy it self cannot deny him a place 
amongst the first three that ever were called to intermeddle 
in the affairs of the Massachusetts. He was endowed with many 
excellent ability s that qualified him thereunto ; for he was 
known to be well skilled in the law, for which he had great 
opportunities under Judge Nichols. He was likewise a 
great historian, and so could converse with the dead f of for- 
mer ages, as well as with those amongst whom his own lot was 



* The blanks are in the MS. Mr. Adlard prints, " in the year 1641, quickly after 
hie coming to Roxbury," &c. The words "quickly after" are written into the MS. 
by a later hand. — Eds. 

t Mr. Adlard has it, " emerge with the seed of former ages." A few only of his errors 
are noticed. — Eds. 



1870.] LIFE OP THOMAS DUDLEY. 221 

cast. He had an excellent pen, as was accounted by all ; nor 
was he a mean poet. Mention is made by some of his relations 
of a paper of verses, describing the state of Europe in his time, 
which having passed the royal test in King James's time, who 
was himself not meanly learned, and so no unmeet judge of 
such matters ; but in his latter times he conversed more with 
God and his own heart, foreseeing his own change fast approach- 
ing upon him, which he discovered by a small parcel of verses, 
found in his pocket after his death ; which were those that 
follow : — 

" Dimme eyes, deaf ears, cold stomach shew, 
My dissolution is in view 
Eleven times seven near lived have I, 
And now God calls, I willing dye. 
My shuttles's shut, my race is run, 
My sun is set, my deed is done. 
My span is measured, [my] tale is told, 
My flower's faded & grown old. 
My life is vanish'd, shadows fled, 
My soul's with Christ, my body dead. 
Farewell, dear wife, child 11 & friends, 
Hate heresy, make blessed ends, 
Bear poverty, live with good men, 
So shall we meet with joy agen. 
Let men of God, in courts & churches watch 
O'er such as do a toleration hatch, 
Least y* ill egg bring forth a cockatrice, 
To pay you all with heresy & vice. 
If men be left & otherwise combine, 
Mine epitaph's — I did no hurt to thine. " 

These were good ornaments to a gent 1 !, but that which 
crowned all, was his sincere piety, exact justice in his dealings, 
hospitality to strangers, and liberality to the poor ; which the 
approbation that God himself gives of a man that shall be 
blessed to keep the way of the Lord, to do justice and judg- 
ment ; and commanding his family so to do, in order to obtain- 
ing the good of the covenant with God himself. He lived to 
a good old age, being full of days before he was called hence ; 
when he was found as a shock of corn, that cometh in in his 
season, being entered into the seventy seventh year of his age ; 



222 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

his death happened on the 31st of July, 1653, at Roxbury, 
where he was honorably interred. One of the ministers of the 
coun[try] honored him with a small parcel of verses, both Latin 
and English, in remembrance of his stedfast adherence to the 
truth in the dangerous time of error, when many were ready 
to turn aside therefrom. 

(Indorsed,) 

"The Life of Thomas Dudley, 

several times governor of 

Massachusetts Colony of New England. 1 ' 



In presenting these papers to the Society, Mr. Dudley stated 
that his family were once in possession of other papers which 
had been borrowed from time to time by persons professing 
an interest in antiquarian pursuits ; and, he feared, had never 
been returned. The most of these now presented to the Soci- 
ety had only recently been recovered, after having been long 
missing. 

Yoted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
Mr. H. A. S. D. Dudley, for the very valuable donation made 
by him this day to the Library and Cabinet of the Society. 



FEBRUARY MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting was held on Thursday, the 10th 
instant, at eleven o'clock, a.m. ; the President in the chair. 

In the absence of Mr. Deane, who was detained by illness, 
Mr. Smith was appointed Recording Secretary pro tempore, and 
read the record of the last meeting. 

The Librarian announced the list of donors to the Library 
during the last month. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter of acceptance 
from Pierre Margry, of Paris. 



1870.] FEBRUARY MEETING. 223 

The President read the following letter from our associate, 
Mr. Norton, relative to the photographic copies of three letters 
of Columbus presented at the last meeting : — 

Villa d' Elte ) 

fuori di porta san gallo. { 
Florence, Dec. 23, 1869. 
Hon. Eobert C. Wlnthrop, President of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston. 

Dear Sir, — I had the pleasure of sending to you a few days since 
photographic copies of three autograph letters of Columbus, the origi- 
nals of which are in possession of the Municipality of Genoa. I 
beg you to do me the favor to offer the photographs to the Historical 
Society in my name. I obtained them during a recent visit to Genoa, 
at the palace of the Municipality, where, through the kindness of 
Signor De Simoni, Capo Ufficio al Municipio, I had opportunity to 
see the originals, as well as the book made by order of Columbus, con- 
taining copies of diplomas, patents, and privileges granted to him, to 
which he refers in two of the letters. The volume is in perfect pres- 
ervation, and still remains * in una sacca di cordovano colorato, con la 
sua serratura d'argento." 

The story of this interesting volume is told, and its contents are 
printed, in the well-known work entitled Codice Golumbo Americano, 
printed at Genoa, in 1823, in 4 t0 . An English translation of this work 
was published, if I am not mistaken, in London ; and I think that the 
library of the Historical Society must contain a copy of the original or 
the translation.* In this work two of the letters of which I have sent 
you the photographic copies, are engraved in fac-simile, — the two 
addressed to Niccolo Oderigo, ambassador of Genoa at the Spanish 
Court. 

I also send to you a little volume printed at Milan in 1863, entitled 
" Lettere Autografe di Cristoforo Colombo, — nuovamente stampate." 
This is of some interest as containing a reprint, asserted to be the first 
(see p. 66), of the original Spanish text of the letter of Columbus to 
Rafaele Saxis, announcing his discovery of the New World. The fac- 
similes of the woodcuts that adorned the edition of 1493 give to this 
reprint a special value, f 

* The title of the English translation of the work referred to is, " Memorials of 
Columbus; or A Collection of Authentic Documents of that Celebrated Navigator," &c. 
"Preceded by a Memoir of his Life & Discoveries," &c. London: Treuttell and Wurtz, 
Treuttell, jun. and Kichter, 30 Soho Square. 1823." —Eds. 

t See " Proceedings " for August, 1865, for a notice of the original edition of this 
letter, in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, of which a reprint is given in the volume 
here presented to the Society by Mr. Norton. The letter is not the one addressed to 
Saxis, hut that to Luis De Santangel. — Eds. 



224 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

I shall be much pleased if, during my stay in Italy, which will prob- 
ably be prolonged for some months, at least, I can be of service to our 
Society, or to any of its members, in their historical pursuits. 

With my best wishes for the prosperity of the Society during the 
coming year, and to yourself personally, 

I am, dear sir, very truly yours, 

Charles Eliot Norton. 

The President also read the letter below, from our venerable 
Honorary member, Horace Binney, to Hugh Blair Grigsby, 
which had been sent to him by Mr. Grigsby : — 

Philadelphia, Jan. 6, 1870. 

Dear Sir, — A kind Providence has brought me to and beyond the 
day of the month and the age, to which you have been so kind as to 
refer by anticipation. 

Your most agreeable letter has by its very accurate recapitulation, 
refreshed my memory as to nearly all the great public events of my 
life, in which, however, I have had little part personally. I may have 
seen some or all of the eminent men whom you name as actors in the 
Revolution of 1776, and survived the Treaty of Peace in 1783, a few 
years ; but the freshest of these recollections is of Washington, who 
during nearly all the years of his Presidency, and at the end of it, oc- 
cupied a house on Market Street, almost opposite to the residence of 
my mother, on the same street. I saw the great man last in 1798, 
when a student of law in my nineteenth year, when he came to Phila- 
delphia to concert measures in regard to the provisional army, which 
was raised to meet our angry relations with France. My own first 
achievement in public life was the walking as one of the Philadelphia 
Academy boys, in the Federal Procession of 4 July, 1788, to celebrate 
the adoption of the Constitution, which had then been sanctioned by 
ten States. Perhaps that march to Bush Hill has contributed to make 
me a very strong Constitutionalist ever since. 

What a review you have made for me, and what a happy memory 
you have, to retain remarkable events and transactions in your view ! 
As you have retraced them to me, so have I been enabled to recall 
them, dates and all. But many of them sleep with me until so recalled, 
and I believe that, without exception, I concur in your view of all of 
them, and of their bearing on your great conclusion, and in that con- 
clusion also, as in your inferences generally, that no Anglo-Saxon 



1870.] FEBRUARY MEETING. 225 

people ever enjoyed such a long term of peace, prosperity, and honor, 
as our country enjoyed from 1783, the date of the Treaty of Peace, to 
1860. I shall preserve your letter, as the best summary or precis, as 
the French call it, of the events, political and social, which have oc- 
curred in the Christian era,, to substantiate the preference due to our 
institutions, that can be made. 

I thank you especially for your felicitations upon my arrival at the 
age, the rather unusual age, of ninety. Mine has been a life of health, 
not much abused, nor yet very carefully nurtured, but having the root 
of a very good constitution, passed in wholesome country air and exer- 
cise from eight to eighteen nearly, and all the rest in this city. I am 
devoutly thankful to God for his many mercies to me ; and have a 
strong sense of the kindness of friends who sympathize with me in 
my present capacity to enjoy life. 

Let me not fail to tell you that your letter to the Massachusetts 
Historical Society # has given me great pleasure, as it must have given 
to the members of the body, as it ought to give to all Bostonians. My 
Boston half-blood makes me sure of this. 

With great respect and regard, I remain your obliged and obedient 
servant, Hon. Binnet. 

Hugh Blair GpaGSBY, Esq., Charlotte Court-House, Va. 

Thomas Carlyle was chosen an Honorary Member. 

Mr. J. P. Quincy presented a fragment of a letter relating 
to the battle of Bunker Hill, remarking as follows : — 

" I present to the Society the first sheet of a letter giving 
a contemporary account of the Battle of Bunker Hill. A 
second sheet, which must have borne the name of the person 
addressed and the signature of the writer, is unhappily want- 
ing. There can be little doubt, however, that the letter was 
addressed to Jeremiah Powell, the President of the Massachu- 
setts Senate at the time of the Revolution. It seems to have 
been written by a citizen of Newburyport, who had just returned 
from visiting Mr. Powell at his estate in North Yarmouth. 
The letter was given to me by Miss E. S. Quincy, who received 
it, among other manuscripts that had belonged to Mr. Powell, 
from the late John Bromfield, of Boston. It is not unlikely 

* See " Proceedings " for June, 1869. — - Eds. 
29 



226 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Feb. 

that the writer was his father, the brother-in-law of Mr. Powell, 
John Bromfield, of Newburyport." 
The letter is as follows : — 

Newbury Port, 21«' June, 1775. 

We had a hot, dirty, disagreeable jaunt home. The horse almost 
gave out. We took our rout over Webster's Point, which is by far 
the best road, & so escap'd Salisbury Sands. Do you take the same in 
future. Experience we shall always find the best school mr [master]. 
I have now the pleasure to tell you, I found all friends well, & in 
pretty good spirits, also that the news we heard on Sunday is not so 
bad as represented. 

It seems a body of our men (the number uncertain, say from 500 to 
1000 men) Fryday last took possession of Bunker's Hill, entrench'd 
that night, & the next morning got up five pieces of artillery. M r . 
Cartwright was on the Hill Saturday morning & says the men work'd 
exceeding hard all night & no refreshment had been sent them of any 
kind ; that they were almost suffocated with dust & choak'd for want 
of liquor. They expected to have been releiv'd early in the morning, 
but no releave came, & to add to their distresses they found the Reg- 
ulars prepareing to pay them a visit, & the boats hurrying about with 
great velocity. Immediate notice was sent to head-quarters that our 
enemies were in motion. General Ward order'd without delay several 
regiments down to their assistance, & the two companies belonging to 
this town, among the rest, viz., Mess" Lunt's & Perkins's ; as the latter 
rec d . orders first he march'd down with all possible expedition & found 
the Regulars had landed and our people on the hill actually engag'd. 
Nevertheless he bravely march'd to their assistance, & was of emi- 
nent service. He fired away all his cartridges, & haveing some loose 
powder in his pocket, he was oblig'd to strip & tare off some part of 
his shirt to make wadding of, & when he had fir'd away all his pow- 
der he retreated without hat or wigg, & almost naked. 

Stephen Jenkins behav'd with equal valor, & got himself much 
honor, as did Lieut. Whittemore, who got a flesh wound in his thigh. 
Another man in the same company kill'd two Regulars at one shott. 
They were both in pursuit of one of our men to take him prisoner, but 
death instantly seized them. Two are kill'd out of Perkins's Company, 
& nine wounded (not dangerously). The name of one kill'd is Norton, 
I can't learn who the other is. Lunt's company did not get up time 
enough to do much execution, & retreated again, haveing only one 
man wounded. M r . Little, of Turky Hill (who I have heard is lately 



1870.] FEBRUARY MEETING. 227 

made a col .) show'd great courage, & march'd with those under his 
command, thro' two regiments of our men who were looking on at a 
distance, but were affraid to advance, he set them an example, it seems, 
which they did not chuse to follow — he proceeded till he found our 
people retreating from the Hill, being overpower'd by numbers. He 
cover'd their retreat & got off without much loss. He narrowly es- 
cap'd with his life, as two men were kill'd, one on each side of him, 
& he came to the camp all bespattered with blood. 

Major Gerrish * was ordered also to Charlestown with a reinforcement, 
but he no sooner came in sight of the enemy than a tremor seiz'd him 
& he began to bellow, " Retreat ! retreat ! or you'l all be cutt off! " 
which so confus'd & scar'd our men, that they retreated most precip- 
itately, & our soldiery now sware vengeance against him' & determine 
not to be under his comm' d . 

We are not yet able to ascertaine the number of the enemy that 
landed at Charlestown. The acco ts are from 3 to 6000. The number 
kill'd of them is also uncertain ; some say five times the numb r . kill'd of 
our men, & that ye number kill'd & wounded of the Provincials don't 
exceed 100, which falls far short of the number reported at Kensington. 
Thank Heav n . for it. 

But the greatest loss sustained is the death of Dr. Warren, a main 
spoke in the wheel of politicks at this critical juncture. He is univer- 
sally lamented in the camp. It is said he rec d . a mortal wound on the 
retreat & was offer'd assistance when he first fell, but declin'd it, saying 
he had but a few moments to live, & told the man who offer'd his 
assistance to go where he might be more servicible. 

The man left him, & the enemy are in possession [The letter 
abruptly ends here, the other part having been lost.] 

Mr. R. Frothingham spoke of the interest of the letter, and 
remarked that there are very few letters of this period contain- 
ing snch personal references. 

The President announced that a new volume of Collections is 
now in press. 

Dr. Robbins called the attention of the Society to the recent 
petitions to the Legislature in regard to the Hutchinson Papers, 
so called ; and thereupon Dr. Ellis, Judge Parker, and Gov. 

* This name, after it had been written, was, by some later hand, nearly erased 
with a pen. — Ed. 



228 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Makjh, 

Clifford were appointed a committee to take such action in the 
matter as the interest of the Society may require. 

Mr. Frothingham called attention to the valuable donation 
to the Library, of a set of Hening's Statutes, from our Cor- 
responding Member, Mr. Grigsby, of Virginia, through Mr. 
Deane. The grateful acknowledgments of the Society were 
ordered for this acceptable gift. 



MAECH MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting was held on Thursday, 10th 
instant, at eleven o'clock, a. m., the President in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the previous 
meeting. 

The Librarian read the list of donors to the Library for the 
past month. 

The Corresponding Secretary announced a gift from Thomas 
B. Akins, of " A Brief Account of King's College, Windsor, 
N.S." ; also, from Henry Stevens, two volumes, entitled " His- 
torical and Geographical Notes." 

The President read a letter from Mr. Edmund D wight, com- 
municating a gift from his father-in-law, Mr. Joseph Coolidge, 
of two volumes, being the " Report of the Commission of 
Inquiry into the supplies of the British Army in the Crimea," 
and the " Appendix " to the same. 

The President referred to a brochure on the table from our 
Honorary Member, Count Circourt, entitled " Les Annales de 
la Cathedrale de Saint-Paul de Londres, Par Adolphe de Cir- 
court," — a review of Dean Milman's History. 

Suitable acknowledgments were ordered for these various 
gifts. 

The President announced Part III. of the " Proceedings," 
embracing the months of September, October, and November. 



1870.] PORTRAIT OF WASHINGTON. 229 

He also noticed the death of our Corresponding Member, the 
Hon. William Willis, of Portland, Maine, and paid a fitting 
tribute to his memory. 

Mr. Deane also spoke of the service rendered by Mr. Willis, 
to the cause of history, enumerating his various publications. 

Messrs. Thayer, Mason, and E. B. Bigelow were appointed 
a Committee to make the annual examination of the accounts 
of the Treasurer. 

Messrs. Lincoln, W. G. Brooks, and Endicott were ap- 
pointed a Committee to nominate a list of officers for the 
annual meeting. 

The President referred to a recent interview with our senior 
member, Mr. Savage, who has been spending the winter in 
Philadelphia. He seemed very feeble in memory, though 
his bodily health was good. 

The President then referred to a very noble full-length por- 
trait of Washington, which he had seen for the first time, 
within a few days past, in the possession of his friend Henry 
E. Pierrepont, Esq., at Brooklyn, N.Y., and of which an 
interesting account is given in the following note : — 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 5 March, 1870. 
Hon. R. C. Winthrop. 

Dear Sir, — Agreeably to your request, I will give you in a few 
words the history of my full-length portrait of General Washington. 

My grandfather William Constable went to Philadelphia in 1796, to 
sit for his portrait to Gilbert Stuart. He then saw in his studio a full- 
length of Washington, which he was engaged in painting for the Bing- 
ham family, to be presented to the Marquis of Lansdowne. Mr. 
Constable admired the portrait, and prevailed on Mr. Stuart to paint 
him another at the same time, while Washington was giving sittings ; 
so that my portrait was considered by my mother as a duplicate of 
that sent to the Marquis of Lansdowne. 

I have Stuart's bill for the portrait, receipted by him in July, 1797. 

Mr. Daniel McCormick, who was a friend of Mr. Constable and of 
the artist, and who died in New York in 1833, aged 94, mentioned the 
following anecdote to me in relation to this portrait. He said he met 



230 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [March 

Stuart with a turkey rug, and asked him what he intended to do with 
it. Stuart said he wanted it for his studio. As he had the reputation 
of being rather careless in the expenditure of his money, Mr. McCor- 
mick said, " You extravagant dog, why did you not buy a kidderminster, 
which is cheap, and would have answered as well ? " Mr. Stuart re- 
plied, " McCormick, you will see some day if I have done right." 

Mr. Constable drove Mr. McCormick to Philadelphia to see the 
portrait, when it was finished. While they were looking at it, Mr. 
Stuart nudged him with his elbow and said, " Well, McCormick, 
what do you say to my carpet ? " — " You have done right," McCormick 
replied. 

From this jocular passage with his friend, it seems that Stuart had 
taken pains to copy the turkey rug very accurately in the portrait, and 
it harmonizes admirably with the other furniture he has introduced. 
Indeed, many artists have expressed the opinion that Stuart had paid 
more attention to the finish of the accessories and details of this large 
picture, than of any that he ever painted. 

General Lafayette called on the widow of Mr. Constable, at my 
father's, in 1824. I was present, and heard him say while looking at 
the portrait of Washington, " That is really my old friend indeed." 

In the year 1853, there was an exhibition of portraits of General 
Washington, in New York. I happened to be present when the vener- 
able Lewis Marshall, of Kentucky, brother of Chief- Justice Marshall, 
came to see the portraits. His attention was called to the portrait by 
Wertmuller, which Mr. Irving has placed as a frontispiece in his Life 
of Washington. He said it made Washington look like a Frenchman. 
He was told that a portrait by Pine was reputed to be very like. 
He said, " It did not look like him when I knew him." He passed the 
portraits by Trumbull, Peale, Robertson, &c, without observation. 
He came last to the full-length portrait, which I have since inherited, 
and said with emphasis, " That is prodigiously like Washington." 

I was then introduced to him, and he told me he had lived next 
neighbor to Washington in Virginia, and " remembered him with great 
vividness." He was much pleased with this portrait, and afterwards 
addressed me a note confirming his opinion of the accuracy of the 
likeness. 

The expression of dignity and majesty in this portrait corresponds 
fully with the character of this great man, as portrayed in history. 
I am, dear sir, with great respect and esteem, yours, 

Henry E. Pierrepont. 



1870.] SPECIAL MEETING. 231 

Mr. Deane made a few remarks on the volumes just pre- 
sented to the Society by Mr. Stevens, and spoke of the value 
of the copies of early maps, in facsimile, which accompanied 
them. 

The President said that the Standing Committee had ac- 
cepted for the Society an invitation from our associate, Mr. 
Richard Frothingham, of Charlestown, to meet at his house 
on the evening of Friday, the 18th instant. 



SPECIAL MEETING. 

A special meeting of the Society was held at the house of 
Mr. P. Frothingham, in Charlestown, on the evening of Fri- 
day, the 18th of March, at half-past seven o'clock, the Presi- 
dent in the chair. 

In some preliminary remarks the President regretted the 
unpleasant state of the weather, and the bad condition of the 
roads, which kept many of the members at home that evening. 

He read a letter from a gentleman in Bridgeport, Conn., 
offering to the Society the opportunity of purchasing the medal 
presented by Congress to David Williams, one of the captors 
of Major Andre ; the descendants of Mr. Williams proposing 
to apply the proceeds of its sale towards the erection of a more 
suitable monument to his memory. 

As the Society have no funds for the purchase of such 
memorials, no action was.taken on this application. 

The President said, that a gentleman in Boston had spoken 
to him of a copy of Mitchell's map, in possession of a family 
on " the Cape," with the inscriptions upon it as given below. 
The map, it is said, has upon it the famous " red line," as 
described on Mitchell's map, which figured so largely in the 
history of the negotiations between Mr. Webster and Lord 
Ashburton, in 1842. 



232 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [March, 

" A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America, 
with the Roads, Distances, Limits, and Extent of the Settlements, 
Humbly Inscribed to the Right Honorable, The Earl of Halifax, 
And the other Right Honorable, The Lords Commissioners for Trade 
& Plantations. 

" By their Lordships Most Obliged, and very humble Servant, 

"Jn« Mitchell. 

" This Map was Undertaken with the Approbation, and at the request 
of the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations ; and is chiefly 
composed from Draughts, Charts, and Actual Surveys of different parts 
of His Majesties Colonies and Plantations in America, great part of 
which have been lately taken by their Lordships Orders, and trans- 
mitted to this Office, by the Governors of the said Colonies and others. 

"John Pownall, Secretary. 
"Plantation Office, 
Feb. 13* 1755." 

The President was assured that the Society, if it was thought 
desirable, could obtain possession of the map. Upon which, it 
was voted that the President should endeavor to secure the 
map for the Society's archives. 

Mr. C. C. Smith was added to the Committee on the pub- 
lication of the Winthrop papers. 

Mr. R. Frothingham read a highly interesting paper on 
" The Declaration of Independence," which is to constitute a 
chapter in a volume by him, now in the press. 



1870.] ANNUAL MEETING. 233 



ANNUAL MEETING, April 14, 1870. 

The Annual Meeting was held on Thursday, 14th April, at 
eleven o'clock, a.m. ; the President, the Hon. Robert C. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the stated 
meeting in March, and of the special meeting in the same 
month. 

The Librarian read the list of donors to the Library the 
past month. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter of acceptance 
from Thomas Carlyle. 

The President then spoke as follows : — 

You are aware, gentlemen, that this is our Annual Meeting ; 
but, agreeably to usage, we proceed with our regular monthly 
business before entering on the more formal routine of Annual 
Reports and Elections. Before we pass, however, to any thing 
of a merely business character, it is fit that I should remind 
you that, since we met last, two names on our rolls have 
ceased to be the names of living members. One of them is 
the name of an Honorary Member, who was the contemporary 
and associate of Irving and Paulding and Sands and Cooper 
and Bryant of New York. The other is the name of a Resi- 
dent Member, who was the associate and friend of our own 
Prescott and Everett and Sparks and Ticknor, and of others 
whom I see around me. 

The name of the Honorable Gulian C. Verplanck, LL.D., 
has stood, for several years past, first in the order of seniority 
on our Honorary Roll. He was elected on the 27th of Janu- 
ary, 1820, — more than fifty years ago. He died in the city 
of New York, his native place, on the 18th of March last, in 
the eighty-fourth year of his age. 

30 



234 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Mr. Yerplanck was a graduate of Columbia College, and a 
lawyer by profession. His life was, however, mainly devoted 
to politics, literature, and works of public usefulness. He was 
a representative in the Legislature of New York as early as 
1814; and, after several years' service in that capacity, he was 
elected a representative in Congress in 1825, and was a con- 
spicuous and valuable member of the National Councils for 
eight years. He subsequently served for some years in the 
Senate of his native State. 

His labors, however, during this period were by no means 
confined to political subjects. In 1818, he delivered a lecture 
before the New York Historical Society on " The Early Euro- 
pean Friends of America," which attracted much attention and 
passed through several editions. In 1821, he was chosen to a 
Professorship on " The Evidences of Christianity " in the Gen- 
eral Episcopal Seminary established at New York, and not 
long afterwards published a collection of essays on " The 
Nature and Uses of the various Evidences of Revealed Re- 
ligion." In 1825, he published a work, well known to the 
Bar, on the " Doctrine of Contracts." In 1827, he was as- 
sociated with the late Robert C. Sands and with William C. 
Bryant in publishing one of the earliest of our American Illus- 
trated " Annuals," called the " Talisman," of which three 
volumes were issued in successive years, and afterwards all 
republished, with the names of the authors, in 1833. During 
the same year, Mr. Yerplanck published a volume of his collected 
" Discourses and Addresses on Subjects of American History, 
Arts, and Literature." Many other Discourses and Addresses 
were delivered by him in subsequent years ; and between the 
years 1844 and 1847 he published an edition of Shakspeare, in 
three volumes, with illustrations and annotations, which gave 
ample evidence of his taste and accomplishments as an editor 
and interpreter of the immortal dramatist. 

About this same year, 1847, the Board of Emigration Com- 
missioners was established in New York, for the protection of 



1870.] ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WINTHROP. 235 

foreigners when first arriving on our shores, and Mr. Ver- 
planck was immediately elected its President, — an office which 
he continued to hold and discharge with great zeal and energy 
until his death. He was connected, too, with many other 
boards and bodies of a charitable or religious character, and 
rendered valuable service to them all. 

Nor did his literary labors entirely cease but with his life. 
Besides the annual reports which he prepared for fifteen years 
on the subject of emigration, and which were published in a 
volume in 1861, his " Twelfth Night at the Century Club," in 
1858, and his Address on the opening of the New Tammany 
Hall on the 4th of July, 1868, — when he was eighty-two years 
old, — afford ample evidence that neither mind nor pen nor 
tongue had lost their cunning. He was active and vigorous 
and genial to the last. He seemed to have something of the 
strength and hardiness of one of those noble trees which 
adorn the park of the old manor house on the Hudson, in 
which he passed his summers. His leaf did not wither. His 
ruddy countenance and flowing silver locks have more than 
once recalled to me our own Leverett Saltonstall, the elder, as 
we knew him here a quarter of a century ago, and he could 
hardly have recalled a more cherished friend. Like him, he 
was a man whose warmth of heart and kindness of manner 
and earnestness of purpose endeared him to all who knew 
him, and he will be remembered by them all as a man whom 
it was a privilege to know. 

The Rev. Nathaniel Langdon Frothingham, D.D., died in 
this city on the 4th inst., in the seventy-seventh year of his 
age. Among the large congregation which attended his fun- 
eral, on the 6th inst.. at the First Church, of which he was so 
long the pastor, were the officers and many of the members 
of this Society ; and an admirable eulogy was delivered on 
that occasion by one whom we are glad to count among our 
immediate associates. 



236 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Dr. Frothingham was elected a member of our* Society in 
1843 ; and, until his infirmities confined him to his house, his 
presence at our meetings was as punctual as it was welcome. 
He took a warm interest, and sometimes a prominent part, in 
our proceedings. His impressive tribute to our lamented 
Prescott, and his charming verses when "the Crossed Swords" 
were transferred from Prescott's library to our own, cannot be 
forgotten by any one who had the good fortune to hear them. 
Nor shall we soon forget, I am sure, his last appearance among 
us, but a few years since, when, his sight having already failed 
him, he was led into these rooms by a devoted son, and paid 
an off-hand but touching tribute to the eloquence of the late 
Rev. Dr. Hawks, of New York, whose death had been on that 
morning announced. 

Of Dr. Frothingham, as a preacher, it hardly becomes me to 
speak. I may be permitted to say, however, that of the only 
two sermons which I can remember as ever having heard from 
his lips, the texts of both, and the treatment of those texts, 
are as distinct in my memory, after a lapse of more than 
thirty, it may be more than forty, years, as if I had listened 
to them yesterday. 

And this leads me naturally to the very few remarks upon 
his character and career which I shall venture to make in 
presence of so many of those who have been associated with 
him as classmates at school or at college, as pastors of sister 
churches, or, it may be, as parishioners of his own church, or 
as life-long friends and associates in theological or literary pur- 
suits. To them it peculiarly belongs to bear testimony to his 
virtues and his accomplishments. 

Whether as preacher, as scholar, or as poet, — for in all 
these relations he has enjoyed a high distinction in our com- 
munity, — there was a force and felicity in his style, a pictu- 
resqueness of conceit and imagery, a fervor and glow of 
thought and diction, which made all his utterances impressive 
and memorable. He spoke and wrote from the fulness of a 



1870.] ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WINTHROP. 237 

warm heart and an earnest, noble spirit. Deeply imbued with 
a scholarship and a learning which had rendered him familiar 
with the best productions both of ancient and modern litera- 
ture, his acquisitions only served to give richness and variety 
to the illustration of topics of which his own heart and mind 
were full. He occupied himself with no elaborate disquisitions 
or abstruse philosophies, but poured forth from time to time, 
from a rich storehouse of memory or imagination, sometimes 
in prose and oftener of late in verse, such words and thoughts 
as befitted the hour or the occasion. His heart seemed always 
intent upon the events which he witnessed, and always in 
sympathy with the joys or sorrows of those around him. 

He had the strongest appreciation for the beautiful and the 
noble, in every form in which they are manifested to the sense 
or the soul, — in nature, in art, in music, in literature, in ac- 
tion, in character. It has happened to me to be with him in 
Rome, among the glorious remains of classic art ; and in Switz- 
erland, also, amid some of those wonderful scenes of pure, orig- 
inal, majestic nature. Frequently, too, some years ago, I have 
chanced to walk with him, at his favorite hour, and along his 
favorite path, across our own beautiful Common, towards the 
setting of an autumn sun. Everywhere he was filled with 
rapture for whatever was grandest or loveliest in the works of 
God or of man, and few men have known better how to give 
expression to such emotions. Not a few of his verses, whether 
original or translated, have lifted the hearts of hearers and 
readers, as they have lifted his own heart, in hours of trial or 
of devotion ; and some of them cannot fail to have a perma- 
nent place in the occasional poetry, religious or secular, of our 
land. 

I will not attempt to speak of the resignation and fortitude 
with which he bore the heavy load of personal deprivation and 
suffering, under which he has been withdrawn from us for 
some years past. It would seem, to any one who has been 
privileged to visit him during these days of darkness, as if he 



238 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

»- 

must have caught the full spirit of a stanza of one of those 
inspiring German hymns, which he has translated with so 
much feeling and beauty : 

" Be brave, my heart ! and weary 

Grow never in the strife : 
The peace of God will cheer ye 

"With trust and strength and life. 
Be vigorous, not complaining, 

And every effort bend : 
This very day, at waning, 

May see the conflict end." 

Happily for him, the conflict has at last ended ; and it only 
remains for us to do justice to his memory. 

I am instructed by the Standing Committee to offer the fol- 
lowing resolution : — 

Resolved., That in the death of the Rev. Nathaniel L. Frothingham, 
D.D., this Society has lost one of its most respected and accomplished 
Associates, and that the President be requested to appoint one of our 
number to prepare a Memoir of him for our volume of Proceedings. 

The Resolution was seconded by Dr. Walker, who said, — 
Mr. President, — In moving the adoption of the Resolution 
I feel that the remarks with which you have introduced it have 
left me but little to say. 

Dr. Frothingham represents a class of clergymen more 
common formerly than now, who are at once clergymen and 
scholars, and who are drawn to the profession, in part at least, 
by the opportunity it affords for scholarship. He was, I sup- 
pose, more of a scholar than a theologian ; though his scholar- 
ship was not without its effect on his professional studies, 
especially in matters of history and criticism. He loved 
books, and his mind was ever open to new truth, but he took 
comparatively little interest in new measures ; indeed, he can 
hardly be said to have had a single quality of mind or heart 
fitting him to become a platform orator. I say not this to his 
dispraise. Meanwhile he was an example to us all in the 
faithfulness and painstaking with which he prepared himself, 



1870.] ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WINTHROP. 239 

week after week, for the pulpit, where his success would have 
been greater than it was except for the circumstance that 
many of his felicities of thought and expression could only 
be appreciated by scholars like himself. 

Several of his hymns and other poems are not only ex- 
quisitely finished, but breathe a profoundly devotional spirit, 
and show that the author knew how to commune with God. 
In general society there was often a reserve upon him which 
some may have construed into coldness or indifference ; but 
to his intimate friends his manner was singularly gentle and 
tender and affectionate. This made him very dear to them, 
and it makes his memory very dear to them. 

Dr. Lothrop also addressed the meeting, and the Resolu- 
tion was unanimously adopted. 

Dr. Hedge was appointed to prepare the Memoir of Dr. 
Frothingham for the Society's Proceedings. 

The President presented a number of pamphlets from our 
Honorary Member, Count Circourt, containing articles written 
by him ; namely, the numbers of the " Annales Franc-Com- 
toises," &c, for September and October, 1869, containing 
" Memoires de Jules Chiflet, Abbe* de Balerne " ; the " Biblio- 
theque Universelle et Revue Suisse " for April, 1868, and July, 
1869 ; the former containing an article entitled " Le Journal 
d'une Reine," being a notice of " Leaves from the Journal of 
our Life in the Highlands, from 1848 to 1861, edited by Arthur 
Helps. London: Smith, Elder, & Co., 1868" ; the latter con- 
taining a review of a work entitled " Marie- Antoinette, Reine 
de France, par James de Chambrier, 2 vols, in 8vo. Neu- 
chatel, London, et Paris, Hachette, 1868 " ; and a pamphlet 
entitled " La Confederation Suisse. Paris : Charles Dounoil, 
Libraire-Editeur, 29 Rue Tournon, 1870. v The President was 
requested to acknowledge the above. 

The President also presented the Prospectus of the " Codex 
Diplomaticus Cavensis," a publication proposed to be made of 
one of the treasures of the monastery of La Cava, one of " the 



240 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

once mighty and still splendid monasteries of the kingdom of 
Naples." The Prospectus was transmitted by Count Circourt, 
who says of these monasteries : " They have been threatened 
with dissolution ; but, upon the unanimous voice of the lite- 
rary world (Dean Stanley has been most active for their pres- 
ervation), they have been spared, — not, indeed, as convents, 
but as repositories of the national archives and as literary 
institutions. . . . Now, they do endeavor to publish the in- 
edited and almost infinite riches of their archives. Nothing 
in the shape of ecclesiastical and canonic matters : the whole 
relates to the civil rights, the legislation (especially of the 
Lombard principalities), the general and provincial history, 
the commercial relations and connections with the Mussulman 
world during the Middle Ages. In a word, the mere reading 
of the Prospectus will convince you that no publication could 
be of more use to students than this one ; but the editors must 
be helped. I wish greatly that, through your kind mediation, 
some of the great literary establishments of your country 
would subscribe to the Codex Cavensis. America has, of late, 
done wonders in founding universities and collecting libra- 
ries : few better occasions can occur for enriching these recent 
and already opulent collections." 

The President also read a letter from Mrs. Jules Marcou, of 
Paris, a grand-daughter of Dr. Jeremy Belknap, addressed to 
our Associate Mr. Ticknor, in which she speaks of an article 
in the Boston " Daily Advertiser " of the 12th of March last, 
on the subject of the " Boston Massacre," so called. In this 
article reference is made to the testimony of one Jeremiah 
Belknap, supposed by the writer to be the historian of that 
name, as to what was witnessed by him on that fatal evening 
of the 5th of March. Mrs. Marcou desired to correct this 
statement, saying that Dr. Belknap at this time was a settled 
minister at Dover, and that the person referred to was an 
uncle of the historian. 

Mr. Deane read a letter from Judge Henry F. French, of 



1870.] AN ACCOUNT OF CAPTAIN F. LAHRBUSH. 241 

Concord, Mass., communicating the article referred to by 
Mrs. Marcou, of which he was the writer. In the article, men- 
tion is made of a William Merchant, one of the young men 
who was present at the affray on the evening of the 5th of 
March, as being of a well-known family in Boston, and as 
having descendants of great respectability, among whom was 
the wife of Judge French. A portrait of Merchant, painted in 
1755 — the family tradition says, by Copley — when the sub- 
ject of it was a child, at the age of five years, is in the pos- 
session of Judge French.* 

The President, referring to a discussion before the Society 
a few years since, as to whether persons said to have attained 
the age of one hundred years were really so old as alleged, 
read an account from the " New York Observer " of March 
17th, of a banquet given on the 9th of March by General J. 
Watts De Peyster, of that city, to Captain F. Lahrbush, in honor 
of his one hundi'ed and fifth birthday. General de Peyster gave 
a sketch of this wonderful man. The " Observer " says, — 

" He was born in England, March 9th, 1766. At the age of 
twenty-three he entered the British army. He was with Lord 
Nelson when Copenhagen was taken ; he was in the battle of 
Jena ; he saw the famous interview between Napoleon and 
Alexander, in 1807, at Tilsit, on the raft ; he was shot in the 
leg at Valencia, in 1808 ; he was on the field at Corunna, 
where Sir John Moore was killed. At the battle of Busaco, 
in 1810, he was wounded in the head and left for dead on the 
battle-field. Afterwards he was in the army in South Africa, 
and for three months was one of the British guard over Na- 
poleon, at St. Helena. In 1818, at the age of fifty-two, he 
sold out his commission in the army, and travelled extensively 

* A second article written by Judge French, giving more full details of the genealogy 
of the Merchant family, appeared in the " Daily Advertiser " (Supplement) of May 12. 
In this he shows that the portrait was probably painted two years later than the date 
given above, the subject of it having been born April 13, 1752. The error detected by 
Mrs. Marcou, as to the identity of the Jeremiah Belknap mentioned in the former com- 
munication, is also corrected. — Eds. 

31 



242 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

over the world, coming to this country in 1848, and taking up 
his residence in this city, where he is enjoying the evening of 
his days. Thus his reminiscences go back through his own 
experience and those of intimates, to the days of Prince 
Eugene and Charles XII., the 'Hero of the North.' He was 
well acquainted with Blucher, who was a subaltern in the 
Seven Years' War (1756-1763), in which Schwerin (compan- 
ion in arms of Marlborough and Prince Eugene, and born in 
1684) was a field-marshal. Thus from soldiers of high rank 
(whom he met in Prussia in 1806-7) he heard stories of the 
wars of the seventeenth century from the lips of conspicuous 
actors therein. And thus by eye and ear he has seen and 
heard the development of two centuries. It is wonderful to 
reflect that this man, moving intimately and daily among us, 
here present, drinking, eating, and conversing with us, con- 
versed, ate, and drank with men who knew other men who 
could relate stories of their own adventures when this city 
was a mere Dutch trading-post, and at a date when the French 
had as yet only established military posts along the tide- 
waters of Canada. 

" He is somewhat peculiar in his habits, rising at 3 o'clock, 
A.M., and taking a light breakfast; walking out at daylight, 
dining at 1, taking tea early and going to bed before 7 in the 
evening. His mental faculties are as bright as ever. He 
hears acutely and has good eyesight. His memory, even of 
recent events, is excellent. He takes a deep interest in mat- 
ters and things around him, and is a pleasant, genial compan- 
ion. As he rose to leave the table, he said, < God bless you, 
gentlemen ; I hope to meet you often on these interesting oc- 
casions ; ten years hence, I hope we will have had ten of these 
meetings.' He shook hands cordially with each guest, and 
walked off to his home as spry as any one of the company. 

" Captain Lahrbush deserves to be mentioned among the 
most extraordinary examples of longevity on record. His 
record is in itself remarkable, apart from his age ; and this 



1870.] LIST OF OFFICERS. 243 

extension so far into the second century of life, with his facul- 
ties unimpaired, renders him perhaps the most remarkable 
instance of longevity now in the world." * 

The business of the Annual Meeting was now taken up. 

Mr. Solomon Lincoln, from the Committee appointed to 
nominate a list of Officers of the Society, reported the fol- 
lowing names ; which were adopted by the Society : — 

President. 
Hon. ROBERT C. WINTHROP, LL.D Brookline. 

Vice-Presidents. 

Hon. CHARLES F. ADAMS, LL.D Quinct. 

Hon. EMORY WASHBURN, LL.D Cambridge. 

Recording Secretary. 
CHARLES DEANE, A.M Cambridge. 

Corresponding Secretary. 
Rev. CHANDLER ROBBINS, D.D Boston. 

Treasurer. 
Hon. RICHARD FROTHINGHAM, A.M Charlestown. 

Librarian. 
SAMUEL A. GREEN, M.D Boston. 

Cabinet-keeper. 
HENRY G. DENNY, A.M Boston. 

Standing Committee. 

Rev. GEORGE W. BLAGDEN, D.D Boston. 

Hon. JAMES M. ROBBINS Milton. 

HENRY W. TORREY, A.M Cambridge. 

THEODORE LYMAN, Esq Boston. 

Rev. HENRY M. DEXTER, D.D Boston. 

For the Committee. 

Solomon Lincoln. 

Boston, April 14, 1870. 

The Reports of the Standing Committee, the Librarian, the 
Cabinet-keeper, and the Treasurer were severally submitted 
and adopted ; Mr. Mason, from the Committee on the Treas- 
urer's account, having certified to its correctness. 

* The above account had been sent to the President by the venerable Charles Cleve- 
land of this city, who is himself ninety-eight years old. 



244 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 



Report of the Standing Committee, for the year 1869-70. 

The Standing Committee would hereby respectfully offer their 
Report of the transactions of the Society during the year just 
ended, and the present condition of the Society, in accordance 
with its By-laws. 

The Society has so quietly pursued its way that there is but 
little to mark its history the past year. 

The regular monthly meetings have been held, and these 
have been well attended, and with increasing interest. In ad- 
dition to those held at the rooms there have been several social 
meetings. The first was the regular June meeting, which took 
place at the residence of the President of the Society, in Brook- 
line, and the October meeting was held at the residence of our 
Associate Member, Amos A. Lawrence, Esq., in Longwood. 
Both of these were rendered the more interesting from local 
historical reminiscences. Two social evening meetings have 
been held. In December last, on the anniversary of the 
" Landing of the Pilgrims," the Society met, by invitation, 
at the house of our Associate Member, Robert M. Mason, Esq., 
where papers of an historical nature were read ; and in Feb- 
ruary was a meeting at the house of the Treasurer, Mr. 
Frothingham, in Charlestown, on which occasion he read an 
able paper on the " Declaration of Independence." Your 
Committee think these meetings have a good influence in 
keeping up the interest of the members, and trust that ar- 
rangements may be made to repeat them. 

The duty of examining the Library has been performed as 
required by the by-laws, and the Committee have the satisfac- 
tion of reporting the same in excellent condition, every volume 
being found in its place. For a more particular account of its 
increase and its wants, we refer to the report of the Librarian, 
which will be laid before the meeting. 

The whole number of volumes, including the Dowse Library, 






1870.] REPORT OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE. 215 

is nearly 19.000, and the number of pamphlets exceeds 
31,000. 

The necessity of more shelf-room still exists : but we trust 
the time is now near when, by the remodelling of the build- 
ing, these pressing wants will be supplied. 

The Committee have frequently had the subject of the alter- 
ation and improvement of the building occupied by the Society 
under consideration. The lease of the lower story will expire 
in one year from this time, when it will be desirable to com- 
mence immediately upon the improvement. Within the past 
month your Committee have caused plans to be drawn by an 
architect, with a view to ascertain the best mode of effecting 
the object, and also the probable cost. With only rough esti- 
mates it is supposed that the building can be enlarged and 
made in every way convenient, and, so far as possible, made 
fireproof, for about 822,000. This sum, we trust, could be 
raised by subscription, and thus leave the present resources of 
the Society untouched. 

For the present state of the finances the Committee refer 
to the report of the Treasurer, always clearly and definitely 
shown, and which will in this case exhibit satisfactory results. 

At the last annual meeting our Eesident Eoll consisted of 
ninety-eight members. Four members have since been elected, 
and the list now contains the names of ninety-nine members. 
Three Resident Members have died during the year. Five 
Corresponding Members and one Honorary Member have been 
elected, while six Corresponding Members and one Honorary 
Member have passed away. 

A new volume of Proceedings has been issued during the 
year, and another is in progress in the form of serial numbers, 
four of which are now printed, and the transactions brought 
down to the present meeting. Two volumes of Collections 
are now in press, one of which is a continuation of the valua- 
ble Winthrop Papers, and the other a volume of Aspinwall 
Papers relating to Virginia. A volume of great historical 



246 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

interest and value has been printed, being the course of Lec- 
tures delivered by the members of the Society at the Lowell 
Institute during the winter of 1868-69. Several papers of 
interest have been read at the stated meetings of the Society 
which have been printed in the Proceedings. 

The Cabinet is steadily increasing in interest and value, the 
details of which will be laid before you in the report of the 
Cabinet-keeper. 

The Committee are happy to congratulate the Society upon 
its continued prosperity and usefulness. At no time has it 
stood higher or been more useful to the community than now. 
Its archives, always open to the public under its regulations, 
are consulted more than ever before, and supply rich material 
in aid of historical research. While we hold the rank of being 
the oldest historical society in the country, may we strive to 
be among the most useful and influential. 
For the Committee. 

William G. Brooks, Chairman. 

The Report of the Treasurer. 
GENERAL ACCOUNT FOR THE YEAR ENDING APRIL, 1870. \ 

DEBITS. 

Frederick H. Hedge, Jr., salary $1,172.16 

George Arnold 892.71 

Insurance 404.65 

Incidental expenses 484.76 

City of Boston, Tax of 1869 685.00 

„ „ Betterment 40.00 

Printing 234.13 

Binding 43.64 

Coal 89.00 

Appleton Fund 732.18 

Massachusetts Historical Trust-Fund 269.57 

John Wilson & Son, printing Lectures delivered before the 

Lowell Institute 2,003.41 

$7,051.21 



CREDITS. 

Balance from old account $325.90 

Suffolk Savings Institution, rent 2,200.00 

„ „ „ taxes 685.00 

Amount carried forward ... * $3,210.90 



1870.] treasurer's report. 247 

Amount brought forward $3,210.90 

Coupons, Quincy & Palmyra Railroad 80.00 

„ Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad 80.00 

Assessments 578.00 

Admissions 40.00 

Sales of Society's Publications 1,881.55 

Copyright of sales of Life of J. Q. Adams 4.20 

Hon. John A. Lowell, for Thirteen Lectures before the Lowell 

Institute, balance 703.41 

John E. Thayer & Brothers, interest 118.63 

Sundries 1.50 

Balance to new account 353.02 

$7,051.21 



The undersigned who were appointed a committee to ex- 
amine the accounts of the Treasurer of the Massachusetts 
Historical Society for the year ending April, 1870, have com- 
pared the vouchers with the entries and find them correct, and 
the balances on the ledger as follows : — 

DEBITS. 

Appleton Fund $133.20 

General account 353.02 

Cash 2,120.51 

$2,606.73 

CREDITS. 

Massachusetts Historical Fund $1,762.43 

The Peabody Fund 844.30 

$2,606.73 

Robert M. Mason, > '' 

N. Thayee, I Com ™ Uee - 

Boston, April 12, 1870. 

THE APPLETON FUND. 

Account ending April, 1870. 

DEBITS. 

Balance due the Treasurer $666.58 

Benj. Bradley & Co., binding, &c 27.72 

John Wilson & Son, printing volume IX. of Collections . . . 171.08 

$865.38 



CREDITS. 

One year's interest of the Fund $732.18 

Balance due the Treasurer 133.20 

$865.38 



248 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL TRUST-FUND. 

The accumulation of income to September 1, 1868, was 
$1,492.86, making the amount on which to cast the interest 
from September 1, 1868, $4,492.86. 

Account ending Sept. 1, 1859. 

DEBITS. 

Balance to new account $1,762.43 

$1,762.48 

CREDITS. 

Balance of old account $1,492.86 

Interest one year on $4,492.86, to September 1, 1869 ..... 269.57 

$1,762.43 

THE PEABODY FUND. 

The Proceedings for 1866-67 and 1867-69 were printed 
from the income of this Fund, and another volume is passing 
through the press. 

Account to April, 1869. 

DEBITS. 

Paid John Wilson & Sons, printing Proceedings $1,089.18 

„ 412.62 

Paid Benj. Bradley & Sons, binding 90.90 

64.00 

Charles A. Cutter 50.00 

Balance to new account 844.30 

$2,551.00 

CREDITS. 

Balance of old account $1,225.38 

Proceeds of Coupons of September 750.00 

„ „ March 575.62 

$2,551.00 

For an account of the " Dowse Fund," and of the " Property 
of the Society," see the Treasurer's account of last year, no 
change having taken place. 

THE INCOME. 

The income of the Society consists of an annual assessment 
on each resident member of seven dollars, or, instead, the 
payment of sixty dollars ; the admission-fee of ten dollars, of 



1870.] librarian's report. 249 

new members ; the rent of the lower floor of the Society's 
building ; the sales of the publications of the Society ; the 
sales of the " Life of John Quincy Adams " ; the interest on 
the Peabody Fund ; a bond of 81,000 ; and a note of 81,000. 

The books are sold at the Society's rooms. The total sales 
the past year amounted to 81,881.55, of which 81,000.85 were 
from the sales of the Lectures delivered before the Lowell 
Institute. 

In 1868, the Society received a legacy of 82,000 from the 
late Henry Harris, Esq., one-half of which was invested in a 
Coupon Bond of the Quincy & Palmyra Railroad Co. The 
remainder has been invested in a Coupon Note of the Hanni- 
bal & St. Joseph Railroad Co. Both securities bear eight per 
cent interest, and are free of government tax. No conditions 
were attached to this legacy ; and, if thought desirable, it may 
be constituted into a permanent fund. 

The proceeds of the Peabody Fund, the next year, will be 
ample to meet the publication of the volume of Proceedings 
in the press, and a volume of Collections may be printed 
out of the general funds of the Society. 

. Respectfully submitted, 

Richard Frothingham, Treasurer. 

Boston, April 12, 1870. 

Annual Report of the Librarian. 

The Librarian has the honor to submit his Annual Re- 
port. 

The accessions during the year have been above the average 
number, and of a valuable character. They may be put under 
the following heads : — 

Books 550 

Pamphlets 3041 

Bound volumes of newspapers 10 

Unbound volumes of newspapers 4 

Amount carried forward 3605 

32 



250 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Amount brought forward 3605 

Separate numbers of newspapers 375 

Maps . . . 30 

Plans 3 

Broadsides 49 

Volumes of manuscripts 20 

Manuscripts 21 

Fac-similes of manuscripts 5 

Manuscript maps 2 

4110 

Of the books added, 365 have been given, 78 have been 
procured by exchange, and 105 bought. Of the pamphlets 
added, 2720 have been gifts, 313 exchanges, and 8 bought. 
There have been 64 volumes and 136 pamphlets (duplicates), 
exchanged. These exchanges have been made, for the most 
part, with other libraries, and. in making them the Librarian 
has had the sanction of the Standing Committee. By this 
means books which were wanted for the Library have been 
obtained, as well as shelf-room, which was equally needed. 
Of the Society's publications, 17 volumes of Collections, 
5 of Proceedings, 4 of Lectures, 2 of the Catalogues, and 
3 other volumes have been exchanged. There have been 
received back into the Library, by exchange or gift, 32 volumes 
of Collections and 18 numbers, besides 4 volumes of Pro- 
ceedings. There are now in the Library nearly 19,000 vol- 
umes, including the files of newspapers and the manuscripts, 
and more than 30,000 pamphlets. 

During the year there have been taken out 141 books, in- 
cluding 11 pamphlets, and all have been returned. It should 
be borne in mind, however, that the Library is rather one of 
reference than of circulation ; otherwise the statement of this 
fact might give a wrong impression of its use. 

Mr. Lawrence has continued his gifts, having added, since 
the last Annual Meeting, 50 volumes and 22 pamphlets, all 
relating to the Great Rebellion. About one-half of these 



1870.] cabinet-keeper's report. 251 

were works published at the South during or since the war. 
The collection in this department is now so full that it is de- 
sired to keep it as nearly complete as possible. Every thing 
is wanted that has even a distant connection with the causes 
that led to the great and final result. Besides the more formal 
and pretentious works, the aim is to save funeral sermons, 
private memoirs, and other publications not widely known or 
circulated, which relate to persons who took part in the war, 
whatever section of the country they may have represented in 
the struggle. 

The Librarian refrains from repeating the complaints that 
have so often been made by his predecessors or himself in re- 
gard to the want of shelf-room. Almost every space now 
available for books is in use, and it will«30on be necessary to 
increase our accommodations. As the Standing Committee 
have certain changes of the building in contemplation, the 
Librarian does not enlarge on this subject, which has now 
become chronic in the annual reports. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

Samuel A. Green, Librarian, 

April 14, 1870. 

Report of the Cabinet-keeper for the year ending April 14, 1870. 

The Cabinet of the Society has received additions during 
the past year from twenty-five different persons : otherwise, 
its condition has not materially changed since the last annual 
report. 

Among the gifts worthy of special mention are a well-exe- 
cuted medal in bronze, bearing likenesses of John Gough 
Nichols, of London, and of Lucy Lewis Nichols, his wife, 
struck to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of their 
marriage, — Mr. Nichols being a corresponding member of 
the Society ; the cradle of Gov. Joseph Dudley, from Dudley 
Hall, of Medford ; a colored engraving of the Boston Massacre, 
by Paul Revere, and a curious pencil-SKetch of the old build- 



252 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

ing till lately standing at the corner of North and Union 
Streets, Boston, including also some of the market-stalls, 
made by James Kidder, of Charlestown, about 1818, — both 
from William H. Keith, of Charlestown ; eight Confederate 
flags, captured at different times and places by the United 
States naval forces under command of Admiral Farragut, and 
given to the Society by Capt. Gustavus V. Fox, lately assistant 
secretary of the navy, at the suggestion of Mr. Whitney ; an 
elaborately-carved war-club, brought from the Sandwich Islands 
in 1797 by Capt. William Ballard, of Boston, and given to the 
Society by William Ballard of Brooklyn, N.Y., through John 
J. May of Boston ; a collection of sixty-seven engraved por- 
traits of distinguished Frenchmen, from Mr. Whitmore ; a 
framed photograph, colored in India ink, of the members of 
the Society present at the meeting at the house of the Presi- 
dent in June last, from Mr. Winthrop ; a portrait in oil of 
Benjamin Franklin, from Miss Martha B. Wheaton, of Cam- 
bridge ; oil-portraits of Gov. Joseph Dudley and Rebecca Tyng 
Dudley, his wife, from their descendant, Henry A. S. D. Dud- 
ley, of Boston, and a box containing gold and silver medals 
and other valuable testimonials presented to Dr. William T. 
G. Morton in recognition of his claims to the discovery of the 
anaesthetic properties of sulphuric ether, from his widow. 

There has also been placed in the cabinet the collection of 
coins, &c, of Mr. Savage, which collection was referred to a 
committee consisting of the Cabinet-keeper, the Librarian, and 
Mr. Appleton, to examine and report on. Mr. Appleton, who 
has made a careful examination on behalf of the Committee, 
reports that " the collection comprises about two thousand 
coins, medals, &c, in gold, silver, copper, bronze, tin, and 
paper. There are also some relics of various kinds. A few 
pieces of particular interest and value have been arranged in 
a small tray and placed where they can readily be examined." 

In conclusion, the Cabinet-keeper must repeat what has often 
before been commented on in the reports of his predecessors 



1870.] A LETTER OF 1776. 253 

in office, and of himself, that the accommodations for the dis- 
play of the smaller and more valuable articles belonging to the 
cabinet are quite inadequate, and are such as to repress rather 
than to encourage the increase of its collection ; and he again 
expresses the hope that some means may be found to do justice 
to the Society's possessions. 

• Respectfully submitted, 

Henry G. Denny, Cabinet-keeper. 

Boston, April 14, 1870. 

Mr. Lincoln submitted the following, which met with a 
unanimous response : — 

Col. Thomas Aspinwall, senior Vice-President of the So- 
ciety, having declined being a candidate for re-election to that 
office, — 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to him 
for his services as an officer of the Society for many years, 
and for his valuable contributions to historical learning during 
a long and honorable life. 

Voted, That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
Wm. G. Brooks, Esq., and Charles C. Smith, Esq., retiring 
members of the Standing Committee, for their valuable and 
efficient services in the discharge of the duties of their office. 

Mr. Brooks, from the Standing Committee, spoke of some 
plans which Mr. Harris, the architect, had prepared at the 
Committee's request, in view of the contemplated alteration 
in the Society's building. The subject w%s laid over till 
another meeting. . 

The President communicated the following letter which had 
been placed in his hands by our Corresponding Member, J. 
Francis Fisher, Esq., of Philadelphia : — 

Geo: Town, March 17th, 1776. 

I am convinced, my dear Friend, that 'tis unnecessary to give you a 
circumstantial account of the occurrences w* have hitherto prevented 
my acknowledging your two favors. You know me too well to think 



254 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

it proceeded from Disregard, and I assure you it is not the effect of my 
Indolence. I wrote some time since to T. Coxe, & have had the 
happiness of two letters from him. 

We are in daily Expectation of hearing some material News from 
Georgia. Their apprehensions from several of his Majesty's ships 
which lay in Savannah River with two Transports, containing, 'tis sup- 
pos'd, about five hundred Men, were great & not without foundation. 
Several Merchantmen had receiv'd a quantity of Rice & Indigo on 
board & proposed to sail (contrary to Resolutions) under the Pro- 
tection of these Vessels of War, when five hundred Carolineans were 
ordered to march to Georgia & unrig them, but the Business was 
dispatch'd before their arrival by some Georgians from the Country. 
Soon after, many of the regulars boarded the dismasted shipping un- 
seen, & when Cap* was sent to bring the rigging on shore & 

did not return, the People began to be apprehensive of some trick, & 
were confirmed in their suspicions by the report of two sailors who 
came on shore. Some unarmed men then were rowed to the Vessels 
to demand the Prisoners, & they were also detained ; the Georgians 
then threaten 'd to fire on them from a Battery hastily raised with two 
four Pounders, in case they refus'd to liberate the Prisoners, & 
insulting Language from the ships was the Consequence. The Fire 
then began, & the regulars declared by Writing that they w? treat 
with any two men in whom the People most confided, & no others. 
Such men accordingly went, accompanied with 12 Rifle-men in an 
open Boat, & were fired on as soon as they arriv'd close under the 
stern of Cap* Inglis's Vessel, but fortunately escaped with little or no 
damage. A Brisk Firing then began, & a Vessel on Fire set adrift 
among them, which in a great measure answer'd the Intent ; many of 
the distrest soldiery were obligd to crawl in the Marsh w^ afforded 
but little defence from the expert Rifle-men. The spectacle by all ac- 
counts was a pleasing, horrid spectacle. 

The Insurrection & Defeat of the Scots in N. Carolina, you have 
no doubt been already particularly inform'd of. 

The Inhabitants of Ch* Town are making all Preparations to re- 
ceive the Enemy, & seem to wish a trial of their mettle ; they have 
been extremely active in incurring immense Expences by military 
preparations. " Common Sense " hath made independants of the major- 
ity of the Country, & Gadsden is as mad with it, as ever he was with- 
out it. 

W? H. Drayton, has been judge, Counsellor, General & Com- 



1870.] A LETTER OF 1776. 255 

mander of a Ship of War, in the space of a twelve Month. What 
may we not do, when led on by men of such universal Genius ? To 
be serious, I wish TVe may not be disappointed in our sanguine Ex- 
pectations, but I can't help fearing that we undertake matters, which our 
abilities are incapable of carrying thro'. However, be the consequence 
what it will I am determin'd to exert myself in defence of my Country 
& of course in support of the measures adopted, & am only sorry that 
the Power of an obscure Individual can be of little service. I have 
been a Month on actual service, & have only been promoted to 
Feugal-man (I believe I spell wrong) of a Company. 

I was not much surpris'd tho' much anger'd at the ridiculous mar- 
riage of that little simpleton K. I. * * # * * * 
As for N. H.'s refusal of thirty thousand pounds & 
being an honourable Mans Convenience, I look upon it as one of the 
unaccountable accidents which are constantly turning up in this strange 
world. 

I heartily condole with T. Hanson ; the Bargain consider'd in any 
point of view [torn] w? have suited him well ; tell the Major I will 
assure him success if he will continue his attacks, only let him vary 
the mode. 

I hope Miss N. Bond is well. P. Smith is soon to be married to a 
Daughter of Henry Middleton. As for Harleston I sometimes see 
him, but have never convers'd with him ; his Father's Death has 
thrown him into an immense Fortune. My best respects to your sis- 
ters & my Compliments to my acquaintances in general. I am sorry 
Franks is gone to Ticonderoga on my own ace!, glad on my country's. 
My Gratitude to him & family is inexpressible & I entertain the 
best sentiments of that dear Girl his sister. You need not let her 
know this, for probably it [may] lay the foundation for what she is yet 
a stranger to, Pride. I shall make no apology for this scrawl, but had 
like to have forgot to mention that I am on a visit to George-town 
where I soon expect to settle. Poor Biddle is dead ; his imprudence 
got the better of his Constitution. A Gentleman waits Dinner for 
me, I am therefore oblig'd to hurry more than I wish, to let you know 
that with impatience I expect a letter from you to 

W? Alex? Htrne. 

(Addressed to) 

M? W? TlLGHMAN, 

Philad* 



256 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

The following communication from Mr. Fisher, subsequently 
received by the President, furnishes some interesting annota- 
tions on the Hyrne letter: — 

Philadelphia, March 10th, 1870. 

To the Hon. Robert C. Winthkop, 

President of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

My dear Mr. Winthrop, — I have been a little doubtful whether 
I was right in giving the letter of Mr. Hyrne for publication. Its 
reference to some of the early incidents of the war of the Revolution, 
and to a remarkable act of hostility on the part of the Carolinians and 
Georgians before the Declaration of Independence, which I have not 
seen elsewhere, led me to think .it deserved preservation, as evidence 
of the spirit prevailing in the region where it was written. I have 
not at hand the local histories which would perhaps throw more light 
upon the subject. 

The letter was found among the papers of the late Chief- Justice 
Tilghman, and, as well as I can ascertain, is the only one extant of 
his correspondence with Mr. Hyrne. It should be kept in mind that 
both were very young; Mr. Tilghman only in his twentieth year, 
Hyrne probably a little older, as he was a graduate at our Philadelphia 
College, of the Class of 1773. The name of Hyrne is not, I think, 
now to be found in South Carolina, though it is remembered as one of 
a family in the Georgetown district. There are also in our College 
Catalogue the names of several Carolinians of that period, among 
them that of John J. Pringle, afterwards a student at the Temple, 
and a distinguished lawyer in Charleston. 

There were a great many from Maryland, of which province Wil- 
liam Tilghman was a native, and perhaps also Mr. Hyrne. He must 
have been very familiar with the best society of Philadelphia, and 
indeed his letter indicates that we had at that time much more social 
intercourse with the South than with the people east of the Hudson. 
I may add that I do not recollect the name of a single New Englander 
settling in Pennsylvania before the revolution except Dr. Franklin. 

Among the names mentioned in Mr. Hyrne's letter I may notice 
that of Captain Inglis, commander of one of the British ships of war 
lying off Savannah. He was a native of Philadelphia, a great uncle 
of my wife's on her mother's side. He entered the Royal Navy when 
a boy, and rose to the rank of Admiral, dying in Scotland where his 
descendants reside. 



1870.] LETTER FROM J. FRANCIS FISHER. 257 

" Franks " was, I think, a native of New York, afterwards Major 
Franks of the American army, and aide-de-camp of Arnold at West 
Point. His curious testimony to Mrs. Arnold's innocence of all com- 
plicity in her husband's treason may be found in the privately printed 
preface to the Shippen Papers. His sister, to whom Hyrne makes 
such a complimentary allusion, was without doubt Becky T., the witty 
friend and correspondent of General Charles Lee (see his Memoirs). 
She afterwards married a General Johnston of the British army. 

Their father, David Franks, was a wealthy Jew of high social 
position. He married, I think, a Delancey, and although his oldest 
son was brought up, according to marriage stipulation, in the Hebrew 
faith, his daughters made distinguished matches in Christian families. 

Miss N(ancy) Bond became the second wife of General John Cad- 
walader of the army of the Revolution. 

P. Smith was Peter Smith of South Carolina, his wife a daughter 
of Henry Middleton, holding for some months the presidency of Con- 
gress after the death of Peyton Randolph in 1776 ; succeeded in his 
chair by John Hancock, and in his place as delegate by his son 
Arthur Middleton. 

William Henry Drayton filled all sorts of public places- in South 
Carolina, and was a good deal satirized in the Tory lampoons of the 
day. See the privately printed poems of the Rev. Dr. Odell. His 
memoirs were afterwards printed in two volumes octavo. He was 
not of Drayton Hall (as I have recently seen stated), nor the ancestor 
of Colonel William Drayton, distinguished in the army of 1812, and 
afterwards in Congress, perhaps the last Federalist there. 

Gadsden was of course Christopher Gadsden, afterwards in Con- 
gress, and governor of South Carolina. 

I commit the letter and my annotations to your care to present to 
our Society, and use them as you please. 

Believe me, with very sincere regards, 

Most respectfully yours, 

J. Francis Fisher. 

Dr. Peabodt announced the Memoir of the late Alvan Lam- 
son, D.D., as ready for publication ; and Prof. Parsons, through 
Mr. Deane, the Memoir of the late Charles G. Loring, LL.D. 

33 



258 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Aran,. 



MEMOIE 



ALYAN LAMSON, D.D. 



BY ANDREW P. PEABODY. 



Alt an Lamson, the son of John and Hannah (Ayres) Lamson, 
was born in Weston, Mass., Nov. 18, 1792. He was fitted for 
college at Phillips Academy, Andover, and was graduated at 
Harvard College in 1814. He held a high rank in his class, 
and was even at that early age distinguished for maturity of 
mind and character. Of the esteem in which he was held it 
may be ample proof that he was chosen, on graduating, to the 
office of tutor in Bowdoin College, then in its infancy, and, 
while waiting for permanent endowments, seeking to sustain 
itself in being by the infusion from year to year of the best 
young life which Harvard could furnish for its nourishment. 
He afterward studied theology at the Cambridge Divinity 
School, being a member of its first regularly organized class. 
He was licensed to preach in 1817, and on Oct. 29, 1818, 
was ordained as pastor of the First Church in Dedham. In 
1825 he was married to Frances Fidelia Ward, daughter of 
the Hon. Artemas Ward. In 1837 he received the degree of 
S.T.D. from Harvard University. For nearly forty years he 
continued at his post, in the quiet, diligent, and faithful dis- 
charge of his office, and with uninterrupted health. Then 
came a season of prolonged illness and disablement, the 
causes of which eluded medical skill, but from which he was 
partially restored by rest and European travel. On return- 
ing to his work, he found himself no longer adequate to the 




oL-^L^siA^j 



1870.] MEMOIR OF ALVAN LAMSON, D.D. 259 

severe demands often made upon the minister of a large parish, 
and a chronic bronchitis rendered the use of his voice in 
preaching at times difficult and painful. On these grounds, 
against the wishes, though with the consent of his parish, he 
resigned his charge in October, 1860. He continued to live 
among his people, in the kindest intercourse with them, and in 
the enjoyment of their undivided reverence and affection. 
With a mind undimmed and active, a serene and sunny tem- 
perament, a cheerful home, and an entire freedom from care 
and anxiety, he gave promise of a lengthened and happy old 
age. But he was probably more feeble than he seemed. 
There was, however, not the slightest failure as to mental vigor, 
or as to the capacity of enjoyment and of ministering to the 
happiness of others, and only the very gentlest decline of 
bodily strength, till within a few days of his death. He died, 
after a brief illness, painlessly and calmly, on the 18th of 
July, 1864. 

Dr. Lamson was pre-eminently a scholar. Well read in the 
classics,- and versed in the methods and results of biblical 
criticism, he devoted himself chiefly to the study of the Chris- 
tian Fathers and Christian Archaeology. In these departments 
of learning he was conversant with original authorities, and was 
himself an always safe authority to those who could not or 
would with him seek the fountains. At the same time he was 
a man of general culture, familiar with the best literature of 
his own tongue and day. 

He was indefatigably industrious. Faithful in the discharge 
of his professional duty, he wasted no time in its conventional 
routine ; but gave to his books all the time he could command, 
and regarded himself as most truly serving his people by ren- 
dering himself more fit to serve them. 

His style was marked by precision, simplicity, and purity. 
It was never diffuse or feeble, and at times it was characterized 
by rare terseness and energy, especially in controversy. Not 
that he loved or sought controversy. He was one of the most 



260 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

peaceful of men. But when circumstances or a paramount 
sense of duty forced him into the lists, he used his pen as one 
who meant to lay it down speedily, yet not till it had done full 
execution. 

As a preacher, he was not popular in the lower sense of the 
word ; but he sustained throughout his ministry a reputation 
among the foremost of his coevals for sound and vigorous 
thought, elegant diction, profound seriousness of aim and pur- 
pose, and the capacity equally of instruction and edification. 
He was always listened to with interest, and his sermons were 
most prized by the wisest and best men. It would be difficult 
to imagine that he should ever have written a feeble, slovenly, 
or unprofitable sermon. His parish contained many persons 
of superior position, intelligence, and culture, and he was 
never held by them in higher estimation than wjien he was 
compelled to resign his charge. 

In private life he was genial, amiable, kind, hospitable. 
He can have had no enemy ; and, though retiring in his habits, 
he had many loving and warmly devoted friends. His man- 
ners had a little of the formality of the old school of gentle- 
men, but at the same time the winning grace, the heart-felt 
courtesy, and the careful consideration for others, that belonged 
to the highest type of that school. In purity and integrity, in 
assiduous diligence, in meekness and charity, in a life of un- 
ostentatious sanctity, he adorned the religion he preached, and 
has left a memory which will be tenderly cherished, not alone 
by his few surviving coevals, but by none more than by those 
who first knew him when with the ripeness of venerable years 
he blended the modest simplicity of ingenuous youth. 

Dr. Lamson's principal publications were a volume of Ser- 
mons, Boston, 1857 ; and a work entitled " The Church of 
the First Three Centuries ; or, Notices of the Lives and Opin- 
ions of the Early Fathers, with Special Reference to the Doc- 
trine of the Trinity ; illustrating its late Origin and gradual 
Formation," Boston, 1860. 



1870.] MEMOIR OF ALVAN LAMSON, I>.D. 261 

This last is a work of very profound research ; and, though 
the author's conclusions are open to grave doubt and serious 
discussion, the affluence of his learning, and his candor in the 
presentation of authorities adverse no less than favorable to 
his own opinions, will be admitted by none more readily than 
by his intelligent antagonists. 

Besides these volumes, Dr. Lamson published very numerous 
occasional sermons, and was for many years a frequent con- 
tributor to the " Christian Examiner.' ' 

/ 

LIST OF THE PUBLICATIONS OF DR. LAMSON. 

Sermons. 12mo. pp. 424. 1857. 

The Church of the First Three Centuries : or, Notices of the Lives and 
Opinions of some of the Early Fathers, with special reference to the 
Doctrine of the Trinity : illustrating its late Origin and gradual Forma- 
tion. 8vo. pp. 352. 1860. 

Second Edition of the same, revised and enlarged ; edited by Ezra Abbot. 
8vo. pp. 410. 1865. 

Pamphlets. 

Sermon on the Adaptation of Christianity. 1825. 

Remarks on the Genius and Writings of Soame Jenyns, and on the Internal 
Evidences of Christianity. 1826. 

Sermon preached at the Ordination of Rev. Charles C. Sewall, at Danvers, 
1827. 

Discourse at the Dedication of Bethlehem Chapel, Augusta, Maine, 1827. 

Discourse on the Validity of Congregational Ordination, (Dudleian Lecture, 
1834). 

Sermon on the Sin against the Holy Ghost. 1835. 

A History of the First Church and Parish in Dedham, in three Discourses, 
delivered Nov. 29, and Dec. 2, 1838 ; published in 1839. 

A Discourse delivered on the day of the National Fast on occasion of the 
Death of President Harrison, 1841. 

Congregationalism. A Discourse delivered before the Massachusetts Con- 
vention of Congregational Ministers, 1846. 

The Memory of John Robinson. A Discourse delivered at Dedham, Sun- 
day, Dec. 21, 1851. 

Impressions of Men and Things Abroad. A Sermon preached at Dedham, 
Sept. 11, 1853, after an absence of some months in Europe. 

Agricultural Life in some of its Intellectual Aspects. An Address delivered 
before the Norfolk Agricultural Society, Sept. 30, 1857. 



262 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

A Sermon preached Oct. 31, 1858, the Sunday after the Fortieth Anniversary 

of his Ordination. 
A Discourse preached Oct. 28, 1860, on Resigning the Pastoral Charge of 

the First Church and Parish in Dedham, after a Ministry of Forty-two 

Years. 

Funeral Sermons. 

On Ebenezer Fisher, Jr., 1847. 
,, Mrs. Mary Dean, 1851. 
„ Rev. John White, 1852. 
,, John Endicott, 1857. 
,, Hon. James Richardson, 1858. 

Tracts (Unitarian). 

On the Doctrine of Two Natures in Jesus Christ. 1st Series, No. 20. (Re- 
printed in England.) 

On the Foundation of our Confidence in "the Saviour. 1st Series, No. 89. 
(Reprint of Sermon at Ordination of C C. Sewall.) 

On Earnestness in Religion. 1st Series, No. 188. 

What is Unitarianism ? 1st Series, No. 202. (Reprint, after revision, of 
the article on ''Unitarian Congregationalists," in Rupp's " History of all 
the Religious Denominations in the United States. 1 ') 

In 1830 and 1831, Dr. Lamson, with Rev. S. Barrett, edited the "Uni- 
tarian Advocate," Vols. 1, 2, 3, 4, New Series. 

In 1835, with Rev. Geo. Ripley, he edited the " Boston Observer." 
From January, 1844, to May, 1849, with Rev. Dr. Gannett, he edited the 
" Christian Examiner." 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 263 

MEMOIR 

OF 

CHARLES GREELY LORING. 

BY THEOPHILUS PARSONS. 



Mr. Losing was born in Boston, on the second of May, 1Y94. 
His father, the Hon. Caleb Loring, was an eminent merchant. 
His mother, Anne Greely, was a daughter of Captain John 
Greely, who was killed while defending his ship, a letter-of- 
marque, against an English frigate, near Marblehead, in the 
War of Independence. It may be mentioned as an interesting 
incident, that the commander of the frigate sent his body and 
his sword to his family, with a letter expressing admiration of 
his gallantry and courage. Mr. Loring' s paternal ancestors 
were among the earliest settlers at Plymouth, whence they soon 
removed to Hull, and thence to Boston. 

He was during his whole life a citizen of Boston. After 
attending some private schools, he went to the public Latin 
School, left it as a medal scholar, entered Harvard College as 
a Sophomore in 1809, and was graduated in 1812. His high 
position in his class was shown by his having assigned to him, 
at graduation, the Latin salutatory oration. 

He went at once to Litchfield ; and there, in the Law School 
in that town, prosecuted his legal studies. His room-mate was 
Peleg Sprague, who had been his classmate in college. Be- 
tween Mr. Loring and this excellent and eminent man an 
affectionate friendship grew up, which never knew an interrup- 
tion. 



264 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

Mr. Loring completed his professional studies in the office 
of the Hon. Samuel Hubbard, who was afterwards a Justice of 
the Supreme Judicial Court of this State. At that time three 
years of study were required in this State for admission as an 
attorney, who was not permitted to argue cases ; after two years 
more the student became a counsellor of the court of Common 
Pleas, in which he could then act as advocate ; and in two years 
more he became a counsellor of the Supreme Court. Mr. Hub- 
bard was compelled to abandon his business for a time by the ill- 
ness of his wife, while Mr. Loring was in his office ; and, although 
only a student, he was selected by Mr. Hubbard and deputed 
to take charge of his business ; and at his request, and with 
the consent of his clients, Mr. Loring argued several of Mr. 
Hubbard's cases before the Supreme Court. 

He was admitted as an attorney in 1815, as counsellor below 
in 1817, and as full counsellor in 1819. In 1816 he formed a 
partnership with his classmate, Franklin Dexter, which con- 
tinued until 1819, when Mr. Dexter was associated with the 
Hon. William Prescott, to whose daughter he was affianced. 

Mr. Loring would sometimes speak of his early professional 
career, as if his progress had been slow. But I was admitted 
to the bar in 1819, four years after him ; my office was near 
his, and I used to think that his office was full of business. 
Indeed it still seems to me that Mr. Loring came almost at 
once into a large business of the best kind. I have known no 
instance of a young man acquiring so soon and holding so 
firmly a wide clientage of the most valuable character. There 
were many causes for this, some of which lay outside of him- 
self. His substitution for Mr. Hubbard was useful ; and his 
family friendships gave him assistance. The coming into his 
hands, at an early stage of his career, of interesting cases in 
which he met with success, was very helpful. But none of 
these things can do more than help a young man. Often in 
the biographies of eminent lawyers we read of this or that 
" accident," as it seems and is called, which lifted them into 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 265 

notice and began a long course of prosperity. But such acci- 
dents lie in wait for most men who are ready to profit by them. 
Life is full of these favorable circumstances ; but it is not full 
of instances in which they are turned to the best account. If 
they are not, they pass out of notice and are forgotten. But, 
if they are used as they may be used, to lead not merely to an 
immediate result, but to a success which is not a fruit plucked 
for to-day but a seed sown to grow and bear its own fruits in 
long succession, then they are remembered by the man himself 
and by others, and are referred to as the cause of a prosperity 
of which they were only the occasion and the means. I do 
but present the same thought in other words, when I say that 
the most favorable circumstances can do no more for a young 
man than give him an opportunity of showing himself as he 
is. In fact they compel him to show himself as he is ; for, if 
he fails to improve the opportunity, this failure shows him to 
be wanting in some of the elements of character which are 
needed to insure success. 

How was it with Mr. Loring ? He brought to the bar good 
sense ; that kind and measure of learning which is the neces- 
sary result of patient, earnest, and intelligent study under good 
instruction ; the capacity and the habit of industry, or rather 
of sustained, persistent energy ; a strong and constant sense 
of fidelity to all duty ; and unfailing courage. It was well for 
him that propitious circumstances came to him s6on after his 
entrance into the profession. But if they had not come to him, 
he would have found them, or made them. To a man so well 
fitted for usefulness in his profession, the question of success 
was only a question of time and manner ; at some time and in 
some way it was sure to come. 

Mr. Loring was a clear and cogent reasoner. I do not say 
that he possessed remarkable logical power. But he saw with 
distinctness the reasons which had led him to a conclusion, 
and was able to present them to others with equal distinct- 
ness. 

34 



266 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

He was not eloquent, and never sought to be. No one knew 
better how very small a part of the common civil cases tried 
in court are in any degree dependent upon what is commonly 
called eloquence ; by which I mean a successful appeal to the 
passions or emotions. There is, indeed, a true forensic elo- 
quence, by which I now mean a distinct and vivid presentation 
to the mind of the tribunal of all the facts and principles of a 
case, so stated that they cannot but be clearly seen, and so 
arranged as to support each other and lead by an unbroken 
progress to the desired conclusion. In this eloquence he cer- 
tainly was not deficient. 

His arguments were unusually long. He spoke from a well- 
prepared brief, and was careful to omit nothing which seemed 
to him to belong to the case. But he held the attention of 
the court or jury to the end. I think this was caused mainly 
by his own earnestness. He was zealous for the interests of 
his clients, and never concealed his zeal. He always thought 
he ought to succeed, and it was evident that he labored so 
strenuously because he thought so. It was impossible that 
this firm conviction should not exert a strong influence upon a 
jury, and often awake in them a conviction in sympathy with 
his own. 

It always seemed to me that, if he had been disposed to 
cultivate the eloquence of the passions, he could have done so 
with much success. Touches of it were not unknown to those 
who were in the habit of conversing with him on topics in 
which he took a deep interest. His strong convictions, his 
warmth of feeling, his readiness and clearness of expression, — 
all would have helped him. I may be wrong in this, and cer- 
tainly am, if he was right in one of his own most decided 
opinions ; for this was, that he had no power of eloquence 
whatever. I could not quite agree in this, if only from having 
witnessed one striking instance to the contrary. Very many 
years ago, I was with him in an action against an insurance 
company. The plaintiff, an Italian, had insured against fire, 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 267 

for $10,000, a large collection of very beautiful works of art. 
These were stored in the dwelling-house in which he lived with 
his wife and family. A fire broke out, and the articles were 
nearly destroyed ; and the wife and children of the plaintiff 
were saved with difficulty. One of the points taken in defence 
was a suggestion, resting on no evidence, that he set fire to the 
house to get the insurance money. Mr. Loring, as senior 
counsel, closed the argument for the plaintiff; and the way in 
which he dealt with that suggestion, as charging upon the 
plaintiff, with an utter wantonness of accusation, the great 
crime of exposing his wife and children to imminent danger 
of a fearful death, merely to recover by this fraud a sum which 
was not shown to be larger than a sale of the goods would 
have brought him, convinced me that he had or might have 
acquired the faculty of passionate and powerful eloquence. I 
remember that the jury returned their verdict almost at once, 
and gave the plaintiff the utmost he could claim under the 
policy of insurance. 

I must not omit to notice one part of his practice, which is 
large with all eminent lawyers, and was very large with him ; 
that of giving opinions on cases presented to him. For this 
he was eminently qualified. Learning, a thorough understand- 
ing of the principles of law, industry, patience, and caution, 
all combined to give value to his opinions, and confidence in 
them to his clients and the community. , 

At that time the division of labor among lawyers was not, 
perhaps, so great as it is now, and it is not now well defined. 
Mr. Loring's cases and business were of all kinds, and in all 
he was successful. But there were two important branches in 
which he certainly had no superior, if indeed, for many years, 
he had a rival. These were the law of marine insurance, and 
the law of real property. 

From 1825 to 1855, he was in full practice in the courts of 
Massachusetts, and in the United States Courts for this circuit. 
The published reports of decisions will show that, taking this 



268 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [A#RIL, 

whole period of thirty years together, no other man had so 
large a number of cases in court ; and of the cases of no other 
was the proportion so large of those which, by the novelty of 
the questions they raise, or of the peculiar circumstances to 
which they require the application of acknowledged principles, 
may be considered as establishing new law, or giving new 
scope and meaning to recognized law. 

It must not be forgotten that, through nearly the whole of 
his most laborious and most successful career, he was impeded 
by ill health, or would have been impeded but for his resolute, 
determined energy. What was enough to have doomed a weak 
man to inactivity, and to have greatly marred the work of a 
man of common strength of character, seemed not to obstruct 
or even diminish his usefulness or success. For many years 
he was subject to attacks of dyspepsia, and of rheumatism 
or neuralgia, which, not unfrequently, increased in violence 
until they incapacitated him for a time for all labor. Always, 
however, when they remitted, he would seem to have with 
returning health the power of labor so intense as to make up for 
all the time he had lost. So early as while he was a student 
in Litchfield, he suffered much from weakness and pain in his 
eyes. At a later period his ailments seemed to settle upon 
those organs. He was driven for a short period into utter 
darkness, but even then did something through the eyes of 
another. From 1832 to 1840, while in full professional 
business, he was obliged to employ persons to read to him 
and write for him. His sight became good, or good enough 
for much more use in later than in his earlier years. But 
his eyes never recovered their full strength, and he was often 
obliged to seek the aid of an amanuensis. 

His capacity for labor was great, and his energy seemed to 
be inexhaustible. But there were times when all gave way 
under the heavy load that pressed upon him. For example : 
about the year 1828, a commercial crisis brought many mer- 
chants and traders to bankruptcy. We had then no bankrupt 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 269 

law, and all insolvency was worked out through voluntary 
assignments. These were confidential, and must be made almost 
always at night to avoid the interference of attachments until 
they were completed ; often without previous notice and after a 
hard day's work ; and they were long and complicated instru- 
ments, as they were necessarily adapted to the peculiar exigen- 
cies of each case, and must be made with great and minute 
care. Mr. Loring had a large proportion of all this business. 
One evening he came home to draft these instruments for 
three different firms. He opened the doors between his par- 
lors, placed clerks at each of three tables as distant from each 
other as the rooms permitted, and, walking from one to the 
other, dictated in turn to each of them ; and in the morning 
all the instruments for the three firms, each in three parts, 
were finished. Such nights as these were followed by laborious 
days. But under this pressure he broke down. Still he con- 
tinued until, as he said, on going home from his office one 
evening, he could not find his way, but was obliged to ask 
from those' he met a direction to his own house. Then he gave 
up and rested from all business for a time ; but even then only 
long enough to enable him to resume it with justice and safety 
to his clients. 

He was in the habit of taking very full notes at the trial of 
his cases, and of writing out his arguments — generally by 
dictation — almost at length. It seemed, however, as if this 
exercise fastened what he would say upon his memory ; and in 
speaking he made little use of his notes, reading from them 
only what witnesses had said. 

Before he reached the age of sixty, in 1854, he had aban- 
doned much of his lesser business, declining a large part of 
what was pressed upon him, but was still exceedingly occupied 
with the important work which poured into his hands, and 
abated no jot of his energy or faithfulness in what he did. But 
in that year he was offered the position of Actuary of the Mas- 
sachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company. This office he 



270 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

accepted and held until his death. It was thought, I believe, 
a wise selection on the part of that corporation. It was well 
for them and well for him that he accepted the place. If it 
did no more for him, it gave him the relief of a change of 
occupation. It substituted employment of a regular kind, sel- 
dom oppressing him by its accumulation, for the professional 
work, which must sometimes require a long-continued and ex- 
hausting tension of thought and effort 

He did not, and perhaps he could not, leave at once all his 
business behind him. Some old cases he must still argue ; a 
part of them before the Supreme Court in Washington. Clients 
who were also friends, and he had many such, brought their 
difficulties to him. He did not try new cases in court, and 
avoided what he could of the labor of giving opinions or advice, 
but nevertheless was much occupied in this way ; and this prac- 
tice he continued to some extent, almost on the compulsion of 
those who sought his aid, nearly to the close of his life. And 
disputed cases were often settled by his decision as the arbiter 
chosen by both parties. 

Of the manner in which he discharged the multifarious and 
important duties of his new office, I cannot speak from per- 
sonal knowledge ; for that was confined to a few simple cases 
in which I had occasion to meet him. But the high expecta- 
tions, founded upon his past life and character, were not disap- 
pointed. His knowledge of law and his familiarity both with 
the principles and practice of trusts were eminently useful. A 
thorough gentleman, if ever there was one, he was none the 
less a thorough man of business. No thought of suspecting 
his integrity ever entered into any man's mind. In all ques- 
tions between the corporation intrusted to his management, 
and those who had claims upon it, his fairness was never 
doubted, while his protection of the trusts in his hands was 
perfect. In manner he was courteous, and equally so to all ; 
but his gentleness was not to be imposed upon, for it was 
guarded by a sharp-sighted sagacity and strengthened by a 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 271 

firmness which was only firmness and not obstinacy. The 
general belief that he was the right man for that place, which 
existed when he took it, was constantly confirmed during all 
the years that he held the office. 

I would not omit to state, as an incident in his life, that in 
1823 and 1824 he was the commander of the New-England 
Guards. He discharged the duties of this military office with 
the zeal and efficiency which characterized his performance of 
the duties of his profession. He was proud of his company, 
of their full ranks, and their excellent drill as light infantry, 
infantry of the line and artillery ; for they were trained in all 
these forms of military discipline. 

In politics he was deeply interested, and was never absent 
from the polls when it was possible to attend them. Without 
ever being what might be called a thorough-going partisan, he 
had decided convictions upon party questions, which, in their 
essence, did not vary through the changes of the party names 
from Federalist to Whig or Republican. Although often solic- 
ited, he never accepted public office, until, in 1862, he became 
for one year a member of the Senate of Massachusetts, hold- 
ing therein the office of Chairman of the Judiciary Committee, 
and of the Committee on Mercantile Affairs. 

In 1849 he was invited by Governor Briggs to take the place 
in the Senate of the United States vacated by Mr. Webster's 
resignation ; and in 1853 he was invited by Governor Wash- 
burn' to fill the vacancy caused by Mr. Everett's resignation. 
Both of these invitations he declined, after much consideration 
and consultation with friends, some of whom advised him 
otherwise. Among his reasons for these refusals was the 
smallness of his fortune, and the necessity thereby imposed of 
continuing his professional labors. With all his opportunities 
to accumulate property, never here surpassed in his profession, 
the moderation of his charges, the liberality of his expenditure, 
and the greater liberality, or I might say lavishness, of his 
gifts, prevented his acquiring wealth. According to his way 



272 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

of considering such things, his acceptance of the office of 
Senator of the United States would have involved as a duty 
his leaving his profession. He said to his friends that he 
had not studied the science of politics, nor accustomed himself 
to a sustained investigation of its principles, or of the questions 
which arise when those principles are applied to practice. 
And he thought himself too old to begin a new career. 

Let me now gather up some other incidents in his course. 
In 1832, when the cholera, after raging through Europe, was 
expected in this country, Mr. Loring was active in forming a 
large relief association to visit and care for the sick and dying. 
At that time, the fear of this pestilence, which was thought to 
be contagious, amounted to panic. He accepted the office of 
chairman of a committee charged with the duty of attendance 
upon the sick ; and personally visited the earliest cases, and 
spared no efforts and no exposure which could bring order and 
efficiency into the arrangements for the sick, or mitigate their 
sufferings. 

In 1834 occurred that most violent and most disgraceful 
riot in which was destroyed the Ursuline Convent in Charles- 
town. Great efforts were made to discover the ringleaders, 
and bring them to their deserved punishment. At a large 
meeting in Faneuil Hall, Mr. Loring was appointed chairman 
of a numerous committee charged with the investigation of 
this crime. The committee had many sessions, and in the dis- 
charge of this duty he labored assiduously for many weeks. 
At the close he made a full report, stating the processes and 
the results of the examination, and the evidence thus obtained 
was of great service in the subsequent legal proceedings. 

He was always and thoroughly an earnest lover of freedom, 
and therefore was opposed to slavery ; and an extensive tour 
through the Southern States had strengthened his belief in the 
essential wickedness of slavery as it existed there, as well as 
its enormous mischief. He did not, however, join the Anti- 
slavery party, because, while he sympathized with them in the 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 273 

ends they sought, he was unable to approve of the means and 
measures by which they sought to reach that end ; but this 
sympathy he never hesitated to express or to manifest in such 
ways as he could. In 1851, when the trial of Sims, an escaped 
slave, took place before the United States Commissioner, he 
appeared as his counsel and made the closing argument. 

In 1835 he was appointed a Fellow of Harvard College, and 
retained that office until 1857 ; and during all this period he 
was a most active, interested, and useful member of the Cor- 
poration. When in 1850 a controversy arose between the 
Corporation and the Overseers as to their respective rights and 
duties, Mr. Loring made a long report on the subject, after- 
wards published in a pamphlet form, in which he gave an 
exhaustive review of all the historical facts and legal principles 
bearing on the questions considered, and presented an able 
and conclusive argument in support of the views held by the 
Corporation. He was especially active and instrumental in 
terminating the former connection of the Divinity School with 
the College and placing it in its present relations. He was 
much interested in establishing the Society of the Alumni, 
which he believed would strengthen the interest of the gradu- 
ates in their Alma Mater. 

In connection with Mr. Loring's relations with Harvard 
College, it should be mentioned that in 1865 he was chosen to 
preside at the ovation given by the College to her sons on their 
return from the war. No appointment could have been more 
acceptable, and no person could have better discharged its pecu- 
liar and difficult duties, in the various preparatory arrange- 
ments and on the day of the ovation. 

He was also chairman of the committee of fifty, in whose 
hands was placed the charge of gathering funds for, and the 
construction of, the edifice which Harvard College is now about 
to build, as an enduring memorial of all of her children who 
offered, and of the many of them who gave, their lives to their 
country. 



274 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

In 1853 he went with Mrs. Loring to Europe, and travelled 
over many parts of that continent. But his longest visit was 
to England, where he passed some months. I am sure he was 
very happy there, and I believe he was very useful. His letters 
of introduction and his reputation secured to him access to 
the highest ranks of English society. In the Diary of Henry 
Crabb Robinson, recently published, under the date of June 
24, 1853, he speaks of meeting Mr. and Mrs. Loring at Dr. 
Boott's house, in London. He says, " The star was Loring," 
then gives the substance of a long conversation with him on 
American politics, and adds, " I have seen no one who judges 
seemingly with so much candor as Loring." 

At that time there was a strong disposition among many of 
the leading men in England to understand us better ; and not 
in casual conversation only did he give them information, but 
they sometimes sought it directly. A gentleman of much dis- 
tinction asked him to meet at his house a number of men who 
were eminent in name or station, and who wished to compre- 
hend better than they had been able to — what must be an 
enigma to European statesmen, and is not I fear so well under- 
stood by ourselves as it should be — the true place of the 
judiciary among our institutions. 

How is it, said they, that when a law is enacted by Congress 
and approved by the President, with the written constitution 
before them, there comes another body, which, possessing no 
legislative power, may annul this law by their simple declara- 
tion that it is, in their judgment, " unconstitutional" ? There 
was a free and full and long conversation on this subject. Mr. 
Loring did his best to explain it, and no one could do better. 
He told me that he considered himself as, on the whole, unsuc- 
cessful. Indeed, one of the most eminent among them said 
to him in parting, and while expressing his thanks for the in- 
formation they had received, that he still found it a very obscure 
matter, and doubted whether he fully comprehended either its 
principle or its working. 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 275 

When the War of Secession broke out, he entered upon the 
questions and the duties which it presented with all the vigor 
and enthusiasm of his character. His second son entered the 
army, went through the war, and came out with high military 
rank. His only grandson old enough to bear arms served with 
honor. He was himself too old to fight otherwise than with 
the pen. But that weapon he used ably and usefully. Be- 
sides many addresses at public meetings, which were reported 
and published, he wrote often and earnestly upon the topics 
suggested by the events of the day, sending his articles to 
newspapers ; and most of these were afterwards published in 
pamphlet form. 

The first of them which I will notice bears the title of " A 
Reading upon the Personal Liberty Laws of Massachusetts." 
It consisted of two long articles published in the " Boston Daily 
Advertiser," Dec. 31, 1860, and Jan. 3, 1861. It relates to the 
statutes of Massachusetts, " enacted," says Mr. Loring, " as 
is universally known, under the influence of the strong indig- 
nation pervading this and other States in reference to the Fugi- 
tive Slave Act of 1850, and of recent outrages in Southern 
States upon citizens of the Free States ; and evidently indica- 
tive of that emotion, rather than of legislative equanimity." 
These laws had been severely attacked and their constitution- 
ality denied, especially in " An Appeal to the Citizens of 
Massachusetts." The decisions and the arguments bearing 
upon the question were fully considered by Mr. Loring, and 
he reached the conclusion that these laws, if fairly and ration- 
ally construed, were strictly and certainly within the constitu- 
tional powers of the legislature of Massachusetts. 

In 1862 appeared the largest, and, under some points of 
view, the most interesting of these pamphlets. It was called, 
" Correspondence on the Present Relations between Great 
Britain and the United States of America." It consisted of 
letters which passed between Mr. Loring and Mr. Edwin W. 
Field, an eminent solicitor of London and very able man, with 



276 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

whom Mr. Loring had become acquainted while in England. 
Mr. Field was one of those Englishmen, who, while they were 
cordial friends of this country, and hated slavery (he calls the 
theory put forth in its defence " devilish doctrine"), neverthe- 
less thought that England was justified in the course she had 
pursued in " the Trent affair," and, generally, in her treatment 
of us ; and that we were mistaken in our resistance to Seces- 
sion, and that our wiser course would be to let the Slave States 
go off if they would, leaving the Free States all the better for 
having got rid of them. I indulge myself with quoting one 
brief passage from Mr. Field's first letter. It was written at 
his country seat on Hampstead Hill ; and, besides the pleasant 
picture it presents, exhibits in few words the main purpose of 
all his letters : 

" As long as you treat us like gentlemen (I think Seward's waiting 
to see what we did, when he thought all the while we were right, was 
more like a lawyer than a gentleman), I don't believe the Emperor of 
the French himself, with all the cotton-lords (and they will be few) he 
can enlist, will persuade us towards moving to break the blockade, even 
though it be ever so paperish a one. So far for politics : now to 'pas- 
tures new.' . . . Last summer we had a lone house for our sketching 
quarters on the Thames, twenty miles below Oxford : a ferry was attached 
to it, which one man was obliged to work day and night too, if the 
passengers could wake him. I spent many and many a pleasant hour, 
when saturated with sketching, in sailing my New York centre-board 
little boat, the 'Yankee;' the star-spangled banner, of course, in full 
fly at the peak. The Great Western Railway crossed the Thames 
near us ; and, quiet as was the land and water, the trains in mid air 
brought thousands of eyes to admire the boat and the beautiful flag. 
What will be the issue of its stars from your troubles ? I have said 
I will no more politics, or I must have added a word or two why 
we think our old saying, ' Good shut of bad rubbish,' should be the 
doctrine of your policy, as the best way of getting rid of the plague 
of slave recognition and its devotees." 

As the correspondence went on from Jan. 16 to Nov. 13, 
1862, the whole subject, under all its aspects, was thoroughly 
ventilated. Both writers were gentlemen, and cordial friends. 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 277 

Both wrote in perfect freedom, but not a word is there savor- 
ing of unkindness or discourtesy in the whole correspondence. 
I thought then and I think now that the whole argument was 
exhausted. I have seen nothing since on Mr. Field's side 
which was not said or suggested by him ; and the replies of 
Mr. Loring were direct, cogent, and, as it seems to me, con- 
clusive. This pamphlet attracted much attention both in Eng- 
land and in this country, and must have exerted a consider- 
able and most useful influence. 

I must not permit myself to notice these pamphlets in much 
detail. In 1863 were published, under the title of " Neutral 
Relations of England and the United States," a series of arti- 
cles which had appeared in the " Boston Daily Advertiser," 
from Aug. 20 to Sept. 25, 1863. They examined thoroughly, 
and from a lawyer's point of view, the conduct of England in 
relation to the " Alabama " and the " Florida," and her other 
breaches of neutrality ; and in 1864 were* gathered in a 
pamphlet bearing the title of " England's Liability for Indem- 
nity : Remarks ■ on the Letter of Historicus, dated Nov. 4, 
1863, printed in the ' London Times,' Nov. 7, and repeated in 
the ' Boston Daily Advertiser,' Nov. 25th." This pamphlet 
passed through two editions, and neither this, nor that on 
" Neutral Relations " must be forgotten or neglected by those 
who have to maintain in any way our own doctrine, that the 
claims of this country against England are something more 
than what Historicus saw fit to call them, when, in a letter, 
which at that time found much acceptance in England, 
he permitted himself to say: "This 'tail talk' of claims 
against Great Britain for prizes taken by the ' Alabama ' is 
mere nonsense, which has no color or foundation either in 
reason, history, or law." 

In 1866 he published his last work. It was a pamphlet of 
one hundred and twenty-six pages, bearing the title of " Re- 
construction. Claims of the Inhabitants of the States Engaged 
in the Rebellion to Restoration of Political Rights and Privi- 



278 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

leges under the Constitution. " I could not condense within 
narrow limits the close reasoning of this pamphlet, even if 
this were the place to attempt it ; and must content myself 
with quoting the concluding paragraphs. They will serve as a 
specimen of his style ; but I quote them rather because they 
express strongly an opinion, a principle, and a feeling, of 
which, through all the excitements and discussions of those 
stormy times, he never lost sight ; and which, I permit myself ' 
to say, there never seemed to me more need than there is now 
to remember and to invigorate. 

" He cannot, however, leave the subject without adverting to a pos- 
sible misapprehension of his views upon the importance and sacredness 
of the rights of the States under the Constitution, which might arise 
from the nature of the discussion which has been attempted. It will 
be observed, that his only object has been to vindicate the sovereignty 
of the General Government against the assaults made upon it by 
advocates of the 'rights of inhabitants of States who had renounced 
allegiance to it, and had engaged in civil war for its overthrow ; and, 
consequently, that the discussion has been almost exclusively confined 
to considerations of the relations of the States to the General 
Government in that aspect only, and of the subordination and limita- 
tions of State sovereignty rather than of its attributes. But none can 
be more profoundly impressed, than he believes himself to be, with the 
essential importance and inviolability of the rights intended to be se- 
cured to the several States under the Constitution. He accounts their 
individual independence and sovereignty over the domestic relations 
and municipal law, and the internal governments of their respective 
inhabitants, as the very foundation-stones of the National Government. 
The preservation of this sovereignty and independence, to the fullest 
extent warranted by the Constitution, he considers to be chief among 
the fundamental principles of American statesmanship; as the only 
means possible of maintaining a free and energetic government over 
territories of extent so vast as those already comprised within our 
national boundaries ; as the safest barrier against attempts at execu- 
tive usurpation ; as the main bulwark against the natural tendency of 
the General Government, as of all others, to consolidation and central- 
ization of its authority ; and which, not thus controlled, attaining at 
first to the exercise of arbitrary power by the many, would, as all his- 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 279 

tory prophesies, eventually terminate in practical despotism ; and, above 
all, as the sufficient and only instrumentality for educating and disci- 
plining successive generations in the knowledge and practice of politi- 
cal rights and duties, by which alone they can be made capable of 
self-government. 

" And no one will hail with profounder gladness a just perception 
on the part of the inhabitants of the Rebel States of their true rela- 
tions to the Government, and their return to their constitutional places 
in the Union, which, unhappily for us all, they have made vacant." 

In all of these writings, the argument of Mr. Loring is al- 
ways calmly, if sometimes urgently, expressed. He labored to 
give whatever force he could to his reasoning ; but was con- 
scious of his strong feeling, and on his guard against an 
inappropriate expression of it. To me, as I now read them 
over, this reasoning seems to be extremely strong, and, for the 
most part, conclusive. It could not convince those who were 
unable to admit the principles which he assumed, holding them 
indeed as axioms ; and it cannot be necessary to say that all 
reasoning, upon any subject, must begin with truths that are 
taken for granted. Nor could he hope to influence those who 
had already confirmed themselves in opposite conclusions. I 
am sure, however, that no candid reader could for a moment 
doubt that his views were most carefully and elaborately 
thought out, and were honestly believed to be rational and just ; 
and that this reasoning had led himself, and was offered that 
it might lead others, to conclusions which he held most sin- 
cerely and most firmly. 

His style as an author may be said to be in exact accordance 
with his character and his habits of thought ; as, perhaps, every 
author's must be to some extent. It is strong, direct, and clear ; 
with no attempt at eloquence, and not one particle of affecta- 
tion. He manifests, as was before intimated, a desire to avoid 
exaggeration, but no wish to escape from an honest exhibition 
of his strong feeling and decided conviction. There is but 
little ornament, and none for the sake of ornament. His 
words are a transparent medium for his thoughts ; and as they 



280 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

were never the special object of his own care, so they do not 
catch the attention of the reader, and turn it aside from his 
meaning. In his writing, as in his whole life and conduct, he 
sought for and he found the becoming and appropriate ; and 
more he did not seek. He desired to appear well always ; but 
seeming was to him of far less value than being. 

It may be added, as illustrating a trait of his character, that, 
when he began to write for the public, he complained that his 
style, which was formed by the habits of a speaker, was bad 
for a writer. It was diffuse, not always accurate, or con- 
structed with sufficient care. Old as he was he set himself, to 
use his own phrase, to learn to write ; for his sense of duty 
was never satisfied unless whatever he had to do was done as 
well as it could be done. His friends thought him rather a 
severe critic of his own work ; but some effect of his efforts 
may be traced in his successive productions. 

He was one of the founders of the Union Club in Boston, 
and labored earnestly in establishing it and in promoting its 
interests, in the belief that it would exert a useful influence in 
forming and cherishing a spirit of patriotism among its mem- 
bers, and through them in the community. He was President 
of the club at his death. 

It was not only with his pen, but with his voice, that he 
labored in those days of peril and disaster. He was willing 
to speak always when he thought he could be useful. In 1864, 
when Mr. Lincoln was a candidate for re-election, a meeting 
was called in Faneuil Hall, at which Mr. Loring presided. 
His opening address was published in the papers. The follow- 
ing passage, quoted from it, may serve as a fair specimen of his 
style in public speaking, and as an expression of the profound 
feeling which urged him to do his utmost through all that 
fearful conflict. 

" It is no question of merely personal preference of one candidate 
over another, nor the ascendancy of a political party in the government 
of the country ; no question of expediency in finance, of internal econ- 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 281 

omy, of foreign diplomacy, or even of fundamental construction of the 
Constitution. But it is one which underlies all these. It is the ques- 
tion whether our National Union shall be preserved ; whether we shall 
continue to exist as a great and independent nation, capable of self- 
government at home, and possessing power to protect ourselves from 
foreign aggression and to secure the enjoyment of ' the mildest rule 
the sun ever shone upon,' — or shall be split into any number from two 
to thirty-four or more of distinct, weak, and distracted municipalities, 
with clashing interests and embittering jealousies, to drive us eventu- 
ally into military despotism, as our only refuge from anarchy and per 
petual war." 

His father belonged to the Congregational Society, worship- 
ping in the West Church, Lynde Street, Boston ; and Mr. 
Loring remained all his life a member of it. No one who 
knew him doubted the reality and strength of his religious 
sentiment. But of doctrinal religious belief he seldom spoke. 
He called himself a Unitarian ; but precisely where he stood 
in the wide circle of those who bear that name, I know not, 
and doubt, indeed, whether he had sharply defined this place 
in his own mind. For many years of the most active part of 
his life, he was the Superintendent of the Sunday school of 
that Society. His attendance was constant, and his lessons 
were carefully and conscientiously prepared ; and his addresses 
to the children were thought by associate teachers and others 
who heard them to be among his happiest efforts ; and after 
he resigned the office of Superintendent he would occasionally 
visit the school and address the children, even to the last year 
of his life. 

He had always a remarkable power of approaching the 
young, and exerting an influence over them, — not children 
only, but young men, and especially the numerous students 
who were prepared in his office for the labors of their profes- 
sion. This was due, in large measure, to the fulness of sym- 
pathy with which he entered into their states of thought and 
feeling. In this respect, as in many others, the freshness and 
vitality of youth were undimmed in him by the shadows of 
advancing age. 36 



282 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Let me now speak of him as he was at home, — the home 
which he made a happy one for all whom it sheltered, and 
where he found the happiness he valued most. 

In 1818, at the age of twenty-four, he married Miss Anna 
Pierce Brace, of Litchfield, with whom he had become ac- 
quainted while a student in the Law School at that place. 
This union, founded upon the sincerest mutual affection, was 
one of uninterrupted happiness, until it was terminated by her 
death in 1836. In 1840 he married Miss Mary Anne Putnam, 
a daughter of the late Hon. Samuel Putnam, a Justice of the 
Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts. She was one of 
several sisters who were noted for their charming manners 
and attractive qualities. She died in 1845. He married in 
1850, Mrs. Cornelia Goddard, widow of George A. Goddard, 
and daughter of the late Francis Amory, of Boston. This lady 
still survives him ; and I refrain from saying more than that 
they were worthy of each other ; and there need be no higher 
encomium upon either. 

By his first marriage Mr. Loring had two sons and two 
daughters, all of whom survive him. By his third marriage 
he had one child, who died in infancy. 

Mr. Loring was eminently hospitable. No trait of his char- 
acter was more salient or more constant. Let me repeat a re- 
mark I heard made recently by one who spoke from experience : 
" In their house you found the perfection of hospitality with 
an entire absence of display." He was one of those who 
found their pleasure in giving pleasure to others. His ac- 
quaintance was extensive ; and strangers visiting Boston and 
bringing with them any distinction of position or of merit, 
were usually entertained by him, and through him obtained 
access to his wide circle of friends. 

His winters he passed in Boston. But in 1844 he purchased, 
for a summer residence, a farm on the Beverly shore. It was 
then a common farm, nowise distinguished from others, but in 
its bounding upon the sea, its wide and smooth beaches, its mas- 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 283 

sive rocks, and its beautiful trees, which in many places came 
down to the water side. He saw its beauty ; and he had the 
taste and skill to improve this to the uttermost. He built a 
modest house, which only by successive additions became large 
enough to meet the needs of his hospitality. There he spent 
his summers ; coming to Boston as the requirements of busi- 
ness called him, or, when he could, taking his papers to Bev- 
erly and working over them there. It would be difficult to 
say whether he found most enjoyment in the thorough cultiva- 
tion of his farm, or in that skilful development of its beauty, 
which has left it without a rival among the many charming 
estates which lie along that lovely shore. 

The same thoroughness and industry with which he tried his 
cases and gave opinions, and commanded his military company, 
and discharged his other duties, he brought to bear upon this 
new employment. He studied gardening and farming, read- 
ing the best books on those sut»jects, and putting in practice 
what he learnt from books. He examined the nature of the soil, 
and improved the different fields by putting on them the differ- 
ent chemical ingredients they required ; he ascertained what 
fruits were best adapted to the seashore, and the best rotation 
of crops for such a farm, and the special effects of different ma- 
nures ; and took great pains and spent much money in obtaining 
the most useful and valuable animals. He did all these things 
systematically and kept a full record of his doings. And it 
gave him great pleasure when the neighboring farmers, who 
laughed at him at first, began to consider him as an authority, 
and to profit by his experience and instruction. We used to 
think he felt more pride in being considered a good farmer, 
than in his success as a lawyer. 

The free access to his place which he permitted to all alike, 
strangers or friends, should not be omitted, for it illustrates 
that most prominent trait in his character which I have al- 
ready stated and am glad to refer to again, the pleasure he 
found in giving pleasure to others. He had a large barn upon 



284 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

his place, built at great cost, and so skilfully adapted to agri- 
cultural purposes that it was regarded as a kind of model, and 
brought persons, some from a considerable distance, to see and 
study it. This he liked ; but there was another thing about it 
which I believe he liked still more. It made the "best play- 
place possible for the children of his neighbors, when heat or 
rain made them seek its shelter. I lived one summer in his 
neighborhood, and my grandchildren were with me. They soon 
found out where to go to find companions and to sport at pleas- 
ure ; and he provided for them there means of amusement. 
When I went there to look after my contribution to this noisy 
crowd of little ones, he would often come in, never casting any 
restraint upon them by his presence, but always enjoying their 
enjoyment. 

Well do I remember his eagerness, as the spring opened, to 
go to this beautiful home. And there he lingered until ap- 
proaching winter drove him back to Boston. He bought the 
place when his health was much broken, in the hope, which 
the result justified, that he. should find invigoration not only 
in the rest and pleasant occupation it afforded him, but in its 
atmosphere, which gathered from the sea a bracing influence, 
and in that sheltered spot was not so harsh and bleak as 
it is too apt to be on our Atlantic shore in the " Easterly 
days " which alternate rapidly with our summer heats. Its 
immediate neighborhood was full of pleasant roads, leading 
through beautiful and singularly diversified scenery. This 
was not a small advantage to a man of his tastes and habits. 
So much sedentary occupation and mental labor made it neces- 
sary for him to take active and regular exercise ; and finding 
he could get most of this, with the least expense of time, in 
the saddle, for many years he rode every day, and never gave 
up this habit. He had fine horses and was proud of them. I 
think he was proud, too, of his skill and hardihood as a horse- 
man : he certainly had a right to be so. 

Dearly did he love that beautiful home, much of whose 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 285 

beauty he made and all of it he enjoyed. There he passed his 
summers, which were always too short for him. And there, 
after some months of much pain and constant discomfort, 
which it was hard to bear, but which he bore with his accus- 
tomed patience and fortitude, he died, on the 8th day of Oct., 
in the year 1867. 

On the evening of June 13, 1818, some young men met, by 
the invitation of Mr. William H. Gardiner, in his room, in the 
house of his father, the late Rev. Dr. Gardiner, to form a club. 
They did so ; and others were added in the three years imme- 
diately following, until the whole number was twenty-four ; 
none were afterwards received ; Mr. Loring became a member 
in the first year. It never had any name but " Club," and 
was neither cumbered nor helped by any rules. We met on 
alternate Tuesdays, supping, and in later years dining, together. 
For a short time there was some endeavor to give it a literary 
character ; and some of the papers read there were published 
in numbers under the title of " The Club Room." But this 
soon came to an end ; and probably not half a dozen complete 
copies -are in existence : I should not know where to find half 
as many. The club became merely conversational, and has al- 
ways so remained. In its earlier years, when we all had many 
engagements and amusements, our attendance upon it was not 
regular or constant ; but it became so in later years. This 
club is mentioned in Mr. Ticknor's charming memoir of W. 
H. Prescott. I speak of it now for two reasons. One is, that 
Mr. Loring was one of the most constant attendants and took 
the deepest interest in all that concerned it. We all — I 
am sure I may speak for others as well as for myself — 
valued it exceedingly. Conversation there ran through all 
imaginable topics. It was always free, always perfectly unre- 
served. We had known each other so long and so well, that 
the thought of any disguise or concealment could not occur to 
us ; for never perhaps was there a society of such men, all of 



286 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL. 

whom were so thoroughly acquainted with the tastes and char- 
acters, the opinions and the feelings, on all subjects, of each 
other. There was abundant diversity among us ; but if there 
was seldom entire agreement, still more seldom did disagree- 
ment become discord. In the old phrase, we agreed to dis- 
agree ; and one of the causes of the unabated interest with 
which it held us all was the certainty that any subject dis- 
cussed there would be considered by one or another under 
most of the aspects which it could present. One reason for 
speaking of this club has been given ; it was the interest which 
Mr. Loring took in it and the value he set upon it. There is 
another ; for it was there that I learned to know him, and, as I 
believe, to know him thoroughly. When, many years ago, I 
was in the practice of my profession, we met in our cases, 
sometimes acting together and sometimes in opposition. I 
saw much of him in court, in cases in which I was not con- 
cerned, and met him not unfrequently ; but it was in the club 
that I saw him most and saw most of him. His presence 
could always be counted on, unless he was held away by some 
potent obstacle ; for, as he often said to us, he permitted no 
engagement or occupation which he could control to keep him 
away. These lines may fall under the eyes of those who did 
not know him ; and to them it may be well to say that if no 
one more enjoyed the social pleasures of the club, no one 
added more to them. Interested in every thing which inter- 
ested others ; pouring forth with the perfect unreserve of long 
and intimate friendship all his thought and feeling, and wel- 
coming equal unreserve on the part of others, the club was to 
him, and he helped to make it to us all, a means not of enter- 
tainment merely, but of that ripening of thought which could 
not but grow out of — sometimes the collision and always the 
freest intercourse — of minds which represented almost every 
phase of opinion or of sentiment upon almost every subject. 

The last time I saw him was in his house in Beverly, in 
July, 1867, where, in accordance with his usual custom, after 



1870.] MEMOIR OF CHARLES GREELY LORING. 287 

our regular winter meetings were over, he invited us to dine 
with him at the season when his beautiful place was most at- 
tractive. Never was he more hospitable ; never did he give to 
his guests a kinder or more cordial reception. But even then 
it was evident to us that his health was failing, and that he 
thought it was failing. The disease had then at least begun, 
although its true character was unsuspected, which soon after 
developed its fatal power, and terminated his earthly life. 

At that dinner, in reference to some remarks made at the 
table about old age and its insidious decay, he said he was so 
much afraid of this, that he had bound three different friends 
upon whose judgment and fidelity he could rely, by a solemn 
promise, that, if they saw symptoms of approaching imbecility 
which he did not himself detect, they would tell him so at 
once, and thus prevent his continued hold upon duties which 
he could no longer faithfully and fully discharge. 

Mr. Loring closes a letter, written on the day after that din- 
ner, to one of our number who could not be present, — Mr. W. 
H. Gardiner, — thus : " We had a very quiet but genial session, 
as becomes our age and our regard for each other, and I think 
all enjoyed it much. You were most affectionately remem- 
bered throughout the day ; and I need not say your absence 
was most deeply regretted with profound sympathy for its 
cause. We did not forget you in our talk, nor in a heart- 
felt pledge to your health and welfare. Club is one of the 
brightest of the rays of our setting sun ; — but that is already 
touching the horizon." 

For him it indeed touched and soon sank beneath his earthly 
horizon. Nor can it linger long in the darkening sky of the 
few — five only — of the members who still remain here. But 
while any one of them retains his memory, the recollection of 
those meetings, and of the friend who was held to us by ties 
to which not only personal regard but fifty years of intimacy 
had given strength, cannot be lost. 

I do not forget that I am writing this memoir for another 



288 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

and very different body of his associates ; but I must ask them 
not to forget that if the warm, true, earnest friendship of the 
man were not made prominent in any portraiture, it could not 
be faithful to him. 

I am not willing to close this imperfect memoir of Mr. 
Loring without presenting a trait, which none who knew him 
could fail to observe : I refer to the singular purity of his life 
and conversation. No person ever heard a tale, an allusion, 
a word from his lips, which would have been forbidden by the 
strictest morality or the highest refinement. Seldom, if ever, 
was any thing said in his presence, which might not be said 
in the presence of women by one who felt their refining and 
protective influence. There was indeed something feminine 
about him. This man, in whom all the elements of manliness 
were gathered, had also much of the delicacy, the tenderness, 
the ready and affectionate sympathy which belong to women. 
And these parts of his nature harmonized. Always courteous, 
there was a kindness in his courtesy when the object of it 
was a woman, which was the same to all, and could not be 
greater to any than it was to all. 

I would mention yet another trait. He could be indignant 
and express his anger with abundant plainness or severity. 
But he could not sneer. No one ever heard from him any 
sarcasm. He enjoyed the sportive wit and pleasantry of others ; 
but, to be enjoyed by him, it must be wit that did not sting. 
I have more than once referred to his most characteristic dis- 
position to find pleasure in giving pleasure. I only say the 
converse of this, in adding that he could not take pleasure in 
saying what gave pain or in witnessing the pain such words 
gave. Then, he did not join in the laugh : his sympathies 
were on the other side. 

There was a singular mingling of conservatism and enthusi- 
asm in his character. Believing that the institutions and ar- 
rangements of society were on the whole good and wholesome, 
and firmly convinced that the condition of mankind had ad- 



1870.] MEMOIR OP CHARLES GREELY LORTNG. 289 

vanced through the past and was still advancing, not rapidly, 
and not without alternations, but not more slowly than was 
needed to make this advance real and permanent, he had little 
faith in violent and convulsive reforms ; and looked with dislike 
and fear on efforts and on changes which some regarded with 
exulting hope. To those who favored and urged on those move- 
ments, he seemed to belong to the party of retardation rather 
than to that of progress. And yet through his whole life, every 
effort, individual or organized, which seemed to hold out any 
promise of preventing, or removing, or lessening wrong or suf- 
fering, had not his sympathy only, but whatever assistance he 
could render. To enumerate all such instances would be to tell 
how all his years went by. I have omitted, for example, his in- 
terest in the Aid Society for Unfortunate Children, of which he 
was President ; his earnest efforts to resist the annexation of 
Texas, and, later, the invasion of Kansas. Of such things, and 
of others less in importance but of like kind, it would not be 
difficult to give a long list. I have abstained from this, wish- 
ing only to mention facts and incidents which were needed 
to illustrate his character. Of those who knew him best, some 
may think that in 'this way I have failed to do him justice. 
On the other hand, I am not insensible to the danger that this 
sketch — and it is no more — of the distinctive characteristics 
of a friend so dear to me may seem, and may be, overcharged. 
No portrait can seem lifelike or be faithful if it be wholly with- 
out shadow. I would willingly tone my picture down, as far 
as I may with truth and honesty. 

In the first place, then, I do not present Mr. Loring as a 
genius ; as having one of those great intellects which by an 
admitted supremacy makes its possessor a giant among com- 
mon men. He had excellent sense ; his insight into persons 
and facts was more than commonly rapid and penetrating. 
His power of acquiring knowledge was, I think, unusual, al- 
though the constant labors of his whole life had prevented his 
giving to his mind a wide a,nd diversified culture. This indeed 

37 



290 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [APRIL, 

was made impossible by the condition of his eyes. Always weak, 
sometimes very painful, and generally becoming so with almost 
any attempt to use them in reading or writing, it seemed to us 
a marvel how he could do, and do so thoroughly, such an im- 
mense business. In his later years his eyes were stronger. Then 
only, and not often then, could he open a book in the evening. 
But he made use of whatever opportunity came to him to en- 
large his acquaintance with the best literature of the day. His 
memory was strong and prompt : it held firmly whatever was 
committed to it, and offered it up for use readily and accu- 
rately. Whatever ability he had was strengthened and disci- 
plined by constant exercise. His superiority, however, lay 
more in his character than in his intellect. He always seemed 
to me an excellent illustration of one of the wisest sayings of 
that wise man, Dr. Thomas Arnold, the great English school- 
master. A friend wrote to him, asking what general truths 
or principles had most strongly impressed themselves upon his 
mind, as the result of his long instruction of so many young 
jien, his intimate acquaintance with as well as his deep inter- 
est in them, and his careful observation of them not only as 
pupils but in their subsequent careers of failure or success. I 
quote from memory only, but Dr. Arnold's reply, in substance, 
and nearly in words, was, " There is nothing I am more sure 
of than that force of character constantly wears the aspect, 
wins the name, and does the work, of force of intellect." 

Mr. Loring's temper was, usually, and indeed almost uni- 
formly, sweet and calm ; but he was sensitive, and sometimes 
irritable. It appeared to me that his ailments and nervous ex- 
citability had much to do with this ; and the strength of his con- 
victions and the positiveness of his belief had still more. But 
if in conversation he ever grew too insisting, peremptory, and 
impatient of reply, and if his urgency ever passed beyond the 
limits which a due regard for the rights or the feelings of others 
would have set, I think he saw it as soon as any one, nor was 
it ever long before his gentleness and courtesy renewed their 
sway. 



1870.] SPECIAL MEETING. 291 

And now I find myself wholly unable to add to this list of 
demerits. Let them have their due effect and weight. I ear- 
nestly desire to present him only as he was. How indeed 
could I remember who it is that is the subject of this brief 
memoir, and not permit the recollection to compel me, if I 
needed the compulsion, to seek to be, in all I say of him, truth 
ml and just ? 



SPECIAL MEETING. 

A Social Meeting of the Society was held at the house of 
Mr. William S. Appleton, 39 Beacon Street, on Thursday 
evening, April 28th, the President in the chair. 

The President read a letter from Mr. Charles J. Hoadly, of 
Hartford, which contained the following passage : — 

In reading, not long since, Archdeacon Hale's " Series of prece- 
dents and proceedings in criminal causes, extending from the year 1475 
to 1640, * * illustrative of the discipline of the church of England," 
Lond. 1847, I met, on p. 259, with the enclosed, relating to one of 
the early assistants of Massachusetts. It is of very little importance 
and very likely not new to you, though I do not remember to have seen 
any reference to it in any of the books published on our side of the 

water. 

[ " 29 Nov. 1636. 
Archdeaconry of Essex."] 

" Sandon. Contra Thomam Sharp et Tabitham ejus uxorem, Tho- 
mam Sharp, juniorem, et Annam Wittam. * * They doe all refuse to 
bowe at the blessed name of Jesus, or to stand up at the Creed, ac- 
cording to the cannon : but doe scoffe at the minister and others that 
doe. The said Tabitha did not come to be churched in a vaile ; nor 
did kneele by the communion table, accordinge to the Rubricke : The 
said Sharpe is a common depracer of the government ecclesiasticall, 
and of the rites and ceremonies of this church, since his cominge from 
Newe England. * * Citentur." 

The asterisks are in the print. Sandon is the name, I suppose, of 
the parish. 



292 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

The President also read a letter from a gentleman in Lon- 
don, communicated by President Eliot of Harvard College, 
containing the following description of an enamel portrait, in 
miniature, of Washington ; and saying that its present owner, 
now residing in London, is desirous of parting with it in or- 
der to realize its value : — 

" This enamel of General Washington was given me by Mr. Pea- 
body. Its history is this : It was done by W. Bone (enameller on 
copper to George III.), who carried the art to perfection. Since 
his death the art has become extinct. It was taken from a sketch 
of Washington a few years before his death, and is the likeness of a 
much older man than any of the few portraits in existence, and the 
date, 1796, which, with the artist's initials * W. B.,' to be seen on the 
left side of the picture, shows that it was enamelled but two years be- 
fore his death, which took place in 1798. Formerly it was in a small 
rosewood frame on the back of which is the artist's full name. This is 
still in my possession. Mr. Peabody had it removed from the frame 
and placed in this present simple but handsome gold setting, which he 
considered emblematical of the original. Mr. Biden, in Cheapside, was 
the goldsmith employed. 

u The picture was executed for a family in England, and the member 
into whose possession it passed, being in need of money, brought it to 
Mr. Peabody, knowing his interest in all things connected with the 
history of the United States. He bought it and gave it to me in 1859. 
He always alluded to it in some way whenever I saw him, for he con- 
sidered it of great value." 

A photograph of the enamel portrait was also exhibited, and 
in connection with it the President presented to the Society 
a print of an original miniature of Washington by William 
Birch, in the possession of Charles G. Barney, Esq. The re- 
semblance between the two portraits would seem to leave little 
doubt that the enamel of Bone was taken from the miniature 
of Birch. 

Mr. Appleton exhibited a selection of coins and medals re- 
lating to America, and read the following paper descriptive of 
them : ~ 



1870.] MEDALS AND COINS RELATING TO AMERICA. 298 



Medals and Coins relating to America, 

Numbers I., II., and III. form the only complete set known to exist 
of the earliest coinage of New England. 27th May, 1652, the Gen- 
eral Court of Massachusetts ordered, " That all psons whatsoever have 
libertie to bring in unto the mint howse, at Boston, all bullion, plate, or 
Spanish coyne, there to be melted and brought to the allay of sterling 
silver by John Hull, master of the sd mint, & his sworne officers, & by 
him to be coyned into twelve pence, six pence, & three pence peeces, 
which shalbe for forme flatt, & square on the sides, & stamped on the 
one side with NE, & on the other side with XII d , VI d , & III d , accord- 
ing to the value of each peece," &c. This order remained in force less 
than six months, and probably many of the coins were remelted for the 
pine-tree issue, so that now all are rare. Not more than half a dozen 
sixpences can be found, and of the threepence only one other speci- 
men is known to collectors, and that is in the cabinet belon^in^ to 
Yale College. Thomas Snelling, in his account of the coins of the 
English Colonies, 1769, says, "The first pieces coined at this time 
[1652], — or, rather, stamped, — were six-pences and shillings [of 
which he gives plates], having on one side NE, and on the other VI 
and XII for their respective values ; we are also told there was an- 
other sort struck with III, for three-pence, but we have never yet met 
with it in any cabinet, and even the other two are very scarce." Rud- 
ing, well known as the best authority on English coinage, says, " Those 
coins also which are stamped with NE only near the edge on the one 
side, and with the figures XII or VI in like manner, on the other, 
and commonly reported to have been struck at Newcastle, it is said 
were, as well as the last [the pine-tree money], monies of New 
England, and of about the same date with them." After quoting from 
Hutchinson's " History of Massachusetts Bay," the passage relating to 
them, he adds : " The three-pence spoken of above has never been 
discovered." 

Numbers IV. to XL are shillings, sixpences, a threepence, and a 
twopence of the pine-tree money, ordered by the General Court, 19th 
October, 1652, to "have a double ring on either side, with this inscrip- 
tion — Massachusetts, and a tree in the center on the one side — and 
New England, and the date of the yeare on the other side." The 
two-penny piece was not authorized till 1662. The coining of this 
money was continued for many years, and there is a great number of 
different dies for the same value. Each of the four shillings here 



294 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

shown is unlike the others, but all agree with the design ordered by 
the General Court. There are many printed accounts of this money, 
and references to the fact of coinage, which I have not thought neces- 
sary to quote here. 

In 1776, two or three pieces were prepared as patterns for a pro- 
posed coinage of copper for the State of Massachusetts. One of them 
is in my collection, and is number XII. of this series. It is thus de- 
scribed : Massachusetts state ; a pine-tree, and in the field char- 
acters resembling 1 C L M, and conjectured to mean " One cent lawful 
money." Reverse : liberty and virtue ; in exergue 1776 ; the 
Goddess of Liberty, sitting on a globe, facing the left, holding in her 
right hand a liberty-cap, and with her left supporting herself by a long 
spear ; at her feet is a small animal. Copper, size 20. Nothing is 
known of its origin, but it has naturally been said to be the work 
of Paul Revere: it is considered to be unique. In 1786 the State 
ordered an issue of cents and half-cents, of which specimens follow, 
numbers XIII.— XVI., thus described : commonwealth ; an Indian 
standing facing the left, resting his right hand on a bow, and holding 
an arrow in his left ; before his face is a star. Reverse : Massachu- 
setts ; in exergue 1787 or 1788; an eagle displayed, with an olive- 
branch in right claw, and in left arrows ; on his breast is a shield, with 
the value, cent or half-cent. 

Number XVII. is of English origin, and has an elephant on one side, 
and on the other, god : preserve : new: England : 1694. Copper, 
size 18£. It is excessively rare, not more than two or three being 
known, and came from the collection of J. J. Mickley, of Philadelphia, 
long the best in this country. 

Number XVIII. is still more rare, only one other being known to 
collectors. It is of the Bermudas or Sommer Islands, where, Captain 
John Smith says, " they had for a time a certain kind of brass money, 
with a hogge on one side, in memory of the abundance of hogges 
which were found at their first landing." The coin has on one side an 
antique ship under sail, and on the other a hog, or rather a wild-boar, 
with the inscription, "sommer islands," and the value XII., showing 
that it was probably a token for a shilling. Snelling described this 
identical specimen, in 1769, as being in the cabinet of Thomas Hollis : 
it came to me from the collection of Mr. Mickley. It is of copper, 
size 20. 

In 1659, Lord Baltimore issued a coinage of silver for his province 
of Maryland ; a set of which is shown by numbers XIX.-XXL, com- 
prising shilling, sixpence, and fourpence. CiECiLivs : dns : terr^e- 



1870.] MEDALS AND COINS RELATING TO AMERICA. 295 

MARiiE : &ct. ; the head of Lord Baltimore facing the left. Reverse : 
crescite : et : mvltiplicamini ; his coat-of-arms and coronet, and 
at each side of it the numerals of value, XIL, VI., and IV. respec- 
tively. These end the series of colonial money. 

The next few pieces are patterns, prepared before the adoption of 
the cent in 1793. Nos. XXII. and XXIII. came from the collection 
of Mr. Mickley, and are considered unique : I certainly know of no 
others, nova constellatio ; an eye surrounded by rays, between 
which are thirteen stars. Reverse: libertas . justitia . 1783; a 
wreath, within which are U. S., and the numerals 1000 and 500 re- 
spectively. These seem to be pieces of 1000 and 500 units, as 
proposed by Gouverneur Morris in 1782, and sent to the President 
of Congress as specimens in April, 1783. In this month, also, Robert 
Morris wrote : " I sent for Mr. Dudley, who delivered me a piece of 
silver coin, being the first that has been struck as an American coin." 
The smaller one is probably meant by Samuel Curwen, who wrote 
15th May, 1784: "Mr. Bartlett presented me with a medal struck in 
Philadelphia: in a round compartment stands, U. S. . 5 . 1783; 
round, Libertas et Justitia; on the other side, in the centre, an eye 
surrounded by a glory ; the whole encompassed by thirteen stars, — 
with the legend, Nova Constellatio" The piece does not exactly an- 
swer to this description, but there is no other which comes so near. 
The design is frequently found in copper of the same year, and, with 
a slight difference, of 1785. 

Numbers XXIV. and XXV. are of the highest rarity, only two or 
three others being known. They are identical, except that one has 
on the edge the words, to be esteemed be useful. They are 
thus described: liberty parent of science & industry; in the 
field 1792 ; a head of Liberty facing the right, with flowing curly 
hair ; on the edge of the bust is the artist's name, birch. Reverse : 
united states of America ; a wreath of olive, within which are 
the words one cent, and, below, t ^q. Copper, size 21. They were 
designed in Philadelphia by the artist whose name they bear, and are 
much larger than the cent as adopted, and issued in 1793. It is not 
easy to say why the design on them was not approved, as the head 
is more beautiful than is seen on the common cent, and the motto 
is certainly very expressive. There are two smaller patterns in the 
same style, which, though less rare than the large ones, are wanting 
in my collection. Numbers XXVI. and XXVII. are patterns, of the 
same year, for a dime and half-dime, with the same inscription, but 
abbreviated for the small size of the coins ; the heads are quite differ- 



296 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

ent ; each has on the reverse an eagle flying, and below, the words 
"disme" and "half disme," respectively. 

The remaining pieces here described are medals, all relating to 
American history. 

I. A map of the New World, and round it the inscription, gentes 

SERVIENT EI DONEC VENIAT TEMPUS QUO EJ1DEM AB IPSO SERVITU- 

tem exigent. Jer. 27, v. 7. Reverse : View of a bay, with many 
ships in it and near it ; below the inscription, in seven lines : vi. 

ID SEPT. Clo.IO.CXXVIII . AUSPIC . FOED . REGIM . BELG . SOCIET . 
IND . OCCID . DUCTU . P. P . HEYNI . POTITA . EST . IN . ET . SUB . MA- 
TANZA . SINU . CUBA . INS . REGIA . CLASSE . ARGENTEA . REGNI . 

nov^e . hisp. ; around : filia babil quasi area calcabitur ab 
aquilone tempore messis eius. Jerem. 51, v. 33 et 48. Silver, 
size 40. This medal celebrates the capture of a Spanish treasure-fleet 
in the Bay of Matanzas, Cuba, in September, 1628, by the Dutch, 
under Admiral Peter Heyn, who was in consequence created Lieu- 
tenant-Admiral of Holland. I have another smaller and less interest- 
ing medal on the same event. 

II. FR . CHRIST . DE . LEVI . D . DAMPVILLE . P . FRANC . PROREX . 

America ; bust of the Duke, with long flowing hair, and in richly 
decorated armor, facing the right; below the bust, I. hardy, f. 1658. 
Reverse: Ex . te . enim . exiet . dux . qui . regat . populum . 
meum ; a shield with a coat of four quarters, on a mantle of ermine, 
and crowned by a ducal coronet. Bronze, size 31. This is a medal 
of Francois Christophe de Levi, Due de Dampville, who was first ap- 
pointed Viceroy of America in 1644, and in 1655 obtained a new 
patent as Viceroy of the Islands and Main Land of America, including 
Guiana, the country on both sides the Amazon, &c. The irreverent 
quotation on the medal must refer to the family name, and derives its 
point from the absurd claims to antiquity made by the French family 
of Levis. 

III. ludovicus magnus rex christianissimus ; head of Louis 
XIV., with curling hair, facing the right ; below the bust, dollin. f. 
Reverse: francia in novo orbe victrix; in exergue, kebeca 
liberata, m.dc.xc. ; a crowned woman representing the city of 
Quebec, seated on a rock, resting her left arm on the shield of France, 
and pressing her right foot on a shield, which seems to bear stars ; 
behind are English flags and pine-trees, at her feet a beaver, and at 
one side the river-god St. Lawrence. Bronze, size 26. This, of course, 
refers to the melancholy failure of the expedition from New England 
against Canada in 1690. 



1870.] MEDALS AND COINS KELATING TO AMERICA. 297 

IV. and V. On both : lud. xv. rex christianiss ; head (dif- 
ferent on each) of Louis XV., facing the right ; below, the initials of 
the artist's name. Reverse of IV. : sub omni sidere crescunt ; in 
exergue, col. franc, de lam. 1751 ; an Indian with bow and arrows, 
standing near some plants, which J. take to be tobacco. Reverse of 
V.: non vilius aureo ; in exergue, col. franc, de lam. 1755; 
an ancient galley, with a fleece hanging from the mast. Both are of 
copper, size 18. The latter medal probably commemorates some par- 
ticular event connected with the fur-trade. 

VI. THE GIFT OF THE CORPORATION OF THE CITY OF PHIL A 

delphia ; the arms of the city. Reverse : kittanning destroyed 
by col 1 : Armstrong; in exergue, September. 8. 1756; an Indian 
village in flames, in the foreground an officer and three soldiers, one 
of whom has just killed an Indian, seen falling at the right, near a 
corduroy road. Pewter, size 27. This commemorates the destruc- 
tion of an Indian village on the Ohio by troops under Col. John Arm- 
strong, of Carlisle ; to whom, with his subordinate officers, the city of 
Philadelphia voted a medal. 

VII. georgius. ii. del gratia; laureate head of George II., 
facing the left. Reverse : let us look to the most high who 
blessed our fathers with peace; in exergue 1757; a white man 
and an Indian seated under a tree, the former handing a pipe to the 
latter; in the heavens the sun is shining with wonderful brilliancy. 
Silver, size 28. This medal was struck by an association of Quakers 
in Philadelphia, for the purpose of presentation to the Indians, and of 
promoting peace and friendship with them. Mine has evidently been 
worn. 

VEIL, IX., and X. all celebrate the same event. VIII., A rock, and 
over it a globe, inscribed, in the proper parts, Canada. America, 
resting on a prostrate naked female figure, who has just dropped a 
fleur-de-lis ; at the left is a British grenadier in uniform, and at the 
right a New-England sailor, waving his hat, and between them, on a 
scroll, pariter . in . bella ; behind the globe is the British flag, 
and, above, Fame is flying, her right hand holding a long trumpet to 
her lips, and in her left two wreaths of laurel; in the distance are sev- 
eral boats and a high rock ; on the rock, in the foreground, t. pingo. f. 
Reverse: lovisbovrg . taken . mdcclviii; a view of the attack 
on Louisburg, taken inside a battery with soldiers and guns, from one 
of which a ball just fired is seen in the air, leaving a long track ; at 
the right is a fortified city, and at the left a lighthouse ; on the ocean 

38 



298 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

are several ships, one of which is in flames, and a number of boats. 
Silver, size 28. IX., adm 1 ; boscawen . took . cape . breton; 
bust of the Admiral, in armor, facing the right. Reverse : louis- 
bourg ; in exergue, iul 26 1758 ; in the foreground the ocean, with 
five ships, and beyond, a curious view of the attack on the city, with 
a cannon-ball just striking a high tower. Copper, size 25. X. Same 
inscription ; the Admiral is in naval uniform, with a baton in his right 
hand. Reverse: louisburg harbour; in exergue, iul 26 1758; 
a similar scene, but reversed in position, and without the cannon-ball. 
Copper, size 23. Nothing need be said about these medals, except 
that the first is a very beautiful one. 

XL Britannia; in the field, to right, wolfe, — to left, savn- 
ders ; a classic female head, facing the left, and, below, a wreath, 
through which are crossed an antique standard and a trident. Re- 
verse : Quebec, taken mdcclix ; in exergue, soc. p. a. c.; the 
winged figure of Victory, with a palm in her left hand, with her right 
places a wreath of laurel on an antique military trophy, in which is 
the shield of France, and at its foot sits a captive bound to its base ; 
beyond is seen the prow of a galley. Silver, size 25. XIL, the con- 
qvest op Canada compleated ; Neptune seated, holding an oar, 
and leaning on the prow of a galley, a beaver running up his leg ; 
beyond is an antique standard, with the name amherst inscribed in a 
wreath, a lion above it ; in exergue, the shield of France, a bow, quiver, 
and tomahawk. Reverse: Montreal taken mdcclx; in exergue, 
soc. promotino arts and commerce ; a female figure personifying 
France, seated under a pine-tree weeping; before her the shield 
of France, a sword and tomahawk, and, behind, an eagle on a rock. 
Silver, size 26. This medal is copied from the famous " Judaea Capta" 
of the Romans. Both of these were of course struck by the Society 
for Promoting Arts and Commerce to celebrate the events recorded on 
them. 

XIIL, XIV., and XV. are all in honor of one man. XIII., gvliel- 
mvs pitt ; bust of Pitt, in flowing wig, facing the left ; on edge of 
bust, t. pingo f. Reverse : the man who . having saved the 

PARENT . PLEADED WITH SUCCESS FOR HER CHILDREN. Copper, size 

26. XIV., libertatis vindex . gul : pitt ; a rude head of Pitt, 
in a wig, at three-quarter face to the right. Reverse : Britannia et 
America iunctje ; a wreath, within which are two hands clasped 
over a sword with a liberty-cap on the point. Copper, size 21. This 
medal is very rare, and nothing is known of its origin. XV., the . 



1870.] MEDALS AND COINS RELATING TO AMERICA. 299 

RESTORER OF . COMMERCE. 1766. NO . STAMPS ; bust of Pitt, facing 

the left. Reverse : thanks to the friends of liberty and 
trade; in the field, America; a man-of-war, with flags flying 
Copper, size 18. The inscription on this piece sufficiently explains it 
XVL, d'vlugtende americaane n van rohde yland atjg! 1778 ; 
a view of Rhode Island, with soldiers fleeing across it ; to the right 
are boats filled with men, and to the left three men-of-war. Reverse : 
de admiraals flag van admiraal howe 1779 ; a British man- 
of-war. Brass, size 20i This curious little Dutch medal celebrates 
the evacuation of Rhode Island by the Americans on the approach of 
the British fleet under Admiral Howe. 

XVII., JOANNI PAVLO JONES CLASSIS PRAEFECTO. COMITIA 

Americana ; bust of Paul Jones, in uniform, facing the right ; 
on edge of bust, dupre . f. Reverse : hostivm navibvs captis 

AVT FVGATIS . AD ORAM SCOTIAE XXIII. SEPT. M.DCCLXXVIIII. 

dupre . f. ; a view of the fight between the " Bon Homme Richard" 
and the " Serapis," &c. Silver, size 36. This is one of the medals 
voted by Congress, and is one of the most beautiful and interesting. 
We find allusions to it in the letters of Jones, who wrote thus, 9th 
September, 1788 : " The position of the two ships is not much amiss ; 
but the accessory figures are much too near the principal objects ; and 
he has placed them to windward instead of being, as they really were, 
to leeward of the Bon Homme Richard and Serapis." 

XVIII. REBELLION TO TYRANTS IS OBEDIENCE TO GOD ; a 

woman in armor, with a 'sword in her right hand, and a spear in her 
left, pressing her right foot on a man lying prostrate, and with her 
left foot keeping down a chain, which he holds in his left hand ; near 
is a crown on the ground ; above, in a label, Virginia. Reverse : 
happy while united; in exergue, 1780; a white man and an 
Indian seated under a curious tree, and shaking hands ; the Indian 
holds a pipe ; at the left is the ocean, on which are three vessels ; the 
piece has a loop formed of an eagle's wing and a pipe. Copper, size 46. 
Nothing whatever is known about this strange piece, nor another 
specimen. I consider it a great curiosity. 

XIX. COLUMBIA and WASHINGTON: commanded by J. 
KENDRICK ; a ship and a sloop on the ocean. Reverse : FITTED 
at BOSTON, JST. AMERICA for the PACIFIC OCEAN by 
J. Barrell, S. Brown, C. Bulfinch, J. Darby, C. Hatch, J. M. 
Pintard. 1787. Silver, size 27. An account of the voyage of these 
vessels, and the discovery of Columbia River, may be read in Green- 



300 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

how's " Memoir of the North-west Coast of North America," in which 
it is stated that each vessel took out a number of these medals, struck 
for the purpose of distribution among the natives of the places she might 
visit. Probably most of them were thus used, for they are now quite 
rare. Unfortunately the designer's name is not on them. 

XX. TH . JEFFERSON PRESIDENT OF THE U. S. 4 MARCH 1801 ; 

bust of Jefferson, facing the left; below, the initial of the artist's 
name, — R. Reverse: under his wing is protection; in ex- 
ergue: to commemorate iuly 4 1776; a female figure, in armor, 
stands at the left, supporting with her right hand a long pole, on 
which is a liberty-cap, and with her left hand holding a scroll in- 
scribed, Declar. independence, over a rock inscribed, consti- 
tution, near which are a horn of plenty, a drum, and military 
equipments ; in the air is an eagle with a wreath in his beak. Silver, 
size 29. Unfortunately, this beautiful medal has no history : I sup- 
pose it was struck by some political society to commemorate the tri- 
umph of party in the election of Jefferson. 

XXL JOHN QUINCY ADAMS PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 

march 4. 1825; head of Adams, facing the right; on edge of bust, 
furst. Reverse: science gives peace and America plenty, 
furst. f. ; Science, represented by Minerva, supporting a spear with 
her left hand, with her right presents an olive-branch to America, 
personified by an Indian seated on a horn of plenty; at the left, 
behind Minerva, is an eagle on a stump of a tree. Silver, size 32£. 
This is perhaps the most beautiful medal yet produced in this country. 

XXII. N. ENGLAND SOC FOR PROMOTION OF MANUFACTURES 

and mechanic arts. 1826; head of Archimedes, facing the right; 
below the bust, archimedes, and on its edge, gobrecht. f. Re- 
verse: genius intelligence and industry triumph; a carding- 
machine, a steam-engine, and a steamboat, each in a framed panel ; 
above, the names archimedes galileo newton franklin watt 
fulton, shedding a flood of rays over the clouds ; at the sides 
are various plants, and, below, c gobrecht. f. Silver, size 40. 
This is also a very handsome medal ; and both this and the last 
are strangely rare, considering their recent date. The designers, 
Furst and Gobrecht, were long in the employ of the United-States 
Mint. Furst designed most of the medals presented for the victories 
of 1812-15; and Gobrecht, in 1836 and 1838, designed some exquis- 
ite patterns, which were so far in advance of the taste of the officers 
of the Mint, that they were not adopted. 



1870.] MEDALS AND COINS RELATING TO AMERICA. 301 

XXIII. HENRY CLAY ELECTED PRESIDENT A. D. 1844; head of 

Clay, facing the left. Reverse: the mill-boy of the slashes 
inaugurated march 4 T .? 1845 ; a man on horseback, near a mill. 
Brass, size 16. This is one of the few lying medals in the American 
series. There are several such of other countries, showing that 
medals can no more be absolutely depended on than any other form 
of historic evidences. The list of medals, of all countries, which com- 
memorate events that never took place, is long and very curious. 

The last ten medals form a series, which, for lack of a better name, 
may be called the Revolutionary Peace Medals. This includes all 
medals struck to celebrate any of the events connected with the suc- 
cessful ending of the war of American independence, with the recog- 
nition of this fact by foreign powers, and with the signing of the 
treaty by which Great Britain finally accepted it with all its conse- 
quences. Some of these medals are excessively rare, and I doubt if 
another equally extensive collection is in existence. There are one or 
two more, not here described, whose absence prevents even this from 
being an absolutely complete collection. 

I. libertas . Americana ; in exergue, 4 juil . 1776; on edge 
of bust, dupre; a beautiful head of Liberty facing the left, with 
hair loosely streaming backwards ; over the right shoulder a pole, on 
which is a Phrygian cap. Reverse : non sine diis animosus infans. 
(Horace, Book III. Ode IV., 20); in exergue, \l oct. }J|J; on 
platform, dupre. f ; the infant Hercules in his cradle, strangling two 
serpents, while Pallas protects him, with a spear in her right hand, 
and in her left a shield charged with the lilies of France, against 
which a leopard is throwing himself. Silver, size 30. 

The dates on the reverse are those of the surrender of Burgoyne 
and of Cornwallis. This exquisite medal is of French work : the idea 
was Franklin's, and he caused it to be struck under his direction, 
assisted by Sir William Jones, who supplied the mottoes.* 

* These statements are proved by the following extracts from Franklin's "Works, 
Sparks's edition : " This puts me in mind of a medal I have had a mind to strike, since 
the late great event you gave me an account of, representing the United States by the 
figure of an infant Hercules in his cradle, strangling the two serpents; and France by 
that of Minerva, sitting by as his nurse, with her spear and helmet, and her robe 
specked with a few fleurs de lis. The extinguishing of two entire armies in one war 
is what has rarely happened, and it gives a presage of the future force of our growing 
empire." This medal was subsequently executed, under the direction of Dr. Franklin, 
with some variation in the device. — Letter to Robert E. Livingston, March 4, 1782, 
vol. ix. p. 173. " The engraving of my medal, which you know was projected before 



302 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

II. Three standing figures ; the middle one, a warrior, personifying 
Holland, with his right hand grasps that of a woman in barbarous 
dress, who leans on a shield, inscribed, de vereenigde staaten 
van noord America ; at her feet are a sceptre and broken shackles ; 
at the right is a woman, holding in her right hand an olive-branch, 
and leaning on a shield inscribed, groot brittanjen ; at her feet lies 
a snake, and behind her sits a dog, who is kept back by the extended 
left hand of the warrior ; above him, in the clouds, is an angel, carry- 
ing a liberty-cap to the United States ; in exergue, b. c. v. calker f. 
Reverse: Aan de Staaten van Friesland ter dankbaare 

NAGEDACHTENISSE VAN DE L/ANDSDAGEN IN FeBR. EN APR. 
MDCCLXXXII TOEGEWTD DOOR DE BURGER SOCIETEIT DOOR 

Vryheid en Yver te Leeuwarden. (To the States of Friesland 
in grateful remembrance of the Assemblies held in February and 
April 1782. Dedicated by the Civic Society " Through Freedom and 
Zeal" at Leeuwarden). A right hand from the clouds holds the 
crowned shield of West Frisia. Silver, size 28. 

This medal and the five following are of Dutch origin. The best 
explanation of the events causing them and the dates borne on them is 
found in the letters of John Adams, as printed in the " Diplomatic 
Correspondence of the American Revolution." He wrote from Am- 
sterdam, 27th Feb., 1782 : " Friesland has at last taken the provincial 
resolution to acknowledge the independence, of which United America 
is in full possession." In a later letter he communicates the resolution 
as passed 26th Feb. The action of April will be more properly noticed 
with the next medal. 

III. libera soror. ; in exergue, solemni decr. [eto] agn. 



the peace, is but just finished. None are yet struck in hard metal, but will be in a few 
days. In the mean time, having this good opportunity by Mr. Penn, I send you one of 
the epreuves. You will see that I have profited by some of your ideas, and adopted the 
mottoes you were so kind as to furnish." — Letter to Sir William Jones, March 17, 1783, 
id. p. 501. " I have caused to be struck here the medal which I formerly mentioned to 
you, the design of which you seemed to approve. I enclose one of them in silver, for the 
President of Congress, and one in copper, for yourself: the impression on copper is 
thought to appear hest, and you will soon receive a number for the members. I have 
presented one to the King, and another to the Queen, both in gold, and one in silver to 
each of the ministers, as a monumental acknowledgment, which may go down to future 
ages, of the obligations we are under to this nation. It is mighty well received, and 
gives general pleasure. If the Congress approve of it, as I hope they will, I may add some- 
thing on the die (for those to be struck hereafter) to show that it was done by their 
order, which I could not venture to do till I had authority for it." — Letter to Robert JR. 
Livingston, April 15, 1783, id. p. 515. 



1870.] MEDALS AND COINS RELATING TO AMERICA. 303 

[ita] 19 apr. MDCCLXXxn; at the left an armed woman, per- 
sonifying Holland, with her right hand grasps that of an Indian queen, 
while on a pole in her left she holds a liberty -cap over the head of the 
Indian, who stands at the right, bearing in her left hand a shield 
charged with thirteen stars, a spear, and a chain which holds a leopard, 
on whose head she presses her left foot; between the figures is an 
altar, on which fire is burning, and above them are rays of the sun. 
Eeverse : ttrannis virtute repulsa ; in exergue, sub gallee 
auspiciis ; I. G. holtzhey fec ; an open landscape, with a high 
rock at the left, at the base of which lies a unicorn, royally gorged, 
who has broken his horn against the rock. Silver, size 28 £. 

The date on this medal refers to a resolution of their " High Mighti- 
nesses, the States- General of the United Provinces, Friday, April 19, 
1782," which ends thus : " it has been thought fit and resolved, that 
Mr. Adams shall be admitted and acknowledged in quality of Envoy 
of the United States of North America to their High Mightinesses, as 
he is admitted and acknowledged by the present." 

IV. FAVSTISSEUO FOEDERE JVNCT.E . DIE VII OCTOB . MDCC- 

lxxxii; Fame seated on the clouds, supporting with her right 
hand two shields, one of Holland, the other charged with thirteen 
stars ; above them is a crown, and below, the club of Hercules and 
lion's skin ; her left hand holds to her lips a long trumpet. Reverse : 
justitiam et NON temxere divos (Virgil, iEneid, Book VI. 620) ; 
in exergue, S . P . Q . Amst . sacrvm ; I. G. hoetzhey fec. ; at 
the left is a pyramid, on the base of which hang flowers and a scroll 
inscribed prodromvs (a forerunner) ; on the front of the pyramid 
the crowned shield of Amsterdam rests against crossed fasces ; Mer- 
cury, flying through the air, is about to place a wreath on the crown ; 
in the foreground are a basket of fruit and an anchor, on which stands 
a cock, whose left claw holds something not easily recognizable ; in 
the distance is the ocean, on which are several vessels. Silver, size 29. 

V. The same medal, size 21. 

VI. en dextra fidesque ; in exergue, den. 7 October 1782. 
i. y. b. ; at the right, a woman sits on a bale of goods, resting her 
left arm on the shield of Holland ; near her stands a pole, on the top 
of which is a liberty-cap ; her right hand is extended to receive an 
olive-branch from a man in classic dress standing at the left, who offers 
it with his right hand, and with his left supports a staff, from which 
flies the " Stars and Stripes " ; near him is a barrel, filled to overflow- 
ing with Indian corn. Reverse : Heil, vrugestreex Amerikaax : 



304 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Gansch Neerland neemt uw vriendschap aan. Gods gunst 
vereen twee vrije landen, tot weerztds nut, door vaste 
rand en. (Hail to you, American, who have fought out your free- 
dom : All Netherland accepts your friendship. God's grace unite two 
free lands, to mutual good, through solid ties.) Below is a caduceus, 
between a branch of olive and a branch of laurel. Silver, size 20£. 

The dies for these medals were evidently prepared in advance of the 
event, for we find in Mr. Adams's letters that the signing of the trea- 
ties, which was to have taken place on October 7, was put off till the 
next day, on which, October 8, " were executed the Treaty of Com 
merce and the convention concerning recaptures." 

VII. nederland verklaard America vry. (Netherland de- 
clares America free.) In exergue, i. m. lageman; a woman in 
classic dress, holding in her right hand a bundle of seven arrows, and 
supporting a lance, on the top of which is a liberty-cap, in her left a 
caduceus ; at her feet are a cactus and a horn of plenty, and in the 
distance are fortifications and a range of hills. Reverse : de alge- 
meene wensch. (The universal desire.) In exergue, 1782; a 
group of bales and barrels, a boat with one mast, and a tall trident- 
headed staff, from which hang the flags of Holland and the United 
States. Silver, size 21^. 

VIII. libertas Americana; in exergue, MDCCLXXXIII; in 
field, CE ; Louis XVI. in royal robes, and on his throne, facing the 
right, pointing with his left hand to a shield charged with thirteen bars, 
which a woman, representing either Liberty or Authority, has just 
hung on a column, surmounted by a cap of liberty. Reverse : com- 
mvni consensv ; Pallas standing, facing the right, supporting with 
her right hand a spear, by the side of which an olive springs up ; her 
left hand holds a ribbon, tied in a bow, from which hang the shields 
of France, Great Britain, Spain, and Holland ; on the ground lies a 
shield with the head of Medusa. Silver, size 29. 

IX. sic hostes concordia ivngit amicos ; in exergue, prv- 
dentia & fatis ; in field to the left, maho, to right, gibr ; at the 
left a woman, in classic dress, with an olive-branch in her left hand, 
with her right grasps that of another woman, who supports with her 
left hand a pole, on which is a liberty-cap ; between the figures are a 
horn of plenty, the shields of Ireland, France, and Spain ; behind the 
first figure is the shield of Scotland, and behind the second a shield 
charged with several bars, for the United States ; in the field at each 
side is a battle between a fort and several vessels, and above the 



1870.] MEDALS AND COINS RELATING TO AMERICA. 305 

ligures is a triangle, from which proceed rays ; in the exergue is a 
view of a large fortified seaport-town. Reverse: ensibvs ex mar- 
tis lvx pacis l^ta resvrgit ; in exergue, ope vvlcani 1783; 
a woman, with an olive-branch in right hand and a horn of plenty in 
left, stands on a man in armor lying prostrate with a broken sword in 
right hand ; in the distance is an open sea, with mountains and vessels 
to left, and a battle between a fort and several vessels to right ; in the 
air above is the sun in splendor, and an angel flying to right, with a 
wreath in left hand, and in right a trumpet through which he sounds 
the words fiat pax. Tin, size 27 1 . 

I know nothing of the origin of this medal, and have seen but one 
other specimen, which was in the Mickley collection. On the obverse, 
allusion is made to the capture of Port Mahon in Minorca, and the 
defence of Gibraltar, both which events happened during the war of 
American independence. 

X. felicitas Britannia et America; in exergue, MDCC- 
LXXXIII Sep t . 4; at the right a woman, personifying Great 
Britain, is seated, facing the left ; by her side is a shield with the 
crosses of St. George and St. Andrew, in her left hand is a spear, 
and with her right she seems to grasp the left hand of an Indian 
queen, who advances toward her, with a bow in right hand, and a 
quiver behind her back; between them flies a dove with an olive- 
branch; the distance seems to present a view of London, in which 
St. Paul's Cathedral and the Monument are plainly seen. Reverse, 
in centre : we are one ; on a ring, from which extend thirteen rays, 
American congress ; beyond the rays a circle of thirteen rings, 
inscribed, masschs, n. hamps, connect, r. island, n. iorke, ? , 

PENSILVA, DELAWARE, MARYLAND, VIRGINIA, N. CAROLIN, S. CA- 

roli, Georgia. Tin, size 25. 

The date on this piece is that of the treaty by which Great Britain 
acknowledged the independence of her former colonies, now the 
United States of America. A similar piece, and the only other one I 
have seen, is in the cabinet of Charles Clay of Manchester, England, 
President of the Manchester Numismatic Society. He describes the 
edge as reading " Continental Currency," but mine has an ornamental 
milling, like some old Spanish dollars. The execution of both is very 
rude. 



306 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [April, 

Mr. Frothingham spoke of an interesting letter relating to 
the battle of Lexington, which lay upon the table, of which 
Mr. Appleton has furnished a copy for the " Proceedings " : — 

BATTLE OF LEXINGTON.* 

April 18 rt — We are in the utmost confusion; some of the Troops 
last Night went out of Boston, & have just Heared that they Have 
killed two or three Men. 

21 s ' — The night before last the troops went in Boats from Boston 
to Horse Farm & so marched to Concord. In their march killed 8 
men, but who fired first I believe none can tell. They went on to Con- 
cord, and destroyed the Magazine & Stores, then retired to Charles- 
town, firing on our people & they on them. A most terrible Day it was, 
the Women & Children fled out of Town, as we expected they would 
come into it. Our family went up to M r Temples ; we just escaped the 
Army, having reached M rs Irelands when the Regulars got to the 
Neck, & ours come down Winters Hill. The Regulars marched up 
Cap n Fentons or Bunkers Hill and ours returned Back again. None 
fired after they got into Town. Then they got leave of the Town to let 
their Men go into the Meeting House & town House, till they could 
get over. The Boats come and Carryed them over, when the people 
tho't we were all safe, & sent up to M r Temples where Vast Num- 
bers from Town had fled. Two M r Russels & wives went to Town 
& found they had brought over another Regiment of Soldiers, who 
in the night encamped on the Hill, and the Town was again in the 
greatest distress. In the morning M r Temple got a pass for as many as 
would to return Home. I went with him, but O ! I cant describe to 
you the Melancholy sight, to behold the preparations that was making 
on the Hill, & before I reached home met 500 more marching up to 
the Hill. The Town I thought was gone, before night thot it woud be 
so fortifyed that we must give up or Die. But thro' the goodness of 
God in three Hours every Soldier was out of the Town & we in Quiet. 
They were frightened & fled as If pursued ; but no man pursued 
them ; they heared an Army was come against Boston. This but an 
imperfect ace* but cant do more at present. 

Mr. Appleton presented the original manuscript of a circu- 
lar signed by sixty-four merchants and firms in Boston, to be 

* Probably written by Dr. Isaac Foster, of Charlestown, Harv. Coll. 1758, to his sister 
Eleanor, wife of Dr. Nathaniel Coffin of Portland, Me. 



1870.] " ORIGINAL BANK CIRCULAR, 1809." 307 

sent to the country banks, urging them to provide for the re- 
demption of their bills. As an incident occurring over sixty 
years ago, connected with the financial history of Boston, it 
may not be regarded as unworthy a place in our " Proceedings." 
The circular is labelled " Original Bank Circular, 1809 " : — 

Boston, 
To the Cashier of Bank. 

Sir: — 

The subscribers, merchants, and traders in the town of Boston, from 
a disposition to afford every facility and convenience to their country 
customers, have been in the habit, since the establishment of Country 
Banks, of receiving the bills issued by them in payment for goods or 
debts at par, — and which they were for a good while enabled again to 
circulate without loss. 

Within the last two years, however, many Country Banks have un- 
warrantably abused this confidence placed in their bills, by refusing 
payment of them when presented, or by opposing every obstacle which 
chicanery and artifice could invent to delay or evade it. The obvious 
consequences have followed, the public confidence has been shaken, 
their faith in written promises of institutions avowedly established as 
patterns of punctuality no longer exists. Country Bank paper has de- 
preciated, and cannot be negotiated without a discount which varies 
from two to four per cent. We have, however, in hopes this unwarrant- 
able conduct would be abandoned, continued to receive this paper at 
par, and borne the loss of the discount, till our patience is exhausted 
and our suffering interest calls loudly for a change of measures. We 
have therefore found ourselves compellejd to send the bills home for 
payment, and in case of refusal shall proceed to the collection by due 
course of law. We beg you will communicate this letter to the Presi- 
dent and Directors of Bank, and hope that by a prompt pay- 
ment of their bills they will save us from the disagreeable necessity of 
resorting to the legal alternative." 

We are, Sir, your very obedient servants, 

Storrow & Brown Charles & Geo. Barrett 

Haven, Williams, & Co. William Appleton & Co. 

Bond & Prentiss Howe & Spear 

Gassett, Upham, & Co. Samuel Mat 

Eice, Reed, & Co. Jno. Binney 

Peter Dickerman Jno. Grew 

Phineas Foster Samuel Billings 



308 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[May, 



Minchin & Welch 
Munroe & Grostenor 
Seth Wright & Son 
Whitney & Dorr 
Samuel Dorr 
Luther Faulkner & Co. 
David Greenough 
B. & T. Wiggin 
S. & N. Appleton 
Bellows, Cordis, & Jones 
Sewall, Salisbury, & Co. 
Gore, Miller, & Parker 
S. & H. Higginson 
Andrew Eliot 
Joshua Davis 
Stevens & Joy 
Benj. Rich 
Parker & Appleton 
Knowles & Hurd 
Otis & Dwight 
James & Jno. Carter 
Bryant P. Tilden 
Timothy Williams 
Thos. C. Amory & Co. 
Eben. Francis 



Joseph Tildbn 
David S. Eaton 
Colburn & Gill 
Giles Lodge 
Cabot & Lee 
John Tappan 
Jonathan Phillips 
S. J. Prescott & Co. 
Lovejoy & Taggard 
Joseph Nye & Son 
N. & R. Ereeman 
Eben'r. & Jno. Breed 

TORREY, SYMMES, & Co. 

Tuckerman, Shaw, & Rogers 
F. & S. Clark 
Smith & Otis 
Freeman & Cushing 
Kirk Boott 
Pratt & Andrews 
Richardson & Wheeler 
Thomas Wigglesworth 
Whitney, Cutler, & Hammond 
Cornelius Coolidge & Co. 
Wm. Shimmin 
Uriah Cotting. 



MAY MEETING, 1870. 

A stated monthly meeting of the Society was held this day, 
Thursday, May 12th, at eleven o'clock, a.m. ; the President in 
the chair. 

The record of the last meeting was read. 

In the absence of the Librarian, the list of donors was read 
by the Recording Secretary. 

Among the donations announced was a manuscript copy of 
the oration delivered by Nathaniel Appleton Haven, Esq., of 
Portsmouth, N.H., May 21, 1823, two hundred years from the 
landing of the first settlers ; and of the poem on that occasion 
by 0. W. B. Peabody, Esq., — presented by George B. Chase, 
Esq., of Boston.* 



* This oration, in 1827, was included in a printed volume, entitled " The Remains 
of Nathaniel Appleton Haven, with a Memoir of his Life. By George Ticknor." 



1870.] LETTER RELATING TO WILLIAM PYNCHON. 309 

Mr. Whitmore presented a copy of the earliest printed Cata- 
logue of the Society's Library, containing some manuscript 
additions. 

The Hon. William T. Davis, of Plymouth, was elected a 
Resident Member. 

The Recording Secretary said he understood that our asso- 
ciate, the Rev. R. C. Waterston, was about to start on a trip to 
California, over the Pacific Railroad, on a tour of observa- 
tion and pleasure, to be absent for some months ; and he 
offered the following vote, which was unanimously adopted : — * 

Voted, That the Rev. Mr. Waterston be requested, during 
his absence on his western tour, to represent this Society on 
any occasion that may be agreeable to himself, or may be for 
the interest of the Society. 

Mr. Appleton communicated the following letter from Henry 
Smith, of Wyrardisbury, or Wraysbury, Bucks, England, to 
John Pynchon, of Springfield, Mass., dated February 20, 
1662, relating to the death of William Pynchon, one of the 
early settlers of Springfield, and furnishing the exact date of 
that event, which has hitherto been wanting in all published 
accounts of him : — 

Deare Brother Pynchon: — Our most Cordiall love and re- 
spects salute you and yo rs Ioying in y e continuance and extension of y e 
goodness of God toward yow all, as by yo r Letters reed appeares. 
S r , y e only wise Lord in whose hand is all o r wayes & tymes, all 
whose works are done in wonderfull and admirable councel^are very 
just holy and good even when they seemingly speake forth to vs the 
sharpest and sorest tryalls crosses and temptations, (as to Abra : when 
to offer vp his only Isaack.) dayly intstructeth vs both by bis word & 
workes to live in a dayly expectation of and p r peration for changes in 
y s o T pilgrimadge. Its his vsuall course of dealinge with all his Saints 
to give y m occations of dayly exercise of those p r ciouse graces (y e worke 
of his holy Spt in y r hearts) w c h else would contract rust, or ly in 

* Mr. Waterston went with a large number of gentlemen and ladies, forming a 
^arty projected under the auspices of the Board of Trade of this city. They left Bos- 
ton on the 23d of May, and arrived at San Francisco early in the morning of the 
1st of June. See Boston Newspapers of 23d May and 2d June. — Eds. 



310 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

obscurity not shining forth soe splendid and bewteose to y e prayse of 
his gloriouse Grace in Je : Cfit The decree of God hath Limited us 
o r stations so o r tymes and dayes beyond w ch we canot may not pass : 
The same is manifested in his late visitation vpon yo r and our most 
loved and much Hon rd fFather who expired and drew his last breath in 
Wyrardsbury Octobr: 29 th , a loss to vs vnrepayrable, a gayne to him 
vnexpressable, making a blessed change from earth to heaven, from a 
state of corruption, to a state of incorruption, from im'pfection to per- 
fection ; from a state of sin & sorrow to compleated joy and bliss, 
celebrating y e everlasting prayses of God and of the Lambe, who 
hath redeemed vs with his blood. Bro : I p r sume yow are not alto- 
gether vnp r pared for y s sad tydings, w c h I am occationed as one of 
Jobs messengers to acquaint yow with, resolving all yo r thoughts & 
greifes into y* holy speech of his : The Lord gave and y e Lord hath 
taken away, Blesed be y e name of y e Lord. Its one of God's vnal- 
terable appoyntmts y* all must dye. Death passeth on all men in as 
much as all have sined w c h should learne vs Davids silence and submis- 
sion, because y e lo : hath done it ; and y e rather seeing it pleased Him 
to continue him among vs soe longe to such an age, giveing vs y e op- 
portunitys to reape y e fruite of his godly & grasciouse exampls & 
councells, w c h, now he is taken from vs, y e lord help vs y* we may 
practically ffollow, so running y* we may obtayne y e pmised recom- 
pence of reward, y e Crowne of imortality & life, w c h he is now 
poseseed of. Dear Brother, this pvidence (I suppose doth vnavoyd- 
ably call yow to make a voyadge into these partes w*h all possible 
speede for y e transacting and settling of yo r affayrs heere, some things 
not being in soe good a posture as were to be wished : viz : y e busy- 
ness of Carletons administration, w c h was like to be wholly obstructed 
on my ffathers death ; But M r Wickins a faithful freind being intrusted 
in his will to act in his behalfe, hath slacked no diligence or paynes 
therin, he will write to yow himself, therefore ile say no more to that. 
You are made sole Executor, M r Wickins w*h my self are desired to 
be overseers of y e same in yo r absence. I carryed y e will to him to 
London, w c h he hath since pved in the Prerogative Court, who will 
send yow a Coppy thereof. I was lately at London of purpose to comu- 
nicate yo r letters and Bills to him, for goods to be sent this yeare and 
care will be taken to send y e greatest pt of them, by y e first good ship. 
Though vpon o r conference w% M r Bridge & partnrs they make 
scruple of parting w*h any mony of yo rs in y r hands, w*h out a particu- 
lar order from yo r owne hand y* w c h yow give to my fFather for y c dis- 
pose thereof being (they say) dead w*h him. 



1870.] " ST. REGIS BELL." 311 

I spake with some of y e men to whom yow directed yo r bills, for 
goods, and they were all cheerfull to send wnT yow write for, though 
they stay for payment till y e next returne of ships. In much hast & 
breifly I give yow a hint of things, hoping this may come to yo r hands, 
before other ships in w c h goods will be sent, by whom if God please 
yow shall heare further ! Clarke is not yet arived, but dayly ex- 
pected. 

S*. my selfe and wife w th all o r children are at present in comfortable 
health, who all present y r endeared respts to yow & yo rs : The mercy 
of y e blessed mediator overshaddow yow & yo rs and guide yow in all 
yo T vndertakings y* in due tyme we may see yo r face to o r mutuall 
Comfort soe prays 

Yo r ever Lovinge Brother 

Henry Smith. 
Wyrardsbury ffebr : 20th 
1662. 

Addressed, 

ffor his Deare and Welbeloved 

Brother M 1 ' John Pynchon, 

at his house in Springfeild 
on Conecticott. 
p r sent 

New-England 

Mr. Dayis communicated the following paper on 

" The St. Regis Bell" 

On the 29th of February, 1703-4, the town of Deerfield, in 
Massachusetts, was sacked and burned by a party of two hundred 
French and one hundred and forty-two Indians, under Major Hertel 
de Rouville, and one hundred and twelve men, women, and children 
were carried into captivity, including the Rev. John Williams, and his 
wife and children. A full account of this raid is given by Hoyt, in 
his book on "Indian Wars," published in Greenfield in 1824. In that 
book, as I believe, appeared the first printed statement in relation to 
what has been since commonly known as the story of the " Bell of 
St. Regis." That story has since been the basis of many publications 
in poetry and prose, and has invariably been received by the public as 
substantially true. I propose to state the results to which I have been 
led by my own inquiries as to its authenticity. 

Hoyt, who is a perfectly honest and truthful historian, states that 
Eunice, a daughter of the Rev. John Williams, never returned from 



312 MASSACHUSETTS HISTOKICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

her captivity, but married an Indian ; and he adds that " recently one 
of the great grandsons of Mr. Williams, under the name of Eleazer 
Williams, has been educated by his friends in New England, and is 
now employed as a missionary to the Indians at Green Bay, on Lake 
Michigan." Hoyt goes on to say as follows : — 

" In a recent visit to Montreal and Quebec, Mr. Williams made 
some exertions to secure documents relative to his ancestors, particu- 
larly on his grandmother's side. . . . He found a Bible, which was the 
property of his great grandfather, the Rev. John Williams, in which 
is the date of purchase with his name ; also the journal of Major 
Rouville, kept on the expedition against Deerfield in 1704, in which 
he frequently mentions John Williams as 'an obstinate heretick.' From 
the journal, it appears that Rouville's French troops suffered extremely 
from a want of provisions on the march to Deerfield, and were in a 
mutinous state when they arrived before the place ; but were kept to 
their duty by the Indians, who, from their greater facility in procuring 
game in the woods, and superior hardiness, were faithful to the com- 
mander. Mr. Williams has also procured the journal of the command- 
ing officer on the expedition against Schenectady, in 1690. These 
journals were obtained at one of the principal convents, where copies 
were required to be deposited on the return of the commanders of 
parties, as well as with the government. Mr. Williams states that 
when Deerfield was destroyed, the Indians took a small church bell, 
which is now hanging in an Indian church in St. Regis. It was con- 
veyed on a sledge as far as Lake Champlain, and buried, and was 
subsequently taken up, and conveyed to Canada. Mr. Williams's father 
and other Indians at St. Regis, are well acquainted with the facts re- 
lating to the bell, as well as the destruction of Deerfield." 

Hoyt adds in a note, " Communicated by Col. Elihu Hoyt, who 
recently conversed with Mr. Williams." 

It will be observed that Hoyt, born in Deerfield, and always residing 
there, does not suggest the existence of any tradition or record in Deer- 
field, bearing upon this subject ; nor does he appear to have seen the 
journals spoken of by Eleazer Williams. 

The evidence, traditional or documentary, existing in Deerfield in 
relation to the matter, is fully and fairly stated in a letter dated 
Feb. 21, 1870, addressed to me by Mr. George Sheldon, of Deerfield, 
who has devoted much time to the investigation of the history of 
Deerfield, and whose statements are worthy of full credit. He writes 
as follows: — 



1870.] "ST. REGIS BELL." 313 

" This romantic legend, so often repeated, has at length come to be 
accepted by most people as an historic fact. As a student of the early 
history of my native town, the bell story has become to me a subject 
of intense interest. Jn the course of my investigation, from a firm 
believer I became an utter sceptic, but at present am all out to sea. 
If there exists any satisfactory evidence anywhere, it would seem it 
must be lodged in the old convents or churches in Canada. In ac- 
cordance with your desire, I will give some of the reasons for the lack 
of faith which is in me. . . . While not one particle of evidence has 
been found (by me, at least) to support the statement of Mr. Williams, 
on the other hand nothing better than negative evidence has been 
found to disprove it ; but there is a good deal of that. The town 
records, covering a period of twenty years before the event, are com- 
plete, but give not the slightest hint that there was ever a bell in 
town. Town and parish were then one. In the ' Redeemed Captive/ 
a minute narrative of the events of the assault, the march to Canada, 
and of the captivity, and the repository of many reflections on the 
condition of his church and people, Mr. Williams gives us no hint 
that a bell ever summoned his flock to worship. His son Stephen has 
left us another account of the same events, entering into particulars, 
even more minutely than his father, and it seems almost impossible 
that the bell from his father's church could have been conveyed by the 
party either on poles or men's shoulders, or drawn upon a sledge, 
without so attracting his boyish notice as to leave some trace upon 
his journal ; . but we get no hint from him, though he was carried 
to St. Louis, and lived there long enough to learn the language. 

"Aaron Denio, who was born in Canada of parents captured by 
Rouville at Deerfield in 1704, was a very prominent man, and lived 
to a good old age in the town of Greenfield. Many stories are told of 
him to this day, but none of them convey the faintest tone of a bell. 
Much is known and told of the Kellogg boys and girls, who grew to be 
men and women amongst the Caughnawagas, and who figured largely 
in the history of this part of the colony as officers and interpreters, but 
not the faintest tinkle of the bell can we wring from them. There 
lives in this town a bright, smart woman of eighty-eight years, with 
an astonishing memory, who tells many stories of her grandmother, 
who was born less than thirty years after the massacre, and whom she 
remembers perfectly ; but not the faintest murmur of the bell is heard 
in them all. 

" The church, at Deerfield, was square, with a four-sided roof, from 

40 



314 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

the centre of which sprung the centre belfry, which must have been 
fully exposed in every direction; at a distance of about eight rods 
stood the house of Benoni Stebbins, which was successfully defended 
to the last by a party of sharpshooters, and several Indians and at 
least one Frenchman were killed by their fire. A party in the belfry, 
it would seem, must be at their mercy. A service of such a peculiar 
nature, in the face of such imminent danger, could hardly have been 
accomplished without leaving some mark on the traditions of the times, 
but none have been discovered as yet. The field of inquiry, in this 
region, seems to be about exhausted ; and I earnestly hope that some 
interested antiquarian, qualified for the work, will unearth those musty 
records, which are said to be deposited in convents or churches in 
Canada, and set the matter at rest, one way or the other." 

In further illustration of the difficulties which the attacking party 
would have found in carrying away an article so cumbrous as a bell, I 
annex a copy of a petition, of which the original is to be seen in the 
Massachusetts Archives, with the legislative order indorsed on the 
original paper. 

To his Excellency the Governour together with the Hon d Council and 
Representatives met in the Great and General Assembly at Boston, 
May 31, 1704. 

The humble petition of Jonathan Wells and Ebenezer Wright in 
ihe behalfe of the company who encountered the French and Indians 
at Deerfield, Feb. 29, 1704, sheweth : 

1st, That we, understanding the extremity of the poor people at 
Deerfield, made all possible haste to their reliefe, that we might deliver 
the remnant that were left, and doe spoil on the enemy. 

2dly, That, being joyned with a small number of the inhabitants 
and garrison souldiers, we forced the enemy out of town, leaving a great 
part of their plunder behinde them, and pursuing them about a mile and 
an halfe, did great execution upon them. We saw at the time many 
dead bodies, and we and others did afterwards see the manifest prints 
on the snow, where other dead bodies were drawn to a hole in the 
river. 

Sdly, That the enemy being reinforced by a great number of fresh 
men, we were overpowered, and necessitated to run to the fort; and, 
in our flight, nine of the company were slain, and some others wounded ; 
and some of us lost our upper garments, which we had put off before 
in the pursuit. 



1870.] "ST. REGIS BELL." 315 

Athly, That the action was over, and the enemy withdrawn about 
fourscore rods from the fort, before any of our neighbours came into 
the fort. 

Wherefore we doe humbly supplicate this Hon d Assembly, that ac- 
cording to their wonted justice and bounty, they would consider the 
service we have done in preserving many lives and much estate, and 
making a spoil on the enemy, the hazzard that we run, the losse we 
sustained, the afflicted condition of such as have lost near relations in 
this encounter, and bestow upon us some proportionable recompence, that 
we and others may be incouraged upon such occasions to be forward 
and active to repell the enemy, and rescue such as shall be in distresse, 
though with the uttmost peril of our lives, and your petitioners shall 
pray, &c. 

Jonathan Wells, 
Ebenezer Wright, 

In the name of the rest. 

In the House of Representatives. Read a first time, June 2, 
1704. 

In the House of Representatives, June 8, 1704. 

In answer to the petition on the other side, — 

Resolved, That the losses of the petitioners be made good, and paid 
out of the publick Treasury to such as sustained them, according to 
their account herewith exhibited, amounting to the sum of thirty-four 
pounds and seventeen shillings. 

That the sum of five pounds be paid to each of the widows of those 
slain, mentioned in the list annexed, being four in number. 

And, although but one scalp of Indians slain by them is recovered, 
yet, for their encouragement, that the sum of sixty pounds be allowed 
and paid to the petitioners, whose names are contained in the said list 
annexed as surviving, for scalp-money, to be equally divided amongst 
them, together with all plunder whereof they give account. 

James Converse, Speaker. 
Sent up for concurrence, June 9, 1704. 



In Council. 
Read and passed in concurrence. 



Isaac Addington, Secretary* 



316 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

The annexed list of persons engaged in the fight bears fifty-seven 
names. The plunder taken from the enemy is described in a schedule, 
of which the following is a copy : — 



An account of w* plunder was taken from the enemy, and solde by y e com- 
pany on the last of February, 1703-4. 

£ s. d. 

John Wells, one gun 01 09 00 

" " one bariell of gun 00 03 06 

Samuel Barnard, one gun 01 09 00 

Thomas Russell, one bariell & lock 01 03 00 

John Matone, a pece of gun 00 14 00 

John Wells, 3 peces of guns 00 07 00 

Thomas Barnard, one hatchet 00 02 00 

Hezeciah Root, one blancket 00 09 00 

Thomas Barnard, one blancket 00 03 08 

Samuell Carter, one blancket 00 04 00 

Jonathan Wells, one blancket 00 04 04 

Ebene Farley, one cap 00 04 06 

Jonathan Wells, one cap 00 06 00 

WiUiam Belding, one cap 00 02 00 

Jonathan Wells, one cap 00 03 00 

Ebenezer Wright, one gun 01 15 00 

Benja n Stebins, one pistill 00 10 00 

John Graves, one hatchet 00 01 06 

Joseph Smith, one gun 02 00 06 

Ebene Boltwhood, one pistile 00 09 00 

Samue 11 Dickeson, a hatchet 00 02 00 

Natha 11 White, a hatchet 00 02 02 

Thomas Howes, a hatchet 00 02 00 

Sa 11 Church, a powderhorn 00 01 02 

Nath 11 White, a blancket 00 05 08 

Eben Seldin, a baganet 00 04 06 

Sam 11 Field, a hatchet 00 02 00 

Joseph Brooks, a gun 01 11 06 

Zacrye Field, Ind n shoes .... - 00 00 10 

Nat 11 Coleman, gun case 00 00 06 

Primus Noyes, glas botle 00 00 06 

Richard Billing, glas botle 00 08 04 

John Wait, a hatchet 00 02 07 

Zacrye Field, a squaline 00 01 07 

Sam 11 Warner, a squaline 00 02 10 

Nath 11 Colman, a squaline ' 00 01 06 

Jona Wells, a squaline 00 01 02 

Zacrye Field, a cap 00 02 10 

Sam 11 Wright, a kniffe 00 01 00 

Amount carried forward £15 14s. 08c?. 



1870.] "ST. REGIS BELL." 317 

Amount brought forward £15 lis. OSd. 

Sam 11 Warner, a kniffe 00 01 03 

Zacrye Field, a pair of snoshoes 00 05 03 

Zacrye Field, a blancket 00 02 08 

John Graves, a blancket . . . . " 00 03 00 

Thomas Wells, a blancket 00 05 00 

Sum totall £16 12s. lOd. 



In following up this inquiry, it seemed important next to ascertain 
what evidence of the truth or falsehood of the story could be found at 
St. Regis. No long investigation was needed there, as it appears that 
St. Regis did not exist in 1704, nor till some half century afterwards. 
Rev. F. Marcoux, now resident priest at St. Regis, fixes it in 1759. 
Rev. B. F. De Costa, in an article on the St. Regis bell, in the 
"Galaxy" for January, 1870, fixes it in 1760. And Dr. F. B. Hough, 
in his history of St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, states that the 
Indians from St. Louis settled there in 1760, and that their priest, 
Anthony Gordon, then gave it the name of St. Regis. 

That these dates are not precisely correct, may be inferred from a 
letter which is to be found in the Massachusetts Archives, which 
seems to be a translation from an original letter by one P. R. Billiard. 
This letter, to which my attention was first called by Mr. Sheldon, 
seems to fix the settlement of St. Regis as early as 1754. 

To Monseigneur the Keeper of the Seals, Minister of the Marine. 

Monseigneur, — The Iroquois Indians cf the Falls of St. Louis, 
near Montreal, in Canada, are of the Iroquois Agniers (Mohawks), 
who formerly left their country to come and settle along the river 
St. Lawrence. Those of them that remained in the place of their 
nativity presently came under the dominion of the English, being in 
the neighborhood of Albany, while the others became the allies of the 
French. As the people of the two villages are relations, we have seen 
from time to time some of those that were settled round Albany re- 
unite with their brethren of the Fall of St. Louis. Mons. Duquesne, 
Governor- General of Canada, who perceived their inclinations, has 
always treated them with great kindness, and has privately engaged 
them to come and settle near him, knowing well, by experience in the 
last war, that they were the only Indians to be feared on the side of 
Fort St. Frederic and Lake Champlain. 

A great number of them are determined in consequence of this, 



318 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

and it is impossible the rest should stand out a great while. In the 
mean time, the village of the Fall of St. Louis being very numerous, 
is too much crowded ; and, moreover, the quality of the land not per- 
mitting them to push out further there because of the marshy places 
that are throughout, several families of the Fall of St. Louis, with a 
great number of Iroquois Agniers, have desired to make a new settle- 
ment in a place where the land was more fertile : in the first place, for 
the convenience of life ; and, next, to be out of the way of drunken- 
ness, to which the nearness of Mountroyal exposed them; and the 
readiness of the French to sell them brandy, notwithstanding the 
severe prohibitions of the Generals. Agreeably to this projection, 
they have made choice of a place in the King's territories, situated 
towards the south at the entrance of Lake St. Francis, half-way be- 
tween the mission of the Falls of St. Louis and that of the Presenta- 
tion. As this place appears to have all the properties for making a 
solid and advantageous settlement for the Indians, I came here with 
them ; and it is actually the mission which I have now the charge of, 
under the title of St. Regis. But as the Agniers desire to have the 
peaceable possession of said territory, I take the liberty to ask in their 
name, — 

1st, That they have granted to them the property of the territory 
lying south, at the entrance of Lake St. Francis, between two rivers ; 
one to the north-east, called Nigentsiagoa ; the other south-west, 
called Nigentsiage ; being in front six leagues, comprising the two 
rivers, together with the islands that lie towards the shore, for the said 
Indians to hold so long as their village shall there subsist, upon con- 
dition that if the mission is dissolved, the said lands shall revert to the 
King. 

2d, That the Jesuites missionaries be authorized under the title of 
feoffees in trust to make the partition of said land among the Indians, 
and amicably decide any controversies that may hereafter ensue re- 
lating to this matter ; and to manifest that the said missionaries in 
no wise seek their own interest in this, they desire it may be expressly 
prohibited both now and hereafter to make any grant to the French, 
as likewise to reserve for themselves, the missionaries, in said place any 
land for ploughing; and then the distance of the French will take 
away from the Indians the opportunity of copying their faults, and 
ruining themselves with strong drink. 

3d, That you would please to favor the good dispositions of the 
governor-general by giving orders that they may have some assistance 



1870.] " ST. REGIS BELL." 319 

in this settlement, advantageous, at the same time, to the interest of 
religion and the good of the colony. 

P. R. Billiard, Jesuite, 
Missionary to the Iroquois of the Mission of St. Regis. 
St. Regis, Dec. 7, 1754. 

Under date of " St. Regis, 1st April, 1870," Rev. F. Marcoux favors 
me with information as follows : — 

" I will further add the tradition on the testimony of the most 
ancient inhabitants of this place, of whom some are almost contemporary 
with the foundation of their village in 1760, . . . that from 1760 
down to 1835, there have been but two bells in St. Regis ; one came 
from the Catholic Churcfy of Fort Frontenac (now Kingston, Ontario), 
and was given to them, at their request, by one of the first governors 
of Quebec, after the conquest ; the other was purchased at Albany in 
1802. These two bells, having been cracked, were carried to Troy, 
N.Y., in 1835, and re-cast into a single bell. This is the tradition of 
St. Regis." 

It has more recently been stated, however, that the tradition, though 
untrue as to St. Regis, is in fact true of a bell which is hanging in 
St. Louis (now Caughnawaga), a place situated on the south side of 
the St. Lawrence, and about nine miles above Montreal. In Hough's 
"History of St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties," published in 1853, 
the statement is made as follows : — 

" While on a visit to Caughnawaga in October, 1852, the author 
found in the village a direct and consistent tradition of the bell, which 
is still used in their church ; and among the records in the hands of 
the priest, a manuscript, in the French language, of which we shall 
give a translation. The bell is a small one, and once possessed an 
inscription, which has been effaced. The legend purports to have been 
found some fifteen years since in an old English publication, and is 
regarded by the priest of the mission, Rev. Joseph Marcoux, who has 
for many years resided there, as, in the main points, reliable." 

The Rev. Francis Marcoux, of St. Regis, has also expressed his 
full belief in the existence and authenticity of the tradition as applied 
to the bell of St. Louis. 

I am fully assured that the negative evidence which I have pro- 
duced is sufficient to show that the tradition, if ever it existed, could 
have had no foundation in truth ; and I have as yet not discovered any 



320 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [May, 

precise and detailed evidence of the existence of this story before the 
preparation of Hoyt's book, nearly fifty years ago. 

The " legend," of which Dr. Hough gives a translation, is calculated 
to cause doubt rather than belief. It does not profess to be founded 
on tradition, but is said to have been taken, some fifteen years before 
1853, from an old English book ; and Hoyt's book is the only one we 
know of, from which its leading facts could have been taken. This 
" legend " describes the St. Louis Indians, living nine miles from the 
church bells of Montreal, as having never heard the sound of a bell, 
and getting their first idea of its tones from the account of their 
priest, and going out in procession to wreathe it with flowers, and 
overcome with rapture in hearing it for the first time. It seems to be 
simply a magazine story, in which a few well-known historical facts 
are decked with the ornaments of fiction. 

Strong circumstances of suspicion attach to the story as first pub- 
lished by Hoyt. As published, it purported to come from Rev. Eleazer 
"Williams, who, at the time of the publication, was a clergyman in good 
standing, whose statements of fact would be likely to be received with 
implicit belief. There were, without doubt, certain defects and improb- 
abilities in the story as he told it. He spoke of obtaining Rouville's 
journal, and another of the same kind, "from one of the principal 
convents, where copies were required to be deposited on the return of 
the commanders of parties." I am informed by gentlemen accustomed 
to investigations among Canadian records,* that they know of no con- 
vent where manuscripts of that description were required to be de- 
posited, or can now be found. He says that De Rouville, in his 
journal, describes Rev. John Williams as an " obstinate heretick." As 
De Rouville himself is described by Abbe Ferland (following Charle- 
voix) as a Huguenot, it is not probable that he would have used this 
particular term of reproach.f 

The additional fact that Williams fixed upon an impossible locale 
for the resting-place of the bell, raises a strong suspicion that he 
invented the whole story. 

All that is known of Mr. Williams goes to confirm this suspicion. 

* One of these gentlemen is Mr. J. M. Le Moine, of Quebec, who has given great 
attention to the early history of the Dominion, and to whose intelligent kindness I am 
much indebted. 

t Since the above was written, however, I learn that a communication by M. Faucher 
de St. Maurice has appeared in a Canadian paper, in which it is claimed that the De 
Rouvilles were, in fact, Catholics. 



1870.] "ST. REGIS BELL." 321 

He could not resist any temptation to mystify the public. At one 
time he came to a distinguished antiquary, now living in New York, 
and told him that the priest's house in Caughnawaga had been left for 
some time untenanted, had been blown down by a tempest, and that 
he had then discovered, in a recess thus revealed in a chimney, a 
number of Indian manuscripts, which he had taken away with him to 
Green Bay in Michigan. Inquiry was immediately instituted, and it 
was ascertained that the house had neither been left untenanted nor 
been blown down, and that the whole story was fictitious. In 1853, 
very general attention was excited by two articles published in " Put- 
nam's Magazine," asserting his claims to be considered the son of 
Louis XVI. of France. In one of those papers appeared his account 
of an interview with the Prince de Joinville, in which the prince was 
represented as making him large pecuniary offers if he would sign an 
instrument releasing his claim to the throne of France. To this prop- 
osition, according to his own statement, he returned an indignant 
refusal. This statement, being brought to the notice of the prince, 
was publicly contradicted by him as " a work of the imagination," and 
" a speculation upon public credulity." 

Nothing, then, seems to me more likely than that Williams invented 
the alleged tradition of the Deerfield or St. Regis bell ; but, however 
originated, it seems quite clear to me that the truth of the story is not 
sustained by the evidence now known. 



41 



322 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 



JUNE MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting was held on Thursday the 9th of 
June, at 11 o'clock, a.m. ; the President, Hon. Robert 0. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The record of the last meeting was read. 

The Librarian read his monthly list of donors to the Library. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter of acceptance 
from the Hon. William T. Davis, of Plymouth. 

He also read a letter from Thomas B. Akins, Esq., of Hali- 
fax, Nova Scotia, presenting a number of copies of the Jour- 
nals of the Legislature of that Province, and offering to supply 
any deficiency in the Society's set of those volumes. 

The Corresponding Secretary also read a letter from Colonel 
James Warren Sever, of Boston, presenting to the Society a 
silver canteen and a pewter plate, which once belonged to Gover- 
nor Edward Winslow, of Plymouth, and which bear his arms 
and initials, and expressing the wish that a suitable inscription 
should be engraved upon the canteen, and that it should ever 
be preserved in the archives of the Society. Whereupon, the 
following resolution was unanimously adopted : — 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Society be presented to 
Colonel James W. Sever, for the very interesting and highly ac- 
ceptable relics of his ancestor, Governor Winslow, which have 
just been communicated in his letter of May 19th ; and that 
the request of the donor be complied with. 

The President spoke of the death of Winthrop Sargent, Esq., 
a Corresponding Member, as follows : — 

We have been called on of late to take notice of the deaths of Hon- 
orary or of Resident Members of our Society, who had completed, and 
more than completed, the common term of human existence, and in re- 
gard to whom we could have no regrets that they had left any expecta- 
tions of future usefulness unfulfilled. It is our sadder duty, to-day, to 



1870.] ADDRESS OF PRESIDENT WINTHROP. 323 

make mention of one who has been called away in the prime of life, 
and who had given large promise of valuable service in the cause of 
American History in years to come. 

Mr. Winthrop Sargent was chosen a Corresponding Member of this 
Society in 1856. He was born in Philadelphia on the 23d of Septem- 
ber, 1825, and had thus reached his forty-fifth year. He was graduated 
at the University of Pennsylvania, in 1845, and received the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws, at the Dane Law School of Harvard University, in 
1847. He exhibited an early interest in historical pursuits and re- 
searches, and few persons of his age have made more creditable contri- 
butions to the illustration of our Revolutionary and ante-revolutionary 
period. 

In 1855, he edited for the Pennsylvania Historical Society the 
Journals of Officers engaged in Braddock's Expedition, from original 
manuscripts in the British Museum, with an introductory Memoir of 
the highest interest ; a volume which has been everywhere recognized 
as containing the most accurate and thorough account of an expedition 
in which Washington played so important a part, and in the preparation 
for which Franklin, also, was a conspicuous actor. 

In 1857, he published a beautifully printed and carefully annotated 
collection of " The Loyalist Poetry of the Revolution." 

In 1858, he edited for the Pennsylvania Historical Society a Journal 
of the General Meeting of the Cincinnati Society, in 1784, from the 
original manuscript of his grandfather, Major Winthrop Sargent, a 
delegate from Massachusetts, who had served with distinction in various 
capacities through the whole Revolutionary War, and who was after- 
wards Governor of the Mississippi Territory. 

In 1860, he published " The Loyal Verses of Joseph Stansbury and 
Dr. Jonathan Odell, relating to the American Revolution." 

In 1861, he published his most elaborate work, — '-The Life and 
Career of Major John Andre," — with a dedication to President Sparks ; 
a volume full of attractive and valuable matter, and displaying the fruit 
of rich culture and rare accomplishments. 

More than one of these productions, and especially the last, received 
honorable mention at home and abroad, and won the strong commenda- 
tions of some of our best historical writers. 

Mr. Sargent had more recently performed a labor of love for our 
own Society, in editing " The Letters of John Andrews, of Boston, 
from 1772 to 1776," — which occupy nearly a hundred pages in our 
printed Proceedings for 1864 and 1865. He had also been a frequent 
contributor to the " North- American Review," and to others of our lead- 



324 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

ing periodicals. But the events of the late war, and more especially 
the death of a beloved father, the late George Washington Sargent, a 
graduate of Harvard University in 1820, — who fell a victim, in 1864. 
to the unprovoked violence of a lawless soldiery, — interrupted his 
literary pursuits ; and he thenceforth devoted himself to the quiet prac- 
tice of his profession as a lawyer, in the city of New York. His fail- 
ing health and spirits compelled him, during the last year, to seek rest 
and recreation in foreign lands ; but he sought them in vain, and died 
of consumption in Paris on the 18th of May last. 

He was a gentleman of the greatest delicacy and refinement, of ready 
wit and large resources, and whose agreeable companionship had en- 
deared him to many friends. He was married, in his earliest manhood, 
to a daughter of his relative, Ignatius Sargent, Esq., of this city, but 
had been a widower for many years past. An only child, a son, sur- 
vives him. 

It has not been our custom to pass formal resolutions on the death 
of our Corresponding Members; but this brief notice will serve to 
secure a place in our records for the name and career of one who so 
well deserves to be remembered among those who have labored success- 
fully in the illustration of our National History, and whose lives have 
been cut short before they had fulfilled the rich promise of their spring. 

At the conclusion of the President's remarks, Dr. Holmes 
said that he rose to add a very few words. He held in his 
hand a letter addressed to him by Mr. Sargent, before leaving 
this country, accompanying a roll of the 4th Co. 8th Mass. 
Regiment, dated in the year 1782, which Mr. Sargent sent, 
thinking it probably contained the name of one of his corre- 
spondent's relatives. Dr. Holmes offered this paper to the 
Society, believing that it might have an intrinsic interest to 
some of the members. It would be valued, he felt sure, as the 
last token from a cherished associate, whose character had 
been most tenderly and truly drawn by the President. Mr. 
Sargent was a gentleman whom it was impossible to know 
without esteeming and loving. His scholarship was so genu- 
ine, his tastes were so pure, his manners were so engaging, 
that he made friends wherever he went. As one of those 
whose personal intercourse with him had been occasional 
only, but always delightful, he had listened with deep gratifica- 



1870.] MEMORIAL TO GEORGE PEABODY. 325 

tion to the just and cordial tribute offered by our President to 
his memory. 

The President exhibited a photograph of the inscription on 
the pavement of the Nave in Westminster Abbey, in Memory 
of George Peabody, which had been kindly sent to him by 
Dean Stanley. The inscription is in these words : — 



HERE 

WERE DEPOSITED, 

ROM NOV. 12 TO DEC. 1 

1869, 
THE REMAINS OF 

GEORGE PEABODY, 

THEN REMOVED TO HIS NATIVE COUNTRY 

AND BURIED AT DANVERS, NOW PEABODY 

IN MASSACHUSETTS. 



"I HAVE PRAYED MY HEAVENLY FATHER DAY BY DAY 

THAT I MIGHT BE ENABLED BEFORE I DIED TO SHEW MY GRATITUI 

"FOR THE BLESSINGS WHICH HE HAS BESTOWED UPON ME, 

"BY DOING SOME GREAT GOOD TO MY FELLOW-MEN.' 



LET YOUR LIGHT SO SHINE BEFORE MEN, 
THAT THEY MAY SEE YOUR GOOD WORKS 
AND GLORIFY YOUR FATHER 
WHICH IS IN HEAVEN." 



The President said that this memorial had recalled to his 
mind another monument in Westminster Abbey, — the only 
other one in which Massachusetts seemed to have a peculiar 
interest; namely, that to George, Lord Howe, who, under 



326 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

Abercromby, in July, 1758, fell in an attack against Ticonde- 
roga. For his virtues and military talents, Massachusetts, at 
the charge of <£250, erected a monument to his memory. 

The President spoke of the arrangements which were mak- 
ing for publishing the Sewall Papers, which had recently come 
into the possession of the Society. It was thought desirable 
that a subscription for a certain number of copies should be 
obtained beforehand, and the Standing Committee had prepared 
a subscription paper for names. The co-operation of the mem- 
bers was solicited. 

The following committees were appointed : on the publica- 
tion of the Sewall Papers, — Messrs Ellis, Torrey, Dexter, and 
Whitmore ; on the " Hutchinson Papers," so called, claimed 
by the State, — Messrs Ellis, Parker, Washburn, Clifford, G. T. 
Bigelow, Thomas, and Ellis Ames ; on the Society's Building, 
— the President, the Recording and Corresponding Secreta- 
ries, the Librarian, the Treasurer, Messrs. W. G. Brooks, 
Thayer, Mason, E. B. Bigelow, Lyman, and Appleton. 

The President announced Part V. of the " Proceedings " as 
upon the table. 

The President spoke of the return, and of their presence at 
the meeting this day, of Mr. Adams and Dr. Jacob Bigelow, 
who had each been on a tour to the West, — the one to Omaha, 
the other to San Francisco ; and they were invited to report to 
the Society any thing which might occur to them as of interest. 

Dr. Bigelow responded, and gave a very graphic account of 
his visit to San Francisco, over the Pacific Railway. 

Mr. Adams said he had nothing to report from his western 
tour, but he would read a letter which he had brought to the 
meeting, from Benjamin Franklin, adressed to Edmund Quincy, 
of Braintree. 

London Dec HO, 1761. 
Sir, — I should sooner have answer'd your obliging Letter of Jan? 
9, but that I hoped from time to time I might be able to obtain some 
satisfactory Answers to your Queries. As yet I have done little, that 



1870.] LETTER OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. 327 

kind of Information being look'd upon as a Part of the Mysteries of 
Trade, which the Possessors are very shy of communicating. But I 
think I am now in a Train of obtaining more, of which I hope soon to 
give you a good Account. In the mean time I may inform you that 
great Quantities of Wine are made both here and at Bristol from 
Raisins, not by private Families only for their particular use, but in the 
great Way by large Dealers, for the Country Consumption. As New 
England trades to Spaine with their Fish, it would I imagine be easy 
for you to furnish yourself at the best hand with Plenty of Raisins, & 
from them produce a genuine Wine of real Worth that might be sold 
with you for good Profit. Being lately at a Friend's House where I 
drank some old Raisin Wine that I found to be very good, I requested 
the — [Some portion of the- letter torn off.] . . . sound and good. It is 
thought here, that by far the greatest Part of the Wine drank in Eng- 
land, is made in England. Fine Cyder or Perry is said to be the 
Basis, Sloes afford Roughness. Elder Berries Colour. And Brandy 
a little more Strength. But of this I have no certain Account. The 
Porter now so universally drank here, is I am assured, fined down with 
Isinglass or Fish Glue, for which 60,000£ p r Annum is paid to Russia. 
Of late it has been discovered that this Fish glue is nothing more than 
the Souns of Cod or other Fish extended & dry'd in the Sun, with- 
out any other Preparation. So you may make what Quantity you 
please of it, and cheap, Fish being with you so plenty. I heartily wish 
you Success in your Attempts "to make Wine from American Grapes. 
None has yet been imported here for the Premium. With great 
Esteem, I am, Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

B. Franklin. 

P.S. The Negotiations 
for a Peace, in which Canada 

was to be forever ceded to England, are at present off. 
But whenever they are resum'd, I am persuaded that will be [torn]. 

N.B. One Ez! Hatch, near Greenwood's mastyard, tells me that the 
Cod Souns or other may be Sav'd by stringing up & drying, that 
under this circumstance they will not disolve in any liquor hot nor 
cold; but that taken & wrapped up in clean linnen cloath or other 
cloath, & covered up in embers so as to wast them, they will then 
disolve, & that they will answer y e end of Glue ; but not so well of cod 



328 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

as the souns of hake, w c . h is catch'd in or near y e fall ; those many joyn- 
ers at distant places use as Glew for their Cabinet work : roasted first 
in order to disolve as Glue. 

[Addressed] 

To 
M r Edmund Qutncy, 

at Braintree or 
Free. Boston. 

B. Franklin. 

After reading the letter, Mr. Adams presented it to the 
Society. 

A conversation occurring on the subject of the " Cardiff 
Giant," so called, excavated last year in the village of Cardiff, 
Onondaga County, N.Y., and recently exhibited in this city, 
the following passage was read from Clark's History of 
" Onondaga, or Reminiscences of Earlier and Later Times,' ' 
&c, 1849 (from the chapter headed Traditions of the Onon- 
dagas) : " The Quis-quis, or great hog, was another monster 
which gave the Onondagas great trouble, as did also the great 
bear, the horned water-serpent, the stone giants, and many 
other equally fabulous inventions, bordering so closely upon 
the truly marvellous, that the truth would suffer wrongfully 
if related in full ; but nevertheless are found among the wild 
and unseemly traditions of the race." (Vol. I., p. 43.) 

The Librarian, Dr. Green, called the attention of the Society 
to a letter which had been extensively printed in the news- 
papers, particularly at the South and West. It was signed 
" Cotton Mather," and purported to give the details of " a 
scheme to bagge Penne," on the part of the colony of Massa- 
chusetts. In an accompanying statement, it is said that the 
letter was found by " Mr. Judkins, the Librarian of the Massa- 
chusetts Historical Society, in overhauling a chest of old 
papers deposited in the archives of that body by the late Rob- 
ert Greenleaf, of Maiden." For the sake of historical truth, it 
is desirable to give an official contradiction to the story, and 



1870.] AN EARLY PAPER OF DANIEL WEBSTER. 329 

to pronounce it a miserable forgery. The name of Mr. Jud- 
kins is entirely unknown at this library ; no such chest of old 
papers, as is alleged to have been deposited in the archives of 
the Society, has ever been received ; and no such person, as 
the one stated to have made the deposit, is known to the 
members. The letter first appeared in the Easton, Penn., 
" Argus," of April 28, and is dated " September ye loth 
1682." At this time, Cotton Mather was only nineteen years 
old, which fact alone would be presumptive evidence that he 
was not connected with any such piratical scheme. The story 
was fabricated by some one with the intention of deceiving the 
public, either for the purpose of putting its credulity to the 
test, or for creating a prejudice against the early founders of 
New England. 

A copy of an early manuscript of Daniel Webster, on the 
" Acquisition of the Floridas," was presented by Mr. T. R. 
Marvin, the original paper to be returned after the Society 
shall have made such use of it as it might wish. The original 
had been given to Mr. Marvin by Mr. Webster himself. It 
was probably written as a college exercise while Mr. Webster 
was less than eighteen years of age, and twenty-one years 
before the acquisition of Florida was actually accomplished. 

ACQUISITION OP THE FLORIDAS. 

Question. Would it be advantageous to the United States to extend 
their territories ? 

It might be supposed that a Republic, whose territorial jurisdiction 
encircles a more extensive portion of the earth's surface than falls to 
the share of almost any sovereignty in Europe, would never exert her 
energies for her dominion. It is true, on general maxims, that our 
country is sufficiently large for a Republican government ; but if, by an 
inconsiderable extension of our limits, we can avail ourselves of great 
natural advantages, otherwise unattainable, does not sound policy dictate 
the measure ? We reduce the question to a single point : would not 
the acquisition of the Floridas be advantageous to the United States ? 
Here let it be remembered, that that part of the territory of our gov- 

42 



330 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [June, 

eminent, which lies north of Florida, and west of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains, including the north-western territory, Tennessee, Kentucky, and 
a part of Georgia, is, by far, the most fertile part of the Union. No- 
where does the soil produce in such exuberance; nowhere is the 
climate so mild and agreeable. The agricultural productions of this 
quarter, must then, in a few years, become immense, far exceeding 
those of all the Atlantic States. The next inquiry is, how shall this 
superabundance be disposed of? How shall the lumber, wheat, and 
cotton of this country be conveyed to a West India or European 
market ? The only practicable method of transportation is down the 
Mississippi and the other rivers that run into the Mexican Gulf; and we 
have here to reflect, that those rivers all run through a country owned 
by the king of Spain, — a monarch, capricious as a child, and versatile 
as the wind ; and who has it in his power, whenever interest, ambition, 
or the whims of his fancy dictate, to do us incalculable injuries by pro- 
hibiting our western brethren from prosecuting commerce through his 
dominions. Suppose the Spanish sovereign should, this day, give 
orders to the fortress of New Orleans to suffer no American vessel to 
pass up or down the river : this would be an affliction not to be borne 
by those citizens who live along the banks of the Mississippi ; but what 
steps could our government take in the affair ? Must they sit still and 
fold their hands, while such an intolerable embargo presses our com- 
merce? This would be an ill expedient. We might as well give 
Spain our whole western territory, as suffer her to control the com 
merce of it. The only way we could turn ourselves, in this case, would 
be to declare war against Spain, and vindicate our claims to free navi- 
gation by force of arms. Here, then, we are under necessity of extend- 
ing our territories by possessing ourselves of all the country adjacent 
those rivers, necessary for our commerce, or of giving up the idea of 
ever seeing Western America a flourishing country. Therefore, since 
we are liable, every day, to be reduced to the necessity of seizing on 
Florida, in a hostile manner, or of surrendering the rights of com- 
merce, it is respectfully submitted, whether it would not be proper for 
our government to enter into some convention with the king of Spain, 
by which the Floridas should be ceded to the United States. 

* D. Webster. 

Dec. 25, 1800. 

The President communicated from our Corresponding Mem- 
ber, J. Francis Fisher, Esq., of Philadelphia, some verses 
addressed to the inhabitants of Boston at the time of " the 



1870.] LINES TO THE BESIEGED INHABITANTS OF BOSTON. 331 

siege." Mr. Fisher says, " I do not know the author, but pre- 
sume they were written in Philadelphia, or on the eastern 
shore of Maryland. It is possible also they may have been 
printed somewhere ; but I suppose this would be more easily 
found out in Boston than here." 

To the Inhabitants of Boston, when confined therein by General Gage. 

Gentlemen, — The following Lines convey to you the Ideas of a youthfull 
fancy, concerning your (at present) alarming situation ; they pretend to no merit ; 
as an artificial and elaborate Composition they flow from Nature ; and if they 
have slid into an easy harmony, it was accidental ; or perhaps altogether owing 
to your Pathetic Misfortunes. 

Those readers only, who can be equally affected with yours, or a similar situa- 
tion, have a right to judge of the propriety of their Numbers, Diction, and Senti- 
ment. 

"While public scenes your anxious thoughts employ, 

That rob your ardent breasts of heart-felt joy; 

While you replace fair justice on her Throne, 

And for a Nation's freedom lose your own, 

Firm while you stand the Champion of the Laws 

And vindicate in Bonds the gen'ral Cause : 

Bold behind Virtue's adamantine Shield, 

While reason's arms defensively you wield, 

And nobly militant for common right, 

Stem the land-torrent of oppressive might, 

Say, shall th' officious muse invade your time, 

And press the soft impertinence of Rhime ? 

Say, shall she find, friends, a vacant Hour, 

To steal attention from injurious pow'r : 

Thro' troops, and guards, to cast her artless Lay, 

Or thro' the mighty Fleet, to burst her way 1 

In gratulation, and condolement say, 

Shall she her honorary tribute pay ! 

" Yes, I will give a pleasing fancy scope, 

" And cheer your patriot hearts, with patriot hope ; 

" For spite of new made Laws, and new made kings, 

" The freeborn Muse with lib'ral spirit sings. 

Friends, I view you glowing as I write, 
And my warm mind presents thee to my sight : 
From my full breast congenial Virtues break, 
Flash'd thro' mine Eyes, and burning on my Cheek, 
The bright contagion mutual ardor claims, 
And all the patriot's fire, the bard inflames. 

Let no mean vengeance prompt you to pursue, 
Rebell' ous councils, with a selfish few. 



332 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [juke 

By judgement right, by principle be brave ; 

And not to others, nor yourselves, enslave. 

By honour urg'd, by spleen opposs'd, proceed, 

And still assert your Theory by Deed ; 

America's advancement be your hope, 

And national felicity your scope. 

Not dreading death, if death alone can save, 

Nor fond of life if life will but enslave. 

Ah ! let no threats, no penal ills controul, 

The noble purpose of your freeborn soul ; 

Prerogative, with natal rights, defend, 

To George, be true, and to his realms a friend. 

Let not branch'd pow'r your purposes confound, 

To each taxation shew the legal bound. 

Let legislature shine with strength and grace, 

Eixt like Paul's temple, on a solid Base. 

Is there on Earth a sight to charm the Gods, 
And claim attention from supreme abodes ; 
'Tis when the patriot props a falling State, 
And patient, struggles against adverse fate. 
Each honest heart then shares his Heroic Woes, 
Each soul, indignant of his sufferings glows. 
Hardships for men just Providence design'd 
As salutary med'cine for the mind ; 
Makes vanquished persecution virtues test, 
And danger prove the wisest and the best, 
Bids round these distend her guardian Wing, 
'Gainst vice oppressive, tho' impotent of sting; 
Adequate mansions and rewards assigns, 
And own no worth, till exercised it shines. 

Do ye, like men, altho' by fleets confined, 
Ev'n then enjoy your Liberty of mind, 
Prepar'd to look, piteous of meaness, down, 
On little tyrants while they leer or frown, 
Who dread a Nation, in its dawning ray, 
As evil spirits the approach of Day. 
At honour's wound, at Glory's groan elated, 
Who know of merit, just enough to hate it. 
O ! think crush'd virtue more elastic grows, 
And rising 'gainst their weight, o'erturns her foes: 
Triumphant from Disgrace she gathers fame, 
And loads the Agressors with retorted shame ; 
Think how the brave, and good, with wisdomk Eyes, 
View vill'ans honour's and their threats despise ; 
Lords of themselves in Native greatness reign, 
And unprecarious sov'reignty maintain. 



1870.] JULY MEETING. 



JULY MEETING. 

A stated monthly meeting was held on Thursday, July 14th, 
at 11 o'clock, a.m., the President in the chair. 

The record of the last meeting was read by the Recording 
Secretary. 

The Librarian read his list of donors for the month. 

The President communicated the number for May, 1870, of 
the " Annales des Voyages," containing a review of Parkman's 
" Discovery of the Great West," by Count Circourt, the donor. 

Mr. F. E. Parker was added to the committee on the " Hutch- 
inson Papers," in place of Judge Thomas, who, at his own 
request, was excused from serving. 

Part YI. of " Proceedings," embracing the meetings of 
April and May, 1870, was announced as on the table. 

Mr. Ellis Ames exhibited the original deed of the town of 
Attleboro'. 

A small pewter medal was presented by Dr. Palfrey ; the 
same which hung round his neck when a youth, at the age of 
five, at the time of Washington's death, in 1799. On the 
obverse of the medal are the words, — 

" He is in glory, the world in tears." 

On the reverse, — 

B. F. 11. 1732, G. A. Arm. '75. R. 83. P. U. S. A. '89 + R. '96. G. Arm. U. S. '98. 
Ob. D. 14. 1799. 

Dr. Green stated that this medal, which was well known to 
coin-collectors, was designed by Dudley Atkins Tyng, of New- 
buryport, who was one of the corporators of this Society, and 
for nearly forty years a Resident Member. 

Mr. W. G. Brooks exhibited specimens of the coverings 
taken from the walls of the " Royal House " in Medford. These 
hangings were of leather, painted with quaint figures of birds, 



334 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [July, 

animals, and other objects. They are said to have been im- 
ported from China. The leather was fastened to the walls by 
small nails. 

Mr. Amory remarked that at that period it was common to 
fasten the coverings of the walls of houses by nails, as in the 
old " Collins House " at Danvers. 

Mr. Brooks further stated that the "Royal House," so 
called, was built by Lieutenant Governor Usher, of whom it 
was purchased by Colonel Isaac Royal, and enlarged in 1738. 
The estate then comprised 504 acres, part of which were within 
the limits of Charlestown. Colonel Royal died in 1739. In a 
MS. journal in Mr. Brooks' possession, is this entry : " June 
17, 1739. Sermon on account of Colonel Isaac Royal's death, 
by the desire of the remaining family, which desired Mr. Turell 
to preach a sermon suitable to their condition. The Colonel 
died Thursday, June 9, at 7 o'clock in the forenoon, and was 
buried at Medford on Saturday, June 16, and was carried the 
same night to Dorchester to his marble tomb." The property 
descended to a son of the same name, who took his title of 
Colonel. He made it his place of residence until 1776. Prov- 
ing to be a Tory, and becoming an absentee, the property 
was confiscated. He went to England, and died there in 
1781. The property was held by the State until 1805, 
and in 1810 it was purchased by Mr. Tidd, a distiller of Bos- 
ton, who lived upon it ; and it has now been purchased of his 
heirs by a Boston gentleman, to be taken down. 

Colonel Aspinwall said it was occupied as a female semi- 
nary, probably while in the possession of the State. 

The President called attention to the subscription papers on 
the table for the " Sewall Diary," and for the volume of " Har- 
vard Graduates," by our associate, Mr. Sibley, the Librarian 
of Harvard College. 



1870.] AUGUST MEETING. 335 



AUGUST MEETING. 

A stated meeting was held on Thursday, 11th instant, at 11 
o'clock, a.m. ; the President, the Hon. R. C. Winthrop, in the 
chair. 

The record of the preceding meeting was read. 

The Librarian read his usual list of donors. 

The President read the following paper, giving a resumS 
of the discussion relating to the claim of the State to the 
" Hutchinson Papers," so called ; which was referred to the 
Committee on the publication of the Proceedings, — 

You are all aware, Gentlemen, that the question between 
this Society and the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, in 
regard to what are known as " The Hutchinson Papers," has 
been referred to a large Special Committee. The gentlemen 
composing this Committee are abundantly able to deal wisely 
and justly with the whole subject, and I do not desire to 
influence their decision in any way. But there are one or two 
points in the case upon whieh, as President of the Society, I 
desire to make such explanations as seem to be called for by 
statements contained in the Documents which have been 
printed by the Legislature. 

Let me say, at the outset, that I have thus far had little or 
no part in the proceedings on this vexed question. When Dr. 
Palfrey, as Secretary of the Commonwealth, addressed the 
Society on the subject of these Papers, I was a member of 
Congress, and absent from the State. Mr. Savage was then 
President of the Society ; and though I had been a member for 
many years, I was not often in the way of attending its meetings, 
or of taking special note of its proceedings. And again, in 
1868, when Governor Bullock addressed the Society on the 
subject, it happened that I was in Europe, and the whole cor- 
respondence had been concluded before my return home. 



336 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Aug. 

These circumstances will sufficiently account for my having 
taken no part in the controversy which has so long been 
pending. 

I find, however, that in the Memorial of Mr. David Pulsifer, 
which is printed in the Legislative Document, a note of mine 
appears, dated 28 April, 1859, which seems to have given 
occasion to some extraordinary inferences. That note was 
written, as I find on reference to my diary, just as I was leav- 
ing home to meet some literary engagements in Baltimore 
and Richmond. I am not sure that I could have said more, 
had I been less hurried in preparing it. But Mr. Pulsifer sets 
forth in his Memorial, that the " effect " of the note " was to 
deprive your memorialist of the use " of these Papers, " which 
would have been of great benefit while printing the Acts of the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies," &c. ; and the Hon. 
Mr. Noyes, in his Report on the subject, in 1867, deriving his 
misapprehension undoubtedly from Mr. Pulsifer's statement, 
says that our Society " refuse an Officer of the Commonwealth," 
" when appointed to complete its early records, access to their 
information" ; adding that these Papers, " in the custody of 
the Historical Society, are closed to those who may desire 
their perusal." 

It requires but a glance at my note, to see how utterly 
groundless such allegations are. That note, after stating that 
our rules in regard to Manuscript volumes are peremptory and 
unchangeable, so far certainly as any discretion of the Officers 
of the Society may reach, went on to state explicitly that the 
Society had granted leave for Mr. Pulsifer to obtain any thing 
he might desire in the way prescribed by the rules, and to 
refer him to the then Chairman of our Standing Committee 
(Gov. Washburn), and to our Corresponding and Recording 
Secretaries (Dr. Chandler Robbins and Mr. Deane), for more 
particular information. 

I know not whether application was made to either of those 
gentlemen at the time ; but, if so, they must have informed 



1870.] 

him precisely how he could procure access to the Papers, and 
copy whatever was necessary for the purposes of his appli- 
cation. 

I may say, however, that I had the best reason for knowing 
that Mr. Pulsifer himself was not unfamiliar with these Papers, 
and with our rules, as I had been previously indebted to him 
for copying one of the " Hutchinson Papers " for myself. I 
might have considered it, on this account, less important to 
enter into details in my own note, even had I been more 
at leisure. I may add, too, that I have no remembrance that 
Mr. Pulsifer stated in his application that he was acting for 
the Commonwealth. He has not taken the pains to print his 
part of the correspondence, and I am not sure that his note 
to me is preserved. But my impression is that he applied in 
his individual capacity. At any rate, his note was laid before 
the Society, and I replied immediately after their adjournment, 
and agreeably to their instructions. 

If, therefore, there was any failure on the part of Mr. 
Pulsifer to obtain whatever there was in the " Hutchinson 
Papers," for the benefit of the publication on which he was 
engaged by the State, it was clearly the result of his own 
unwillingness to comply with the rules which have been 
established by our Society, for the security of the Papers 
which have been intrusted to their keeping. Had the Society 
adopted less stringent rules originally, and allowed their 
autograph manuscripts to be taken out and used by all who 
might desire to do so, it may be at least doubtful whether, by 
this time, there would have been any " Hutchinson Papers " 
left, to furnish the subject of this vexatious controversy. 

The rules of our Society were framed and adopted by those 
who understood the value of ancient manuscripts, and the 
danger of submitting them to indiscriminate and unrestricted 
use. And, although it may not be inexpedient to modify 
those rules in some particulars, for the greater convenience 
of historical students, we can never be justified in exposing 

43 



338 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Aug. 

our treasures to any risk which we have the power to guard 
against. 

I am thus brought to a few general remarks upon the precise 
question before us. Here are certain Papers which have been 
in possession of this Society for a long time ; some of them 
for half a century, and others of them for a much longer 
period. Of the persons who were members of the Society at 
the time when even the most recently received of these Papers 
were presented to it, but one is among the living, — our vener- 
able Ex-President, whose infirmities have long deprived us 
of his co-operation and counsel. Every other member is of 
later election than 1820. Only two were chosen before 1840. 
We have succeeded to the custody of whatever books or papers 
were transmitted to us, and we hold them in sacred trust. 
We are bound, I think, to guard jealously whatever we have 
received. We have no right to surrender, upon whatever 
demand, any thing which has rightfully been committed to our 
keeping. And after such a length of possession, in default 
of any positive proof that such possession is wrongful, we owe 
it to our predecessors, as well as to ourselves and to those 
who shall succeed us, to challenge peremptorily any claim 
which may be made upon our possessions. 

It appears by our own records, — which afford almost 
all the evidence there is on the subject, — that certain " let- 
ters, found among the papers of Governor Hutchinson, and 
communicated by Mr. Bradford," were referred to the Publish- 
ing Committee of this Society, on the 28th of October, 1819 ; 
and that on the 27th of January, 1820, some u additional 
letters, found by Mr. Secretary Bradford among the papers of 
Governor Hutchinson, and presented to the Society by per- 
mission of the Governor and Council," were referred to the 
same Committee. 

The letter of Mr. Bradford is also found, which accompanied 
these last letters, and in which he says, " I have obtained 
leave of the Council to present them to the Society. They are 
no part of the files of the Secretary's office." 



1870.] THE " HUTCHINSON PAPERS." 339 

Two more parcels were subsequently received from the 
same source. 

Now the Hon. Alden Bradford was a man of scrupulous 
personal and official integrity. He was a man not less likely 
to have taken pride in preserving the archives of the Com- 
monwealth than any of his successors. He knew what these 
Papers were ; where they came from ; and to whom they 
belonged. His whole letter is to be taken together ; and he 
says distinctly, and as if he foresaw that a question might 
arise in future, " They are no part of the files of the Secretary's 
office." How they had come into his hands he does not say ; 
but feeling some doubt as to their disposition, he takes the ad- 
vice of the Council, and says that he had obtained their leave 
to present them to this Society. 

No one can read these records and this letter without 
acknowledging that, so far as this Society is concerned, there 
is no shadow of indirection in the manner in which these 
Papers came into our possession ; and that the whole re- 
sponsibility for their coming to us at all must rest upon the 
Secretary of the Commonwealth and the Council of that day. 

It would seem, however, from a Document very recently 
brought to light, that at least the silent assent of the Legisla- 
ture itself was not wanting to our original possession of these 
Papers. I refer to a Report of Secretary Bradford to the 
Legislature, dated 17 April, 1821, and made in compliance 
with a call from the House of Representatives for a statement 
of " the condition of the public records and documents belong- 
ing to the Commonwealth," in which the following passage 
occurs : — 

" Several files of papers saved from the riot at Gov. Hutchinson's 
house : some of them of a private nature and some of them public docu- 
ments collected by him probably as materials for his History of Massa- 
chusetts and a volume of State Papers which he had published. These 
not being considered as belonging to y e Government, or as any part of 
the records of y e Commonwealth, or ancient colony or Province, some 



340 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [AuG. 

of them, valuable chiefly for their antiquity, were selected by the under- 
signed, with the consent and approbation of the Supreme Executive, 
and deposited in the Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 
a list of them being first made and kept in the Secretary's office." 

Here again we find Secretary Bradford distinctly setting 
forth, that the Papers which, according to our records and to 
his own letter to our Secretary, he had " presented " to our 
Society, were " not considered as belonging to the Govern- 
ment, or as any part of the records of the Commonwealth, or 
ancient Colony or Province," and that they had been deposited 
in our library " with the consent and approbation of the 
Supreme Executive." 

In that Report the Legislature acquiesced, and thus gave 
their virtual sanction to what had been done. Secretary Brad- 
ford evidently so understood it, as he presented the last parcel 
of these papers to our Society more than two years after his 
Report was dated ; * and on this occasion we hear nothing of 
any list being made or kept. 

At any rate, in our possession these Papers remained, un- 
claimed and unchallenged, for twenty-six years, and were dealt 
with in the same way with all our other papers. With other 
papers, they were classified and bound up ; and it remains 
to be seen whether any one can tell at this hour the precise 
pieces, in the various volumes labelled " Hutchinson Papers," 
which were thus presented to us by Mr. Bradford. The list 
of them contained in his letter cannot be found on our own files, 
nor can that referred to in his Report, as I understand, be found 
on the files of the Commonwealth. 

If, as has been suggested, this presentation was only intend- 
ed as a temporary and technical deposit, liable to recall, the 
list ought certainly to have been carefully kept by the depositor, 
with some receipt, or acknowledgment, or promise to restore 
on demand, from our Society. No such thing, however, is 
forthcoming ; nor is there the slightest reason for thinking 

* This last presentation was on the 26th of August, 1823. 



1870.] THE " HUTCHINSON PAPERS." 341 

that any such receipt or promise was ever exacted or contem- 
plated. The words " deposited " and " presented " seem to 
have been employed indifferently by Mr. Bradford in regard to 
the gift ; unless, perhaps, he may have hesitated to repeat the 
word " presented " in relation to Papers, which he so distinctly 
says were " not considered as belonging to the Government." 
There is certainly nothing to indicate or imply that the idea 
of a temporary and technical deposit was in the mind of Mr. 
Secretary Bradford, or of the Governor and Council, or of the 
Legislature to whom the Report was made, or of this Society, 
when the Papers were presented to them. 

No claim or suggestion of this sort, indeed, was ever made 
until January, 1846, when Dr. Palfrey, then Secretary of the 
Commonwealth, first addressed the Society on the subject. A 
second communication from him was received in January, 
1847 ; and a third, in July, of the same year. 

These various communications of Dr. Palfrey seem never 
to have been directly answered ; but they were the subject of 
an elaborate Report to the Society, signed by five of our mem- 
bers (three of them now dead), whose names alone are a 
sufficient guaranty of the - ability and scrupulous integrity 
which they brought to the investigation of the case. 

Not to mention the living,* it is enough to say that the late 
Hon. Francis C. Gray, the late Hon. Nathan Appleton, and 
the late Rev. Dr. Alexander Young, would have been trusted 
by the whole community in which they lived, as umpires, 
without reserve or recourse, on any question which had been 
referred to them. 

Their conclusion was that " the State had not a shadow of 
a claim to the whole three volumes " ; and that, " considering 
the long lapse of time, the death of the agent (Mr. Bradford) 
employed in the transaction, and the other circumstances of 
the case, it was the duty of the Society to set up the statute 

* The Rev. Geo. W. Blagden, D.D., and the Hon. P. W. Chandler, were the other 
members. 



342 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Aug. 

of limitations against any claim to them from any quarter." 
" This, indeed," they said in conclusion, " is one of those 
cases for which that beneficent statute was mainly intended to 
provide, and which eminently prove its equity and wisdom." 

Nathan Appleton and Francis C. Gray were the last men 
in the land who would have set up the statute of limitations 
as a bar to a claim which they regarded as reasonable, or 
founded in justice or equity. 

They are men, let me add, whose deliberate judgment this 
Society would be, and should be, slow to set aside. Certainly, 
in any review of their judgment, even if we finally saw grounds 
for acting in opposition to it, we should feel bound to vindicate 
their memories from any imputation of unfairness. I cannot 
forget the deep sense of the injustice of this claim which was 
expressed to me personally by one of them (Mr. Gray), while 
he was on a lingering death-bed, and how earnestly he en- 
joined upon me that it should be steadfastly resisted. 

After this Report, we hear nothing more for another period 
of nearly twenty years. And now, for the first time, the 
legislative authority is invoked against us. In 1867, the pre- 
liminary action was taken by the Legislature, which, after 
repeated hearings before Committees, at which our case was 
ably set forth by the Rev. Dr. Ellis, Governor Washburn, and 
Professor Parker, has at last resulted in a peremptory Order, 
that the Attorney-General of Massachusetts should proceed, 
by suit in law or in equity, to recover the books and papers 
in our possession belonging to the Commonwealth. 

It will be borne in mind that no legislative demand has ever 
before been made upon this Society. Dr. Palfrey's letters 
in 1846 and 1847, though dated from the Secretary's office, 
and dictated, undoubtedly, by a sense of official duty, were on 
his own sole responsibility. He had not even the authority 
of the Council for demanding the Papers, as his predecessor 
had for presenting them. 

The letter of Governor Bullock, in 1868, was only one 



1870.] 



343 



asking for information ; and, after receiving the reply of our 
Committee, he merely recommended to the Legislature to refer 
the subject to a Committee of Inquiry, with power to send for 
persons and papers. 

The first formal demand of the Legislature has thus come 
in the shape of an Order to the Attorney-General to prosecute 
our Society ; although our Society, through their Committee, 
had already so far waived their absolute claim, as to offer to 
unite with the Commonwealth in submitting the case to im- 
partial arbitration, and although such a reference had been 
recommended and provided for in the Report of " the Joint 
Special Judiciary Committee " to whom the whole matter was 
last referred. 

In view of the fact that this Society is the oldest historical 
society in our land ; that it has devoted itself for three- 
quarters of a century to collecting and publishing whatever 
could illustrate the history of the Commonwealth, and has 
already published more than forty volumes of invaluable 
material for this purpose ; and that no individual member 
of the Society has any interest to retain these Papers from 
the possession of the Commonwealth, except so far as it is our 
duty to guard sacredly what we have rightfully received, — such 
a step seems as little in keeping with the character of the 
Commonwealth, as it is with the character of our Society. 

I venture to hope, however, that we shall maintain our 
equanimity, and even our magnanimity, in spite of such provo- 
cations ; and that, while we make ready to defend our rights 
and our good name in any action which may be commenced 
against us, we may yet hold ourselves open to accept any 
overtures of arrangement or arbitration, if any should be 
made, even though the offers of our Committee to that effect 
were disregarded. 

It will be time enough, however, for the Society to decide 
that question when such a proposition shall be made to us. 

Meantime, we may console ourselves with the reflection, that 



344 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Aug. 

there is really but little intrinsic importance in the question 
whether the three bound volumes, which have been labelled 
" Hutchinson Papers," or any part of them, shall remain in 
our possession, as they have done for half a century past, or 
whether they shall be surrendered to the custody of the State. 
The most interesting of them have already been printed, and 
the rest of them have been copied. In what hands the auto- 
graph originals shall remain, is certainly not a matter of very 
great moment. 

But we owe it to ourselves, and to those who have gone 
before us, to vindicate the character of our Society from unjust 
imputations, and to create no precedent by which we may be 
stripped of the historical treasures which have been committed 
to our care by those no longer living to bear testimony to the 
rightfulness of our possession. 

The President also read a letter, printed below, from Daniel 
Clark, Secretary of the Assistants of the Colony of Connecti- 
cut, to John Winthrop, Jr., in London, on the receipt of the 
Connecticut Charter. 

Windsor, No^ 17. 1662. 

Right Wor^ l — The sedulous and indefatigable paines and travailes 
that yo r wor? haue spent in y e occasions of this poor Colony we now 
can certeinly affirme haue bene seconded w th memorable issues and 
effects, through the concurrence of diuine providence and benediction 
to y e great reioyceing of the hearts of yo r friends and servants the 
members of this Corporation. And we can doe noe less then with all 
readines of spirit returne o r acknowledgment thereof w th all respectiue 
gratulations to yo r Wor?. We haue receaued the Chart 1- , the duplicate 
and the old Coppy of y e former Charter, well approued and liked by all. 
And o v great care hath bene to effect y e payment according to yo r order 
w ch we doubt not wilbe issued to satisfaction by o r time ; the Riu r 
haueing sent away their proportion and all parts willing and ready to 
pforme, though troublesom at this season of the yeare to thrash. Our 
earnest expectation and longing desire is to see yo r presence amongst 
vs and to enioy yo r helpfulnes in the place that Gods providence hath 
called Yo r Wor? vnto in point of Gouerm* being chosen Gouerno 1 for 
this Yeare to Conecticut Col : or Corporat : 






1870.] A MODERN CENTENARIAN. 345 

Hono rd M" Winthrop w tb y e rest of yo r family are in health now 
resideing at Hartford. M r Stone hath lately accompained M" Winthrop 
to N : London to y e Ship y* is to receaue the Corne, and both returned 
back well and in p r sent health w th y e rest of yo r freinds here. We hope 
there wilbe a Loving concurrence and Accomodation twixt o r selues 
and N: Hauen. Long Island freely and chearfully submit. West- 
chest 1- , Greenwich, Stanford, submit and y e rest we doubt not. The 
Assistants w*h an vnanimous consent p r sent their Cordiall respects to 
yo r Wor^ earnestly beseeching yo r speedy returne, still desireing to be 
mindfull of yo r Self and yo r affaires in o r prayers. 

Subscribeing : Yo r freinds & Servants The Assistants of Con : Collo : 
by their order Subscribed. 

p Daniel Clark Sec r 

Indorsed, — 

Letter from Secretary Clarke in the name of the court, to 1 st Gov r - 
Winthrop of CoDnecticutt on Keceiving their Charter. 

Nov r 27*1662. 



SEPTEMBER MEETING. 

A stated meeting of the Society was held on Thursday, 
September 8th, at 11 o'clock", a.m. ; the President, Mr. Win- 
throp, in the chair. 

The record of the preceding meeting was read. 

The Librarian read his list of donors for the past month. 

Hon. Charles J. Hoadly, of Hartford, Librarian of the State 
of Connecticut, was elected a Corresponding Member. 

Mr. Paige read the following paper : — 

The reference, at a recent meeting, to the doubts sometimes 
expressed, whether any person, in modern times, has attained 
the full age of a hundred years, induces me to record one 
well-authenticated example. 

Mrs. Mercy Paige, daughter of James and Mercy Aiken, 
and widow of Deacon William Paige, was born in Brookfleld, 
3 January, 1T21 ; and died in Hardwick, 19 February, 1823, 
aged one hundred and two years, one month, and five days, 

44 



346 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

allowing the eleven days difference in style. I was present at 
the celebration of the centennial anniversary of her birth ; 
I resided near her for the first twenty years of my life : I was 
personally acquainted with her, with several of her children, 
and with many aged people who had long been her associates ; 
and I never heard a doubt mentioned concerning her age or 
parentage. But, in order to attain more absolute certainty, I 
examined the Town Records of Brookfield, where her birth is 
recorded thus : " Marcy Ekins, daughter of James and Marcy, 
born January y e 3* 17|f " By the Church Records of Hard- 
wick, it appears that William Paige and Mercy Aiken s were 
married 11 January, 174|. The death is recorded on both 
the Town and the Church Records of Hardwick. 

It may be suggested that the child born 3 January, 1721, 
died young ; and that a second child of the same name, born 
six or eight years afterwards, would have been marriageable 
in 1744. To this suggestion there are two sufficient answers. 
(1) Her father, James Aiken, was one of the pioneers, and 
commenced cultivating a farm in Hardwick (then called 
Lambstown) in 1733, while the place was a wilderness. 
His family remained at Brookfield a few months. Meantime 
this daughter several times rode on horseback, and alone, ten 
miles through the pathless forests, guided by marked trees, to 
convey a weekly supply of provisions to her father. Such was 
her own statement, and such the undisputed tradition. We 
can scarcely suppose that such a task was performed by a girl 
much less than twelve years old. (2) She was admitted 
as a member of the Church in Hardwick, 6 December, 1736, 
before she was sixteen years old. To suppose her half a dozen 
years younger would be inconsistent with the usual practice 
of Churches at that period. It cannot be supposed that this 
record has reference to her mother, who bore the same name ; 
for it is duly recorded that " Mercy, wife of James Aikens," 
was admitted 29 May, 1737, on recommendation of the Church 
of which she was formerly a member. 



1870.] LETTER FROM REY. R. C. WATERSTON. 347 

If any reliance can be placed on records, in connection and 
in agreement with common tradition, there can be no reason- 
able doubt that this venerable lady lived more than two years 
beyond a full century, and was a member of the Church in full 
communion more than eighty-six years. 

Professor Lowell referred to the well-known cases of four 
centenarians, graduates of Harvard College, noticed in the 
Proceedings for August, 1865, pp. 439, 440. 

Mr. Deane read the communication which follows, from our 
associate, Mr. Waterston, dated at San Francisco, California : 



San Francisco, California, August 29th, 1870. 

Charles Deane, Esq., 

Secretary of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

Dear Sir, — Just before leaving home, I received from you a copy 
of the vote of the Historical Society requesting me to represent that 
body on any appropriate occasion which might occur on the Pacific 
Coast.* If I have not duly acknowledged this favor, permit me now 
to do so. 

Coming as I did, in company with the Board of Trade, by the first 
railroad train passing directly across the continent from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific ; climbing the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada ; 
leaving in our swift passage prairies and plains and the Great Desert 
behind us ; and at length descending the Pacific Slope, and stepping 
out of the identical cars we had entered in Boston in the very heart 
of the city of San Francisco, — this might in itself be considered an 
historical event. The fact also that we were officially received by the 
governors of nearly all the Western States through which we passed, 
and that every mark of respect was extended, both on our way and 
when we arrived in California, imparted a certain dignity to the event, 
serving to strengthen those ties of sympathy and good-will which 
should ever exist between the most distant portions of our common 
country. 

The aspects of Nature on this side of the Rocky Mountains are often 

* See "Proceedings" for May last, p. 309. — Eds. 



348 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

upon a grand and impressive scale. Now, we behold scenes of wild 
magnificence ; and now, of rich fertility. 

Moreover, the methods of Nature are here often strange and start- 
ling. The seasons, the soil, the climate, the vegetation, are different 
from what is to be found elsewhere. 

The extraordinary abundance of mineral wealth is another well- 
known characteristic ; at times delusive, but often wonderfully prolific, 
having actually yielded over eight hundred millions of dollars in gold 
within a few years. 

But the most astonishing fact of all is the unexampled growth of 
this community. 

Twenty-five years ago, California was scarcely inhabited, and almost 
unexplored. Now, it is widely cultivated, and sprinkled thick with 
thriving villages and populous cities. San Francisco itself, which 
only twenty years ago was nothing but a sand-bank, has now a popu- 
lation of over one hundred and fifty thousand, with stately and elegant 
churches, colleges, school-edifices, splendid hotels, spacious haUs, and 
structures in wood, brick, and stone, of every description. More than 
forty ocean-steamers regularly enter and depart from its superb harbor, 
upon whose waters thousands of sailing vessels constantly float, uniting 
this city with every port on the globe. 

The foreign imports, in 1868, were over fifteen millions of dollars; 
while the merchandise exports, the same year, were twenty-three 
millions, more than seventeen millions of which were of domestic 
products. 

The rapidity of growth has been amazing ; but, with so limited an 
experience, it has little of what is generally understood to be History. 
Many of the citizens carry its whole career in their personal memory. 
I have heard, from one and another, reminiscences embracing the 
time when men first landed here, and had no other place of abode than 
tents ; while some had not even such shelter. Yes, men now in the 
prime of life will speak of this as their own experience. Still, young 
as the country is, there are here and there threads of tradition, reaching 
back to an earlier time. 

Among the oldest monuments connecting this region with a past 
period are the " Old Missions." Several of the churches and chapels 
yet stand, which were erected a hundred years ago by the Missionary 
pioneers, Spanish and Mexican, who labored among the Indian tribes 
of California. These are quaint buildings, built rudely of clay and stone, 
— adorned with ancient paintings brought doubtless in many instances 



1870.] 



LETTER FROM REV. R. C. WATERSTON. 349 






from Spain, with images of apostles and saints, — looking now much 
as they did when they awakened the wonder of the Indian tribes. 
The first important efforts towards civilization on this shore were 
made by the Jesuits, after which the Missions were transferred to the 
Order of St. Francis. The Jesuits labored in Lower California, and 
never in Upper California. The former were banished from power by 
the Spanish government in 1767. After this, Father Junipero, of the 
Franciscan Order, carried the work into Upper California. The 
lands were held by grant of the Spanish government. The Missions 
were subordinate to the civil authority ; still, for all practical purposes, 
their control was nearly supreme. Their domain extended from San 
Diego to San Francisco, with immense territory, and large herds and 
flocks. The Missions were established at intervals of twenty and thirty 
miles, the boundary of one uniting with that of another, so that the 
whole coast was under their jurisdiction. The natives were compelled 
to work in their service. In connection with the Missions were 
forts called " Presidios," which served for their protection ; and 
the towns (such as they were), called " Pueblos." Outside the 
Missions the government was purely military. Thousands of Indians 
were domesticated around these Missions, the Fathers living in patri- 
archal state, with vast numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep, — some 
of the Missions possessing from sixty to seventy thousand head of 
cattle. 

The overthrow of the Spanish dominion in Mexico brought an end 
to the power and prosperity of these Missions. Not one was founded 
after that event. In 1826 a law was passed, depriving the Fathers 
of their lands, and also of the labor of the Indians ; from which time 
their position and influence have rapidly dwindled away. 

The first Mission I visited was that of San Francisco, — the Mission 
u Dolores." The edifice still stands, which was erected in 1776, seven 
years after the Bay of Francisco had received its name. It stands — 
a simple structure — on the side of a hill, which shelters it from the 
ocean winds. The three old bells, which have been there from 
the beginning, still hang in the belfries, and are rung at stated times. 
Various old volumes of Spanish manuscripts, covered with sheepskin 
and having buckskin clasps, yet remain there ; together with some 
six hundred volumes in Spanish print. There are also some very 
ancient paintings and carvings, brought from abroad, which recall 
strangely a former day. A school is taught here, and religious ser- 
vices are regularly held. Some of the old " adobe " buildings (as the 



350 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

sun-burnt clay used for building these structures is called) still stand. 
These were inhabited by the Indians. Near by is the old graveyard ; I 
read the various inscriptions, but I saw none worthy of special note. 

I have visited also the old Missions of San Jose and Santa Clara, 
about fifty-five miles from San Francisco. These two are united by 
a shady avenue of willows and poplars, thoughtfully planted by the old 
padres. The avenue is three miles in length. As we walked under 
the refreshing shadow of these venerable trees (recalling the Al- 
madas of Spain), and heard the chime of the old bells which in 
former times had gathered the simple aborigines together, we could not 
but be impressed with the astonishing changes which had taken place. 

It is very remarkable to what an extent the Indians have dis- 
appeared. In and about San Francisco, for a distance of fifty miles, 
I have not seen one. The same has been my experience at San Jose 
and at Santa Clara ; also in crossing the Coast Range to Santa Cruz. 
In visiting the mammoth trees at the Mariposa Grove, we saw a few 
Indians, as we did also in the Yo-Semite Valley. Here I conversed 
with the Indian who served as a guide when the whites first entered 
the valley, at which time the tribe (having committed many depre- 
dations) were driven out. The Indians now residing in this region 
are harmless and peaceable. There are two tribes, — the Mono and 
the Pono Indians. I visited them in their rude wigwams, where I saw 
them pounding acorns which they had gathered for food, upon a rock ; 
and these I saw them boil by throwing hot stones into the water, pre- 
cisely as was done when the white man first came to this shore. They 
use implements of stone, similar to those used by the Indians on our 
own coast when the Pilgrims landed ; and I saw arrow-heads made of 
flint, very symmetrical, some, of which I obtained. 

But, in an historical point of view, perhaps the most interesting fact 
of all is this : that in San Francisco exist the original Spanish 
Archives, in which the whole early history of this part of the country 
may be traced. When our government took possession of the country, 
these papers came into its hands. They were concealed at first at 
Los Angeles ; at length they were obtained and brought to Monterey. 
They were placed, in 1851, by the United-States government, under 
the charge of the surveyor-general. In 1858, the Hon. Edwin M. 
Stanton came officially to this place, and found the papers disarranged, 
and more than one half (now in this collection) were still in other 
parts of the country. By his influence and under his oversight, they 
were brought together, collated, systematically arranged, and sub- 



1870.} LETTER FROM REV. R. C. WATERSTON. 351 

stantially bound. Thus to his forethought, the country is greatly 
indebted that these Spanish and Mexican Archives are in their 
present admirable condition, and available for study and reference. 

They are comprised in about one thousand volumes, — six hundred 
volumes, chiefly in manuscript, relating to grants of land; and in 
addition, some three hundred quarto volumes, averaging eight hundred 
pages each, containing in manuscript, in the original draft, or in the 
original form : — 

First. The Royal Decrees, as they came from the Spanish govern* 
ment. These are signed, — " Yo el Rey : " I the King. 

Second. Official orders and correspondence of Viceroys of Mexico. 

Third. The official correspondence of the Governors of the Province 
with various subordinate authorities, extending from 1775 down to 
1844. 

Fourth. Records and correspondence relating to Missions, Presidios, 
and Pueblos ; with the government and management of the same. 

Fifth. Civil, Military, and Ecclesiastical Records, together with 
Legislative and Judicial Proceedings ; many of which are exceedingly 
curious. 

Sixth. Miscellaneous Records, containing the daily domestic history 
of that time ; often throwing light upon the past condition of things, 
the motives and views which were cherished, with the manners and 
customs of the people. 

Seventh. A valuable correspondence by navigators of different 
nations, in as many as ten languages, — documents dating as far 
back as 1767. Some of these, written elsewhere, antedate the first 
settlement of the country. These papers contain the history of the 
coast, from Cape Horn to Columbia River, embracing a hundred years. 
Here are manuscripts relating to Vancouver (dated 1795) ; also to 
the celebrated voyage of Captain Cook, together with accounts of 
Russian Admirals, English Captains, and French Explorers. 

As early as 1788, statements begin to be made of Boston 
Traders. There is reason to believe that not one vessel has come 
here of which there is not some authentic record, particularly if the 
crew or officers have landed. It is an undeniable fact that from the 
commencement of the century, for twenty-five years, by far the larger 
number of vessels arriving here were from Boston. This made such 
an impression upon the Indians, that, even to this day, they call all 
Americans " Bostons ! " A large business, it was well known, was 
early carried on in furs (commencing as early as 1790). In 1784, John 



352 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

Ledyard (of whom an interesting Memoir was written by President 
Sparks), having visited the Pacific in company with Captain Cook, 
communicated important information to Thomas Jefferson (then, I 
think, in Paris) respecting this region ; after which, he was induced to 
return to make additional explorations, at which time he was arrested. 

The enterprise, courage, and determination of the Yankee traders, 
at a very early day, awakened the suspicion and jealousy of the 
Spanish government. The authorities of the Province were con- 
stantly admonished to watch them closely, and to prevent any 
encroachment. The Spaniards seemed to have an instinctive dread 
of that intellectual and physical force which was destined to make 
itself so powerfully felt upon this coast at a later day. Therefore 
every movement was watched with constant vigilance, and no one was 
allowed to gain any footing if by any possibility it could be prevented. 

In 1792, Captain Robert Gray, in the ship "Columbia" from 
Boston, discovered the Columbia River, which was named after his 
ship. (I send with this the translation of a letter, with orders 
respecting this vessel,* in which are various mistakes, — as that the 
vessel was owned by General Washington, &c.) 

Mention is made, I am told by the Keeper of the Archives, of 
Captain William Sturgis, our late fellow-townsman and associate, who 
early came to this coast, and drew up a paper on the subject for the 
Historical Society. 

The name also, I believe, of Captain Thompson occurs as that of 
the master of the " Alert," the vessel in which Richard H. Dana, Jr., 
first visited this place ; and by the account of his experience, in the 
" Two Years before the Mast," has justly caused his name to be for 
ever associated with this coast. 

Mention is made in 1810 of the ship " Albatross," which arrived 
from Boston with a company of hunters and trappers ; and there is an 
account also of the burning of the ship "Boston" in 1803, when a 
party of Indians asked to come on board, and in a friendly spirit dance 
upon the deck. Bringing with them concealed weapons, at a given 
signal they murdered the whole crew except two, who escaped, hiding 
themselves until the next year, when another ship arrived. The 
account is here recorded as it was given by the survivors at that time. 



* This was during her first visit to this coast, under the command of Captain John 
Kendrick. She sailed from Boston on the 30th of September, 1787, arrived on the 
coast in September 1789, and remained there one year, trading with the natives. — Eds. 



1870.] LETTER FROM REV. R. C. WATERSTON. 353 

Mr. R. C. Hopkins, the Keeper of the Archives, has most cour- 
teously offered me every facility for examining these papers. He has 
also promised to look over the volumes, and make extracts of pas- 
sages which may be of special interest with us, and to translate any 
papers which may be desirable. 

Should any member of the Massachusetts Historical Society, or the 
Society itself, desire any portion of these Records to be examined, or 
a copy made, respecting any statements of vessels arriving upon this 
coast, from the commencement of the century or somewhat earlier, Mr. 
Hopkins assures me he will, with pleasure, see that it is faithfully done. 

There is certainly ample material among these manuscripts for the 
antiquary and the historian. There are pages over which the scholar 
and the statesman may ponder. The blind policy of the Spanish gov- 
ernment, and the illiberal spirit of Spanish America, brought with it 
weakness and self-destruction. 

Each step which led to the final downfall may be traced in these 
Records ; while the beneficial results of Republican principles, with 
their expanding power, constantly developing new enterprise, may be 
witnessed on every side in what is transpiring to-day. 

I feel sure that the members of the Massachusetts Historical Society 
will rejoice not only in the present prosperity of this remarkable por- 
tion of our country, but that they will appreciate the faithful care 
which has so considerately preserved these Records, placing them 
under watchful guardianship, and seeking to make them available, as 
far as possible, for the general good. 

With the highest respect, most truly yours, 

R. C. Waterston. 

P. S. — The first allusion to an American ship in the Archives of 
California is in a letter by the Governor of the Province, Don Pedro 
Fages, — dated May, 1789, — to Don Josef Arguello, Captain of the 
Presidio of San Francisco. 

" Keservada." 

" Siempre que arrive a ese Puerto de S n Fran co ," &c. 
Confidential. 

Whenever there may arrive at the Port of San Francisco a Ship named the 
Columbia,* said to belong to General Washington [Gral Wanghengton] of the 

* In company with the "Columbia" was the "Washington," a vessel of one hun- 
dred tons' burden, commanded by Capt. Robert Gray; who, in 1792, as I have already 
said, was master of the "Columbia" herself. (Sparks's Life of Ledyard, p. 183.) 

45 



354 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

American States, under command of John Kendrick, which sailed from Boston 
in Sepr 1787, bound on a voyage of Discovery & of Examination of the Russian 
Establishments on the Northern Coast of this Peninsula, you will cause said 
vessel to be secured together with her officers and crew, directing that discretion 
and care be used in performing this duty, using in the execution of the same 
the small boat which you have in your possession, and doing the same with 
every other suspicious foreign vessel, giving me prompt notice of the same. 

May God preserve your life many years. 

Pedro Fages. 
Santa Barbara 

May 13 th 1789. 

To Josef Arguello. 

The " Columbia " was the first ship which sailed up the Columbia 
River, and from her the river received its name. This was in 1791. 



The President, referring to the death of our Corresponding 
Member, the Hon. John Pendleton Kennedy, spoke as fol- 
lows : — 

It is with no little personal sorrow that I announce the 
death of my cherished friend, the Honorable John Pendleton 
Kennedy, who was elected a Corresponding Member of this 
Society in 1858. I am sure the Society will indulge me, 
this morning, in dwelling at some length on the character 
and career of one, who had far higher claims than any friend- 
ship or affection of mine could give him to the regard and 
respect of his contemporaries. 

Mr. Kennedy was born on the 25th of October, 1795, in the 
city of Baltimore ; where his father, of Irish origin, who died 
early, was then a prosperous merchant. His mother, who 
lived to see her son — and he was her eldest — at the height 
of his reputation as an author and statesman, was a daughter 
of Philip Pendleton, of Berkeley County, Virginia, of a family 
distinguished by the virtues and accomplishments of more 
than one of its members. Graduated at Baltimore College 
in 1812, he soon selected the law as his profession. But our 
war with England was just then at its commencement ; and 
his pursuits were interrupted by the excitements of the period, 



1870.] TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 355 

and by the perils to which his native city was peculiarly 
exposed. With his friend, the late Mr. George Peabody, he 
volunteered and served as a private at the battles of Bladens- 
burg and North Point ; and with him, not many years ago, 
received from the United States the bounty land awarded to 
that service. 

Admitted to the Baltimore Bar in 1816, he practised with 
success for several years, at a period when that Bar was 
adorned by such men as William Pinkney and William Wirt 
and the late Chief-Justice Taney; with more than one of 
whom he was sometimes associated as junior counsel in 
important, causes, and with all of whom he was on terms 
of personal friendship. His taste for literary life, however, 
soon came in conflict with that for legal studies ; and as early 
as 1818 he had become joint editor, with his accomplished 
friend, the late Peter Hoffman Cruse, of a little fortnightly 
serial, in prose and verse, under the title of " The Red 
Book." This little work was continued for two or three 
years, and its contents subsequently collected into two 
volumes. 

And now the attractions of political service and public 
employment threatened to draw him away both from litera- 
ture and from law. He was induced to take an active part 
in the Presidential campaign of 1820 ; and in the same year 
was elected a member of the House of Delegates of Maryland. 
In that body he rendered conspicuous service for several 
years ; a part of the time as Speaker, and always as an 
intelligent and earnest advocate of measures for improv- 
ing the financial condition and restoring the credit of the 
State. 

In 1823, he accepted an appointment from President Mon- 
roe, as Secretary of our Legation to Chili ; and I have 
heard him describe most humorously his first interview with 
the late John Quincy Adams, — then Secretary of State, of 
whom in later years he enjoyed the intimate acquaintance 



356 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

and friendship, — when he called on Mr. Adams at the State 
Department for his instructions, preparatory to embarking 
for his post. " Instructions ! " said Mr. Adams. " The only 
instructions I have to give you at present are these ; " and 
reaching up, with the aid of a chair, to a high shelf, or pigeon- 
hole, in his bookcase, he handed him a carefully prepared 
description and drawing of the uniform which our Legations 
abroad were then required to wear, — not yet discarded as 
inconsistent with Republican principles, — and told him to 
provide himself accordingly. Mr. Kennedy's youthful aspira- 
tions for diplomacy were not stimulated, or altogether satisfied, 
by this view of what was expected of him ; and, before it was 
too late, he obtained leave to resign the appointment. 

His interest in public affairs, however, continued unabated ; 
and, in the intervals of professional labor, he prepared and pub- 
lished a number of political essays, which attracted a wide and 
marked attention. Having warmly espoused the views of Henry 
Clay (of whom not long afterwards he became one of the most 
trusted and valued friends) on the subject of American Industry, 
he wrote and printed, in 1830, an elaborate and masterly reply 
to Mr. Cambreleng's memorable Report on Commerce and 
Navigation, which had a general circulation throughout the 
country ; and in the following year he rendered eminent 
service, by tongue and pen, at a National Convention of the 
friends of Manufacturing Industry, held in the City of New 
York. 

But it soon appeared that his more purely literary labors 
had by no means been abandoned or suspended, and that he 
was destined to make no common mark — for that period, 
certainly — in a line of literature in which our own hon- 
ored Founder, Dr. Jeremy Belknap, had led the way in 
1792, by his American tale, " The Foresters " ; and in which 
Charles Brockden Brown and Washington Irving and James 
Fenimore Cooper had since been so conspicuous. 

In 1832, Mr. Kennedy published his first novel, under the 



1870.] TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 357 

name of " Swallow Barn, or a Sojourn in the Old Dominion " ; 
a work which produced a decided impression, and which 
received high commendations from the pen of Edward 
Everett, in the " North American Review," the only vehicle 
at that time of well-considered literary criticism in our part of 
the country. Its sketches of Virginia life and manners, includ- 
ing a very notable chapter on Slavery, entitled " The Quarter," 
furnish the best picture we have even now of that section of the 
Union at the period to which they relate, and possess not a 
little of historical interest and permanent value. This, too, 
may be said, even more emphatically, of his second novel, 
" Horse-Shoe Robinson, a Tale of the Tory Ascendency," 
published in 1835 ; of which the scene was laid in the Caro- 
linas, during our Revolutionary struggle, and of which the 
hero was drawn from the life, — the incidents of his remark- 
able career having been derived from his own lips by Mr. 
Kennedy himself, while he was residing at the South for the 
benefit of his health, in 1819. 

A third novel, " Rob of the Bowl ; a Legend of St. Inigoes," 
in which there is much historical matter connected with the 
religious commotions in Maryland, in the time of the second 
Lord Baltimore, was published by him in 1838 ; and in 1840 
he produced, in a fourth volume, under the title of " The 
Annals of Quodlibet," a humorous and satirical account of 
the Presidential campaign in which he was at that moment a 
prominent actor, with an almost dramatic presentment, under 
fictitious names, of scenes which had actually occurred within 
the range of his own observation and experience. 

Mr. Kennedy had now, however, become a member of Con- 
gress, having been chosen as one of the Representatives of 
the Baltimore District in 1838, and having been re-elected in 
1841 and 1843. His services at Washington were of the 
highest value and importance ; and particularly those which he 
rendered as Chairman of the Committee on Commerce in the 
Twenty-seventh Congress. Having been associated with him 



358 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

as his second on that Committee, as well as in the intimacies 
of a common table and of apartments under a common roof, 
I can bear personal testimony to the diligence and ability 
which he brought to the public business. His Reports on 
subjects connected with our Commercial System, and par- 
ticularly on our proposed Reciprocity Treaties, were elaborate 
and exhaustive ; and his speeches were forcible and eloquent. 
I cannot forget that we were together, too, on that Committee, 
when, not without hesitation and distrust, the first appro- 
priation was reported to enable Mr. Morse to try the 
experiment, between Washington and Baltimore, of that 
Magnetic Telegraph, which now covers our continent, and 
encircles the earth. Though the Report was written and pre- 
sented by another hand, it owed much of its success, both in 
Committee and in the House, to the earnest support of Mr. 
Kennedy. 

In 1844, he published a very striking little volume, called 
" A Defence of the Whigs," which became almost a hand-book 
of politicians, and which contains an admirable vindication of 
the party with which he was always connected as long as it 
existed. But that party had but a precarious and fitful suprem- 
acy in Baltimore ; and at the next election, in 1845, he failed 
of a majority, and was never again returned to Congress. 
The following year, however, found him again in the Chair 
of the House of Delegates at Annapolis, having been elected 
once more to the Legislature of Maryland, after an interval of 
five and twenty years, with a view to an important juncture 
in the affairs of his native State. 

This service rendered, Mr. Kennedy once more quietly 
resumed his literary labors ; and, as the result of them, pub- 
lished, in 1849, an excellent biography, in two octavo volumes, 
of the eminent lawyer and statesman, William Wirt, — one of 
the purest and best of the public men of his day, upon 
whom Mr. Kennedy had delivered a Eulogy, immediately after 
his death, in 1834. This work — in which the author sedu- 



1870.] TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 359 

lously avoided all personal display, and allowed Mr. Wirt to 
exhibit himself to the best advantage in his own brilliant 
public addresses and lively familiar correspondence — was 
recognized everywhere as a valuable contribution to American 
Biography, and to the history of the times ; and no better 
book of its kind could have been placed in the hands of the 
young men of the United States, to whom it was dedicated. 

Meantime and previously, Mr. Kennedy hafi delivered not 
a few occasional Discourses, mostly of an historical character : 
one, in 1835, before the American Institute of New York; 
another, in the same year, before the Faculty of Arts and 
Sciences of the University of Maryland, in which he had been 
appointed Professor of History, and of which he was the 
Provost for many years before his death ; and a third, in 
1845, before the Maryland Historical Society, of which he was 
Vice-President, on the Life and Character of George Calvert, 
the first Lord Baltimore, which involved him in a sharp con- 
troversy with several of the Roman Catholics of Maryland, 
to whom he made an elaborate rejoinder, exhibiting great 
ability and research. His Address, too, before the Maryland 
Institute, in 1851, published with engraved illustrations of the 
old town of Baltimore, as it was just a hundred years before, 
was replete with valuable local descriptions and details. 

In 1852, on the resignation of Governor Graham of North 
Carolina, who had been appointed Secretary of the Navy by 
President Fillmore, on his succession to the Presidency after 
the lamented death of General Taylor, Mr. Kennedy was 
called to preside over the Navy Department of the United 
States ; and continued a member of the Cabinet, of which his 
friends Mr. Webster and Mr. Everett were successively the 
chiefs, until the change of Administration, in March, 1853. 
This was the period of some of our most interesting Naval 
Scientific Expeditions : that of Commodore Perry to Japan ; 
and that of Dr. Kane to the Arctic Ocean, in search of Sir John 
Franklin, for which Mr. Kennedy prepared the instructions, 



360 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

and gave to it the most effective encouragement. His name 
was accordingly given by Dr. Kane to one of the channels 
which he discovered, and was inscribed on his map of the 
Arctic Regions. 

The visit of Mr. George Peabody to his native land in 1856, 
and his noble endowment of the Peabody Institute in Bal 
timore, where, as a young banker, he had for some years 
resided, afforded Mr. Kennedy a new subject of interest, and 
opened to him a new field of useful labor. He was at once 
selected by Mr. Peabody, as the Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees for his great gift to the Baltimore Institute ; and I 
have the best authority for knowing how earnestly he entered 
upon and pursued the work of organization committed to him, 
and how highly and gratefully his services were appreciated 
by Mr. Peabody to the last. 

The darkest days of our country were now rapidly approach- 
ing. Mr. Kennedy was never, I believe, an owner of slaves, 
nor ever a supporter or apologist for slavery. But, on the 
other hand, he had never co-operated or sympathized with 
the extreme Abolitionists of the North, and had always united 
in measures for securing to his own, and the other Southern 
States, the rights in regard to this institution which were 
expressed or implied in the Constitution of the United States, 
as he understood its provisions. No northern man, however, 
could have been more averse than he was to the extension of 
slavery into new territories. He was, moreover, a devoted 
lover of the Union, and held in abhorrence all ideas either of 
peaceable or forcible secession or nullification. Living in a 
Border State, where the personal and party feuds which pre- 
ceded and followed the outbreak of the Rebellion were so violent 
and bitter, and upon which at one time it seemed as if the 
whole brunt of the battle might fall, his first hopes undoubtedly 
were, as were those of many of his friends farther North, that 
some arrangement or adjustment might be devised, with a view 
to prevent the fratricidal strife, and avert the full horrors of 






1870.] TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 361 

Civil War. He was in complete accord with the great Boston 
Memorial to that effect, which, under the lead of Mr. Everett, 
and in company with others of all parties, I had a share in 
the privilege of bearing to Congress in January, 1861. In 
this spirit, he published, a few weeks before the first fatal 
blow had been struck, a pamphlet entitled " The Border 
States ; their Power and Duty," which presented the great 
questions before the country with boldness and signal ability, 
and appealed to the Border States to interpose, by some 
separate concerted action, for the settlement of all issues in 
dispute, and for the ultimate preservation of the Union. 
Reviewed in the light of subsequent developments and of 
final results, this appeal would probably be regarded with less 
approbation than it was at the time of its publication. But 
even then, as it soon proved, the time for discussion had 
passed, and little remained but to resist force by force. In 
that contest, Mr. Kennedy's influence and efforts were strongly 
and unqualifiedly on the side of the Government and the 
Union, and no coldness of friends, or dangers from enemies, 
could deter or daunt him. 

During the progress of the War, he communicated a series 
of Letters to the " National Intelligencer," under the assumed 
name of u Paul Ambrose," in which he ably discussed " the 
principles and incidents of the Rebellion as these rose to view 
in the rapid transit of events " ; which were collected and pub- 
lished in a volume, with his own name, in 1865. This was 
the last work which he gave to the public ; and he soon after- 
wards embarked for Europe, in the hope of reinvigorating his 
somewhat shattered health. 

It was not his first visit abroad. He had crossed the Atlan- 
tic twice before, and was no stranger to some of the best of 
English and European society. In those visits, he had renewed 
the intimacy with Thackeray and Dickens which he had 
enjoyed while they were in America, and had formed many 
other friendships with the literary men of France and England. 

46 



362 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

During his last tour, he was selected by Mr. Seward as one of 
the United-States Commissioners, at the grand Exposition 
of the Industry of all Nations in Paris, and in that capacity 
rendered valuable services ; especially as one of the small 
select Commission, under the Presidency of Prince Napoleon, 
to which the subject of a uniform Decimal Currency was 
referred. 

Mr. Kennedy had more than once contemplated giving to 
the press his " Notes of Travel," of which he has left many 
manuscript volumes, carefully composed and revised, which 
may still, I trust, furnish the material of a posthumous pub- 
lication. 

On his last return home, in October, 1868, he presided at a 
great Republican Mass Meeting in Baltimore ; and made an 
earnest and eloquent appeal to the South to acquiesce cordially 
in the results of the War, and to unite " in that new pathway 
which Providence has ordained to be the line of our future 
march to the highest destiny of nations." This was his last 
public word. 

In looking back on the life which has been thus rapidly 
sketched, and comparing his capacities for usefulness with his 
actual career, one cannot but feel how much has been lost to 
the best service of the country, in his case as in too many 
others, by the accidents of politics, and the caprices of parties. 
As a Senator, or as a Diplomatist, he would have done 
eminent honor to the nation at home or abroad ; and he 
seemed particularly suited, by his abilities, his accomplish- 
ments, and his tastes, for prolonged and continuous service 
in spheres like these. But it was not in his nature to seek 
them, and it was not his fortune to enjoy them. I may be 
pardoned for recalling, in such a connection, those striking 
lines of Coleridge : — 

" How seldom, Friend ! a good great man inherits 
Honor or wealth, with all his worth and pains ! 
It sounds like stories from the world of spirits 



1870.]" TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 363 

If any man obtain that which he merits, 
Or any merit that which he obtains. 






Goodness and greatness are not means, but ends ! 

Hath he not always treasures, always friends, 

The good great man 1 —r three treasures, love, and light, 

And calm thoughts, regular as infant's breath ; 

And three firm friends, more sure than day and night, — 

Himself, his Maker, and the angel Death." 

Mr. Kennedy, as a man, was greater and better than all his 
books. One certainly looks in vain in all that he wrote or 
did for the full measure of those gifts and acquirements of 
mind and heart, that learning and wisdom, that wit and 
humor, that whole-souled cordiality and gayety and kindness, 
which shone out so conspicuously in the intimacies of daily 
intercourse. A truer friend or more charming companion 
has rarely been found or lost by those who have enjoyed 
the privilege of his companionship and friendship ; and among 
those may be counted not a few of our most distinguished 
authors and statesmen. A delightful week which I passed 
under his roof, many years ago, gave me an opportunity of 
witnessing the esteem and affection in which he was held by 
my only fellow-guest, Washington Irving, — whose Life, indeed, 
contains more than one letter to him, beginning, " Dear Horse 
Shoe," and ending " Geoffrey Crayon." 

Though far advanced in his seventy-fifth year, and though he 
had occasionally suffered not a little of late from severe phy- 
sical infirmities, Mr. Kennedy was naturally of so genial and 
joyous a temper, and sympathized so warmly with the young 
and gay, that the idea of his being an old man had hardly yet 
occurred to any one but himself. In the eyes of those around 
him, he seemed to have nothing of age except its experience 
and its mellowness. He was not insensible himself, however, 
to the approach of the inexorable hour. In a letter which I 
received from him not many weeks ago, — one of the last of 
a series running through a term of more than thirty years, — 
he said to me with more of sadness than I had ever known 



364 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

him to write, certainly in regard to himself: " It is but small 
consolation to me — when I look at my letter-file, and see 
three or four of your letters asking for a word of recognition, 
— to argue my good intentions, and my infirmity of hand, for 
that silence which I daily resolve to break ; for it is so per- 
sistently followed by a new delinquency, in the breach of my 
resolve, as to bring me nothing better than a new regret. 
But I know you will pardon these habitual shortcomings, — 
like the good and trusty friend you have always been, — and 
indulge me in that constrained silence, which is, in truth, 
only the sign and warning of one more inevitable, that comes 
with gentle step and, I trust, a friendly message to make it 
welcome." 

A few weeks more at Saratoga Springs, by the advice of his 
physician, and a few weeks afterwards at Newport, where he 
had fixed his summer residence for several years past, com- 
pleted his earthly career. A hidden malady was developed, 
which, after two days of agony, patiently and bravely borne, 
and one day of tranquil slumbers, released him to his rest. 
I may not omit to add that, in a blessed interval of wakefulness 
and ease, he eagerly renewed those pledges of Christian faith 
which he had often given in health, and was able to take leave 
of those dearest to him, as he said, " in perfect peace of mind 
and body." 

He died at Newport, on the 18th of August ; and his remains 
were at once removed to his native city, to repose in the neigh- 
boring Green Mount Cemetery, at the dedication of which he 
had delivered the Address, in 1839. 

Mr. Kennedy left no children. His wife, who, with her 
sister, has rendered his home for more than thirty years so 
dear and delightful to himself, and so attractive to his friends, 
is a daughter of the late Edward Gray, Esq., of Baltimore, one 
of the worthiest and most respected merchants of that city ; of 
whom Irving, on hearing of his death in 1856, wrote thus, in 
words which I can indorse with all my heart : " To be under 



1870.] TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 365 

his roof, in Baltimore, or at Ellicott's Mills, was to be in a 
constant state of quiet enjoyment to me. Every thing that I 
saw in him, and in those about him ; in his tastes, habits, 
mode of life ; in his domestic relations and chosen intimacies, 
— continually struck upon some happy chord in my own 
bosom, and put me in tune with the world and with human 
nature." 

Mr. Kennedy received the Honorary Degree of Doctor of 
Laws from Harvard University in 1863 ; and has been, for 
some years, an Associate Fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences. 

Professor James Russell Lowell then said : — 

Mr. President, — In the few words I shall say of Mr. Ken- 
nedy, I shall speak of him as it is fitting to speak of a man 
who made affection easy, and whom a short acquaintance had 
invested with something of the tender privilege of long friend- 
ship. Death should give a shelter from vague eulogy no less 
than from impertinent criticism. Here is no place for those 
invidiosi veri, on which, one is sometimes tempted to think, 
the Anglo-Saxon conscience is apt to lay an undue emphasis. 

It is very likely that Mr. Kennedy could not be called a man 
of genius in the creative sense of that somewhat elastic word ; 
but it is surely something to his honor, that, amid the mani- 
fold distractions of a busy and public life, he should have 
cherished the sweet and pure ambition of letters, of a higher 
and more durable success than politics and popularity can 
offer. In a society so prosperously active as ours, it is of good 
example to have had an intellectual ideal, and perhaps it is 
fairer here than elsewhere to measure a man rather by his 
aims than by his performance. After all, unless we adopt the 
plan of Pepys, and allow shelf-room only to books of blue blood, 
we must be willing to find a place for many volumes that 
could not make their claims valid with the heralds of literature. 
An exclusive commerce with the great may make us unduly 



366 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

fastidious, and it is wholesome to unbend our faculties now 
and then from the strain of that Alpine society in the company 
of authors who simply know how to be agreeable. I think 
Mr. Kennedy's books have this pleasant quality, — a secret not 
seldom missed by writers more pretentious and of greater 
power. They are refined, manly, considerate of our grosser 
apprehensions ; they attempt no solution of the problem of 
the Infinite (as it is called) ; they abound in cheerful pictures 
of natural scenery ; and they will have a real value for the his- 
torian, from their lively notices of manners already remote. 
Perhaps the strongest impression they leave upon the mind is 
that they were written by a gentleman, a profession of greater 
consequence than is generally conceived. 

Perhaps we overestimate the worth of mere literary ability. 
The lion has been the painter this time, and authors have not 
been slack in impressing on mankind the supreme importance 
of their function. Nevertheless it may well be suspected that 
the power of expressing fine sentiments is of a lower quality 
than the less obtrusive skill of realizing them in the life and 
character. This talent Mr. Kennedy possessed beyond most 
men. One could not be in his company for never so short a 
time, without being touched by that gentle consideration for 
others which is the root of all good breeding. His courtesy 
was not the formal discipline of elegant manners. There was 
a sense of benefaction in it. Whoever came near him felt the 
friendly charm which his nature radiated, so that his very 
house seemed steeped in it and welcomed you no less heartily 
than he. He was in the highest sense a genial man. He 
had a singular gift for companionship, for being something 
better than his books, and his finer qualities were lured out by 
the sympathy of the fireside. He was excellent in anecdote 
and reminiscence. His talk had just that pleasant suspicion 
of scholarship in it that befits the drawing-room, and never 
degenerated to the coarser flavor of pedantry. He could 
quote his bit of Horace or Virgil on occasion, which used to 



1870.] TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 367 

be the neck-verse of cultivated men. He had the somewhat 
rare excellence of being playfully earnest ; and, though he had 
stroug convictions, never made them the scourge of other 
men. 

But though gentleness was a prime quality in this gracious 
temperament, he could, when the times demanded, show quali- 
ties of stouter fibre. During the war of the Eebellion he 
stood firmly by the Nation, though it cost him a social position, 
which, to a man of his affectionate nature and social instincts, 
was dearer than any thing but duty. In the North it was easy 
to be loyal, — it was sometimes even profitable; but in Mary- 
land loyalty meant ostracism, and might mean something 
worse. For Mr. Kennedy it sundered lifelong ties of friend- 
ship, and habitudes of society scarce less painful in the break- 
ing. He might have escaped it all by a judicious impartiality 
between right and wrong ; nay, even by a little of that caution 
which we call meanness if it fail, and prudence if it prosper. 
But he was a brave man, and chose the nobler privilege of 
danger. 

How much fame may fall to his share, it would be out of 
place to compute too closely. Suffice it that he at least escaped 
its vulgar makeweight, notoriety. Surely he has something 
better, as it is sweeter, in gentle memories that will perish 
only with the last of those who knew him. 

The Hon. George S. Hillard next addressed the meeting : 

I should not have added any thing to what has been 
said in honor of Mr. Kennedy, were it not that I am one of 
the few now present that were personally acquainted with 
him. This acquaintance was not of long duration, nor was 
it intimate ; indeed, my personal knowledge of him hardly 
began before he was sixty ; but I knew him well enough to 
feel able to give my emphatic assent to all that has been said 
in commendation of him by Professor Lowell and yourself. 

No one could see and know Mr. Kennedy without feeling 



368 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

that he himself was more and better than his writings, 
excellent and estimable as these are. He was a man whose 
elements of growth were self-derived. He was born in a 
Southern state, and had the best training which that portion 
of the country could furnish at the time of his youth. The 
natural drift of men so born and taught was to politics ; but 
he resisted this general proclivity. He gave himself to 
literature and law, and slid into politics incidentally and 
accidentally ; and as literature was his first, it remained to the 
last his strongest love. 

Mr. Kennedy was delightful in all the social relations. He 
was given to hospitality, and no man appeared to more 
advantage when dispensing the gifts of hospitality. His 
conversation was frank, easy, and hearty. Men in our 
country, who have been much in public life, are apt to fall 
into a cautious and non-committal style of discourse. They 
are prone to talk with a vigilant self-observation, as if they 
feared that their words might be reported to their disadvan- 
tage by some unfriendly hearer. But he had none of this cold 
and timid prudence. He spoke out that which was in him, 
not fearing sometimes to utter what an ever cautious temper 
would have left unspoken. His conversation had the fresh- 
ness, the freedom, the courage of youth. His mind, his heart, 
never grew old. 

Of his works of fiction my recollection is but indistinct ; 
but I freshly remember his " Life of Wirt," and I think it one 
of the most graceful, genial, and delightful pieces of biography 
that the literature of our country has to show. And let me 
here express the hope that some competent hand will do for 
him what he did so well for his friend ; and the corre- 
spondence and unpublished manuscripts of Kennedy will 
surely afford to the biographer a theme not less full and 
fruitful than that furnished by the life and labors of the 
eminent lawyer, and more than respectable man of letters, 
whom he so well commemorated. 



1870.] TRIBUTES TO THE HON. JOHN P. KENNEDY. 3G9 

The President then read the following letter from Pro- 
fessor Oliver Wendell Holmes : — 

164 Charles Street, Sept. 8th, 11 a.m. 
My dear Mr. Winthrop : 

I am much disappointed in finding myself still so far indisposed that 
I do not feel like going to the meeting to-day. 

The circumstance that I was probably the last member of our 
Society who met Mr. Kennedy made me anxious to have an oppor- 
tunity to add a few words to the tribute you will pay to his memory, 
which I feel sure will be all that affectionate esteem and the knowledge 
of a life-time can render it. I could really have contributed nothing, 
except the memory of my few interviews, the two last of which, within 
less than a week of Mr. Kennedy's death, were singularly delightful. 
He was full of talk, so cheerful, so genial, so varied, — sometimes on 
political and historical matters with which he was familiar, sometimes 
relating personal experiences of which he had such a fund in his 
memory, always lively, entertaining, graceful in his discourse, — that 
I have rarely sat in a company when one man did more to keep all 
the rest happy in listening to him. There was no look of warning, no 
tone that could suggest a melancholy foreboding ; but, bright and brave 
in the face of fast gaining infirmity which he would not betray to 
sadden others, he shed sunshine about him to the last. 

It is singular that, having met him so few times, I should feel as if 
I knew him so well, and regret his loss so deeply. It was not merely 
because he was of a true and generous nature, and of a fine intelligence 
and culture, but because he was so frank and hearty with those whom 
he honored with his friendship, that a week with him was like a year 
with a man of a narrower mould and colder feelings. 

I have written at a moment's notice, as I did hope to be with you ; 
but if you can make any use of my note, pray do so. 

Believe me, dear Mr. Winthrop, 

Yours faithfully, 

O. W. Holmes. 

The President laid upon the table some sheets of the public 
Acts of Connecticut, now in course of publication, sent to him 
by Mr. Hoadly, who called special attention to " An Act " 



370 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

included therein (Chapter CX. p. 463) " for the Preservation 
of Ancient Town Records " : — 

An Act for the Preservation of Ancient Town Records. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives in General Assembly 
convened : 

Sec. 1. It shall be the duty of the town clerk, in each town in this State, 
having manuscript volumes of town records, containing entries of deeds, town 
votes, wills, or judicial proceedings made prior to the year 1700, to cause copies 
to be made of all such entries, in a fair and legible hand, to the satisfaction of the 
State librarian; and to transmit said copies to the State librarian on or before 
the fourth day of July, 1871, for preservation in the State library. 

Sec 2. It shall be the duty of the State librarian to procure and furnish to 
the town clerks of the several towns above referred to, suitable blank-books, 
substantially bound, in which to make said copies. 

Sec. 3. As soon as any book containing such copies shall be received and 
approved by the State librarian, he shall give to the town clerk from whom he 
shall have received the same an order for such sum as said librarian may deem a 
reasonable compensation for making said copies ; and the comptroller is hereby 
authorized to approve and allow all orders so given, and also such further 
accounts as said State librarian may contract in procuring and furnishing the 
blank-books described in section second ; and to draw upon the State treasurer 
for the payment of the same. 

Approved July 15th, 1870. 

In a former letter received from Mr. Hoadly by the Presi- 
dent, the writer thus refers to the recent recovery of a valua- 
ble manuscript book of laws : — 

In 1859, the laws of the Territory and Dominion of New England 
were printed for the first time by Mr. Trumbull in the Appendix to 
the Colonial Records of Connecticut, 1678-1689, pp. 402-436, from 
the only manuscript then known to exist. Quite recently I have dis- 
covered another manuscript which contains those laws, and also the act 
or order concerning local laws alluded to on page 439 of Mr. Trum- 
bull's volume. This manuscript enables us to supply some deficiencies 
in the manuscript used by Mr. Trumbull, and to correct the text in 
several places. Do you think that the Massachusetts Historical Society 
would like to reprint those laws ? 

The Memoir of the late Rev. N. L. Frothingham, D.D., by 
Professor Hedge, was announced as ready for publication, and 
is here given. 




tf>?Zt^ 



1870.J 



MEMOIR 



NATHANIEL LANGDON FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 



BY FREDERIC H. HEDGE. 



The city of Boston owes much to her clergy. From the first 
they have been her intellectual leaders and literary lights, as 
well as spiritual guides. Among the honored of this pro- 
fession, the subject of this brief notice merits a conspicuous 
place. 

Nathaniel Langdon Frothingham, son of Ebenezer Froth- 
ingham and Joanna Langdon, was born in Boston, on the 
twenty-third day of July, in the year 1793. Of his boyhood, 
there is nothing to record but his diligent scholarship and 
extraordinary intellectual promise. At school, in his native 
city, he took a high rank, and received the customary honors. 
At the age of fourteen he was entered as a student of Harvard 
College, a classmate of Edward Everett, in the Class of 1811. 

Of his college life, another classmate and friend, the Rev. 
Dr. Allen, of Northborough, has kindly communicated, at my 
request, the following reminiscence : — 

" Dr. Frothingham was one of my most intimate friends in College, 
and our intimacy and friendship lasted through life. He was one of 
the younger members of the Class ; and although from the first a dili- 
gent student and a good scholar, it was not, I think, till his third year 
that he gained a high rank among his fellow-students. But at the close 
of his college course, he was surpassed by very few ; and as a reward 



372 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

of distinguished merit, an English Oration, out of the usual course, 
was assigned him for Commencement. He was an elegant classical 
scholar, a fine writer in prose and verse ; and in elocution he was sur- 
passed by none of his classmates, not excepting Edward Everett. He 
was a great favorite — almost a pet — of Dr. McKean, the Professor 
of Rhetoric, who seemed to regard him as a model orator. 

" Through his college life he maintained an irreproachable character, 
and was highly esteemed by his classmates ; who, without jealousy 
or envy, watched his progress, and were proud of his fame." 

In 1812, he received the appointment of Preceptor of 
Ehetoric and Oratory at Harvard, an office for which, even 
at the early age of nineteen, he was judged to be well qualified 
by his exquisite taste and brilliant success in that department. 
His duties in this capacity were not onerous, and left him 
abundant leisure for the study of that profession to which he 
had already turned his thoughts, and was ready to devote his 
gifts and powers. During the three years of academic office, 
he was making preparation for the ministry ; and in 1815 he 
accepted a call to the pastorate of the First Church in Boston, a 
post in which the example of illustrious predecessors supplied 
a strong incentive to noble effort and a rule of beneficent 
action. Of his success in this connection, there are many 
witnesses. He attached to himself a strong and united 
parish, to which he ministered long enough to see one gene- 
ration of worshippers pass and another take their place ; long 
enough to teach the children of those whom as children he 
had taught and baptized. His " Congregation at the First 
Church," says one of the notices that followed his death, 
" included a large number of scholars and writers, among 
whom were Edward Everett, William H. Prescott, George Ban- 
croft, Joseph T. Buckingham, Henry T. Tuckerman, Charles 
Francis Adams, and Charles Sprague." 

In 1818, he married Ann Gorham Brooks, daughter of the 
late Peter C. Brooks of Boston, and sister of Mrs. Edward 
Everett and Mrs. Charles Francis Adams. From this union 
has sprung a numerous family of children, of whom the third 



1870.] MEMOIR OF NATHANIEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 373 

son, Octavius Brooks Fro thin gham, embraced the father's pro- 
fession, and now holds a conspicuous place among the most 
gifted and popular preachers of New York. 

In 1826, Dr. Frothingham obtained, by consent of his par- 
ish, a year's respite from his labors ; and was able to gratify 
the long-cherished wish of his heart in a visit to Europe, from 
which he returned toward the close of the summer of 1827. 
Twenty-two years later, in 1849, a period of ill health occa- 
sioned a second and shorter visit, from which the tourist 
returned, with health still impaired, to occupy but a few 
months longer the post of duty which had tasked the strength 
of his manhood. 

In 1850, after a ministry of thirty-five years, he retired from 
the pulpit, and resigned his pastoral connection with the First 
Church. After this, he occasionally, but rarely, by special 
request, took part in the public services of religion. " His last 
appearance in the pulpit," says the notice already quoted from 
the " Transcript," " was at the impromptu meeting in Hollis- 
street Church, on the day of the assassination of President 
Lincoln. His remarkable prayer on that occasion will never 
be forgotten by those who heard 'it. Beautiful, fitting, and 
appropriate in itself, his blindness gave added pathos to his 
heartfelt devotion." 

But the years which followed his withdrawal from public 
duty were by no means years of idleness. He occupied him- 
self with literary labors, and some of the choicest productions 
of his pen are the fruits of this long retirement. In 1852, he 
gave to the press a volume entitled " Sermons in the Order 
of a Twelve-month," containing some of the best of his pro- 
fessional discourses, all of which breathe a lofty strain of 
Christian thought and sentiment, and are characterized by 
that singular beauty of diction which all his critics acknowl- 
edge to be a distinguishing trait of Dr. Frothingham's writing. 
In 1855, he published a volume of poems, to which he gave 
the title " Metrical Pieces." Notwithstanding this modest 



374 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

designation, these compositions have secured to him an honor- 
able place among American poets. 

In the spring of 1859, he made his third visit to Europe. 
In this tour he was accompanied by his family ; they spent a 
year and a half in travel, returning in November, 1860. 

Soon after his return, his eyesight, which had always been 
myopic, began rapidly to fail ; and symptoms of glaucoma 
threatened the entire loss of vision which other members of 
his family had suffered before him. This affliction befell him 
four years later, following hard on a great domestic bereave- 
ment, — the loss of his wife, the cherished companion of nearly 
half a century of wedded life. In the summer of 1864, he 
submitted to a painful operation ; which, instead of restoring, 
as he had been led to hope, the use of his eyes, resulted in 
total blindness. Into this night he sank at the age of seventy- 
two, and in it groped the last six years of a life which till 
then had been singularly prosperous and blest. 

But no cloud obscured the intellectual day in which he 
moved, and in which he still continued to work during nearly 
five of those darkened years. With the aid of his faithful and 
efficient secretary and friend, Miss Ellen M. Buckingham, he 
brought his papers in order, dictated poems, translated Ger- 
man hymns, and prepared the material of a second volume of 
" Metrical Pieces," which, however, did not appear in print 
until loss of faculty had precluded his own interest in the 
publication. 

Nothing was wanting to him in his decline of " that which 
should accompany old age ; " not, certainly, " troops of 
friends." He enjoyed their society, delighting in the sound 
of familiar voices when familiar faces beamed on him in vain, 
uid conversing with unimpaired faculty and zest until nearly 
the last year of his life. " In my frequent visits to him," says 
Dr. Allen, " in the ' evil days ' which came upon him after the 
external world was shut out from his sight, I always found him 
bright and cheerful, fond of recalling the scenes of our college 



1870.] MEMOIR OF NATHANIEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 375 

life and the memory of departed classmates and friends, and 
thankful for the blessings that still remained." 

Speaking of a prominent trait of Dr. Frothingham's char- 
acter, the same friend writes : "I have personal knowledge 
of his kindness and generosity, for I have been the almoner of 
his bounty ; and I know that some — I believe that many — 
recall his acts of kindness and bless his memory." 

The last year, especially the last winter months, of his 
mortal experience, were burdened with infirmities and pains 
which leaned too hardly on his weakened frame, and shut out 
every prospect but that of the great Beyond. 

He died on Monday, the 4th of April, 1870. On the same 
day, there appeared in the columns of the " Boston Tran- 
script " an obituary notice, by the Rev. Mr. Fox, of which the 
greater part is here subjoined : — 

" Rev. Nathaniel Langdon Frothingham, D.D., died at his residence 
in Newbury Street, Monday morning, at two o'clock ; receiving thus a 
blessed relief from a protracted and painful sickness. Though for 
several years he has been a sufferer in the seclusion of the sick- 
chamber, and out of the sight of all. but a few friends and those who 
ministered to him with unwearied, filial devotion, he has not been out 
of the minds and the hearts of the many who highly esteemed and 
greatly loved him ; and sincere sorrow will be mingled with the feeling 
that his departure was ordered in mercy. 

" Quietly devoted to his professional duties, Dr. Frothingham's life 
was uneventful ; for it was the life of the student and the man of letters. 
His learning was various and accurate ; and he was honored for his 
acquirements, as well as for the high order of his intellectual gifts. 
In social converse he was the coveted teacher and companion of our 
best thinkers and scholars. His interest and delight in literary pur- 
suits continued unabated when others, suffering from infirmities and 
pains like his, would have abandoned their books and pens, and felt 
that even to listen to reading was a luxury to be given up. Whilst 
sickness allowed him to work, he was never idle. 

" Dr. Frothingham published several volumes of prose and poetry ; 
and to the ' Christian Examiner,' the ' North American Review,' and 
several other periodicals, he frequently contributed articles of rare 



376 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sbfi 

excellence, both as to their substance and their form. His style was 
singularly pure and rich ; showing a finish and correctness, in eloquent 
paragraphs and exquisite sentences, quite unrivalled. His exaction 
and fastidiousness, as a critic of the writings of others, were severely- 
applied to his own productions ; and hence the polish, erudition, solid 
brilliancy, lofty sentiment, and thoughtfulness, which have put them 
among the best specimens of American literature. 

" Of Dr. Frothingham as a man it is hardly necessary to speak in 
this community, to those of his own day and generation, or to those 
younger than himself, whose privilege it was to meet him and enjoy 
intercourse with him. Courteous, genial, hospitable, liberal in his 
conservatism, catholic in his judgments, free from all petty envies and 
jealousies, without ostentation, and scorning loud or mere professions, 
there was about him a winning charm that made his presence and his 
speech ever welcome to all. 

" It is impossible, in these necessarily hurried lines, to pay the 
tribute due to his home virtues, conscientious patriotism, assiduity as a 
Christian teacher, and readiness to contribute all in his power to the 
advancement of sound learning, wise charities, refining art, and what- 
ever else might serve to promote the intellectual and moral well-being 
of the community. 

" To his excellence and his example in these respects others will 
hasten to do justice. We must be content with this general and im- 
perfect expression of regard for the memory of one, whose works and 
words are not to be forgotten or the less prized, because the close 
of his more than threescore and ten years was veiled and hidden by 
blindness and inexorable disease." 

The funeral service was performed on the following Wed- 
nesday (April 6th), in the newly erected church of his 
parish, in Berkeley Street. The Rev. Dr. Gannett read appro- 
priate selections from the Scriptures ; and the Rev. Dr. Ellis * 
offered the customary prayer. A funeral address, delivered by 
the Rev. Frederic H. Hedge, is appended to this brief memoir 
by the same hand. 

At the meeting of the Massachusetts Historical Society, of 
which Dr. Frothingham was a member, on the 14th of the 

* Dr. George E. Ellis ; Mr. Rufus Ellis, the Pastor of the Church, Dr. 
Frothingham's successor, was prevented by illness from attending the service. 






1870.] MEMOIR OF NATHANIEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 377 

same month, commemorative addresses were made by the 
President, the Hon. Robert C. Winthrop, by the Rev. Dr. 
Walker, and by the Rev. Dr. Lothrop. They are reported in 
the Journal of the Society. 

Among the literary tributes to Dr. Frothingham's genius, 
the ablest and most adequate is that by Mr. Henry T. Tuck- 
erman, which appeared not long since in the " New York 
Tribune." 



ADDRESS AT THE BURIAL OF DR. FROTHINGHAM. 

It was a message of joy that brought to the friends of Dr. 
Frothingham, on Monday last, the tidings of his release from 
the darkness of the prison-house in which his latter years had 
pined, with no hope of deliverance but that which the Angel 
of Death brings to every captive at last. 

To us, who had known him in the days of his strength and 
the plenitude of his genius, he had died long since. We had 
buried him in our hearts ; and what remained of him we felt 
to be less truly he than the image in our memory and the 
works he had given us. He had died to intellectual converse 
while in the body he yet lived. But now that the body's death 
has severed the last tie that bound him to this earthly sphere, 
his image is restored to us with transfigured beauty. And 
here, as we meet for the burial rite in the sanctuary of that 
Church of which he was so long minister, we summon his idea 
from its sanctuary in our minds, and represent to ourselves 
what he was in character and action. 

Born in this city in July, 1793 ; graduated at Harvard, a 
classmate of Edward Everett, in 1811 ; for some time Tutor 
of Rhetoric and Oratory in that University, — he was called 
in 1815 to be the Pastor of this Church ; a post which he 
occupied with mind and heart for thirty-five years, resigning 
in 1850 the arduous trust. To the duties of that office he 

48 



378 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

gave the strength and marrow of his life, suffering no literary 
avocation — though a lover of letters — to divert his thoughts 
or disengage his affections from the work of the ministry ; 
subordinating all other tastes and pursuits to that supreme 
call. 

As a preacher, he could hardly be said to be popular. 
Excessive refinement, want of rapport with the common 
mind, precluded those homely applications of practical truth 
which take the multitude. Nor did he feel sufficient interest 
in doctrinal theology to satisfy those who craved systematic 
instruction in that line. His reputation, therefore, was less 
extended than intense. The circle of his admirers was small ; 
but those who composed it listened to him with enthusiastic 
delight. When, occasionally, he preached to us students at the 
University, from the pulpit of the College Chapel, there was no 
one, I think, to whom we listened with attention more pro- 
found ; and, for myself, I can say with richer intellectual 
profit. The poetic beauty of his thought, the pointed aptness 
of his illustrations, the truth and sweetness of the sentiment, 
the singular and sometimes quaint selectness, with nothing 
inflated or declamatory in it, of the language, won my heart, 
and made him my favorite among the preachers of that day. 
I will not mispraise him, when dead, whom living I could not 
flatter. I am well aware, and was even then aware, that the 
preaching of our friend did not satisfy the class of minds to 
which Channing in his way, and Walker and Ware and Lowell, 
so ably ministered in theirs ; but preaching has other legiti- 
mate and important functions beside those of unfolding the 
philosophy of religion, or stimulating the moral sense. There 
are " differences of gifts," and there are " diversities of 
operations " ; but the same spirit goes with all earnest effort 
in the service of truth, and is justified in all. 

One service Dr. Frothingham has rendered to the Church 
and the cause of religion, in which he is unsurpassed by 
any preacher of his connection, — perhaps, I may say, by any 



1870.J MEMOIR OF NATHANIEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 379 

American preacher of his time. I speak of his hymns, which 
will live, I believe, — I am sure they deserve to live, — as 
long as any hymns in our collections. His musical tact, his 
intimate knowledge of the exigences of vocalism, combining 
with his poetic faculty, have added, in those hymns of his, to 
devout aspiration and pure religious sentiment the perfection 
of melody. 

I name as examples in this kind the hymn : — 



And this : — 



" We meditate the day 

Of triumph and of rest." 

We bless thy Church high over all 
The heathen's rage and scoff." 



And where, among all the hymns in our language, is there 
any thing finer in its way than parts of the hymn : — 

" God ! whose presence glows in all " ? 

this stanza, for instance : — 

" Send down its angel to our side, 
Send in its calm upon the breast ; 
For we would know no other guide, 
And we can need no other rest." 

Thanks are due to the man, had he done nothing else, lor 
these beautiful specimens of sacred poetry, these choice con- 
tributions to the uses of worship. And for these, while 
hymns are sung in our churches, the congregations will bless 
his name. 

As a scholar, he had in his profession no superior, — scarcely 
a rival. A learned theologian, familiar with the Latin and 
Greek classics, well versed in the modern languages and their 
literatures, — in richness and extent of intellectual culture he 
stood pre-eminent among his brethren. In their assemblings 
and discussions, his word was waited for as sure to be the 
most significant and luminous utterance of the hour. 

An exquisite finish, a polished elegance of thought and 
phrase, distinguished his performances, even the most trifling, 



380 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept 

and made them a study of good taste and good speech. In 
familiar discourse, when most at his ease, the unstudied and 
innate grace of his mind gave a peculiar and emphatic zest to 
his conversation. Nothing awkward ever fell from his lips. 
His words expressed with unerring fitness the thing most fit 
to be expressed. 

The name of poet is not to be lightly and indiscriminately 
applied to makers of verses ; but I venture to call Dr. Froth- 
ingham a poet in the strictest sense of the term. Not because 
he wrote and published verses, but because he possessed the 
lyrical mind ; or, more properly, the lyrical mind possessed 
him. His impressions of things and occasions found in verse 
their fittest and most natural utterance. The spontaneous 
gush of his soul was song. His best thoughts took on a poeti- 
cal form, and could vent themselves in no other way. His 
exceeding modesty induced him to designate his two volumes 
of printed poems by the title " Metrical Pieces ; " but if 
I know any thing of poetry, those volumes contain many 
genuinely poetic utterances, and such as the best-esteemed 
poet in the land might be proud to own. His versions from 
other tongues, and especially from the rich stores of German 
song, are acknowledged by competent judges to be the most 
successful attempts in that kind. A great poet has said that 
the truest lyrical poetry is occasional poetry. A large portion 
of Dr. Frothingham's original pieces are of that description, — 
poems elicited by provocations of place and time and event. 
I may mention, as examples of this sort, the National Ode on 
the 203d Celebration of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery 
Company, " The Crossed Swords " ; and that almost faultless 
poem, " The Burial of John Eliot Thayer * : — 

" No vulgar wealth, with amplest show, 
Such funeral wreaths could twine. 
It was not that he made it grow, 
But that he hade it shine, — 



1870.] MEMOIR OF NATHANIEL L. FROTHIXGHAM. D.D. 381 

" Shine with such uses as have made 
A glory where we lire ; 
Shine with such charities as aid 
Those who receive and give. 5 ' 

I have spoken briefly, as befits the hour, of our friend's 
intellectual endowments and literary service ; but what of the 
man ? We love to remember, and shall long remember, 
the charm of his discourse, his wide culture, the sparkle of 
his wit, the flowers of rhetoric and song with which he 
adorned his path and gladdened ours ; but, met in the 
solemn presence of death, we are reminded that the glories 
of intellect and literary achievement 

" Are shadows, not substantial things " ; 

that the only and enduring thing in man is the moral type in 
which his innermost being is expressed. What of the man ? 

If I call upon you who knew him best — the companions 
of his prime and the friends of his declining years — to render 
your verdict in this case, I know you will gladly bear witness 
with me that this was a man beloved of many, and most 
worthy to be loved, for his own sake, and the beautiful and 
endearing qualities which nearer acquaintance revealed in 
him. But love, it is said, is partial ; it has no authorized 
voice in the court which tries character, either as witness or 
as judge. Love partial ? I think not. Love can be critical ; 
it is naturally so from its very concern for the good of its 
object. We see very clearly the faults of those we love, and 
we love them none the less on account of those faults. But 
then there are faults, and those of the worst kind, which 
preclude love ; which alienate friendship, repel affection. 
Inordinate selfishness, vanity, falsity, malignity, arrogance, 
baseness of every sort, — these are qualities which no man 
can love. These are qualities no friendship can abide, which 
none can possess and continue to be loved. The fact, then, 
that he of whom I speak was so endeared to a large circle of 



382 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

attached friends, independently of all ties of kindred and 
blood, — friends whose friendship strengthened with acquaint- 
ance ; who cleaved to him when all charm had vanished from 
his converse and all brilliancy had gone out of his life, — is a 
proof of the absence in him of all such qualities as I have 
named. But to speak positively of that which I found in him, 
I have to say that our friend, as I judged him, was truthful 
and sincere; gentle, generous, and kindly affectioned; humane, 
free from all arrogance or self-conceit ; that his was the 
charity that " envieth not," that " vaunteth not itself," that 
" is not puffed up," that " thinketh no evil." 

What especially impressed me in my long and close obser- 
vation of the man, and what I consider to be a decisive test of 
character, was his prompt and generous recognition of talent, 
faculty, or merit in others ; particularly in those of his own 
profession, competitors with him in a common career ; the 
absence of any thing approaching to jealousy or bitterness, 
when the prize of popularity, denied to him, was freely bestowed 
on his inferiors. His eye was quick to discern, and his heart 
was prompt to appreciate, and his tongue to acknowledge, what 
was excellent in every performance, or the promise of excel- 
lence yet to come. He welcomed the rising talent of his 
juniors in office ; he was even willing to believe in it where 
there was none. I am indebted to him for the best encour- 
agement I received in my youth. Meanwhile, he never 
quarrelled with the want of appreciation of his own deserts ; 
I think he underrated those deserts in his judgment of him- 
self. He whom I was ready to place first was quite content 
to take the lower room. 

Yery little there was in him of wrath or ill-will, and that 
little very transient. At a time when the lines of ecclesiastical 
separation and sectarian exclusion were more distinctly and 
unrelentingly drawn than now, he could put himself in friendly 
relations with the ministers of other connections than his own. 
And if, in times of bitter controversy within the lines of his 



1870.1 MEMOIR OF NATHANIEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 



183 



own denomination, he sometimes misjudged and burned with 
indignation against those whom he believed to be enemies of 
truth and religion, — enemies dangerous to social order, — in 
cooler moments he regretted with sorrow unfeigned every 
harsh and hasty word or act, and the severing of old bonds, 
and alienation and strife ; and desired, as he assured me, to 
forget all differences, to recover past fellowship, and to be at 
peace with all the world. 

The crowning grace of his life was the brave and invincible 
patience with which he bore the multiplied infirmities of his 
declining years. 

There befell him in those years the affliction which is justly 
reckoned among the greatest of physical calamities, — the 
loss of sight. Loss of sight to a scholar with a well-stored 
library, the habit of whose life has been to rove among his 
books, and to turn at any moment to the passage needed for 
solace or refreshment ; for the verification of a fact, for the 
resolution of a doubt ; or help in the perplexity of thought, 
where the right word at the right moment may roll the burden 
of hours from the mind ! Loss of sight to a widowed man, 
bereft of the one companion who best could lend her guiding 
hand to his dark steps, and best supply the lack of eyes at all 
times and in every place ! Loss of sight to a sensitive man, 
accustomed to self-help, and nobly impatient of foreign aid ! 
Loss of sight to a lover of nature, to whom the green of earth 
and the blue sky, and sunset and sunrise and the stars, are 
the heart's daily bread ! Friends, have you ever figured to 
yourselves what that means, — to be a prisoner with open 
doors ; a captive to your own impotence, walled in by per- 
petual darkness : to know no difference between day and 
night ; to catch no eye responsive to your own, the light of 
no smile in the face of your beloved ; to miss for ever the 
glories of earth and sky, the familiar aspects of every-day life, 
and all the dear consuetudes of vision ? 



384 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

" Oh ! dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon, 
Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse 
Without all hope of day ! 



To live a life half dead, a living death." 

All this our friend was called to bear, and bore with a 
fortitude that never flinched, and a resignation that never 
murmured. 

I visited him a short time before the waning light in his 
eyes had gone out in total blindness. He told me that he had 
just signed his name, as he supposed, for the last time. I 
spoke of the interior resources at his command, of the rich 
treasures of knowledge which he would take with him into the 
impending night, and which no night could take from him. 
His reply was : "I am afraid I am a poor creature ; but 
I hope I shall not misbehave." The friends who came to him 
in his darkness will bear witness how well the resolution that 
lay in this modest hope was kept. How keenly he felt the 
great privation, and also what solace and trust attended it, is 
shown in some of his later poems. The " Bartimaeus " — the 
finest, I think, of all his compositions — derives an exquisite 
pathos from the author's personal experience : — 

" Yes, happy, — cleave we to the hope, 
Though feet must swerve and hands must grope ; 
All action played behind a screen, 
The world no space and life no scene ; 
Though nature, art, street, fields, and books, 
And better, best, all friendly looks, 
Have faded into nought ; the gaze 
That spans a world and threads a maze, 
And, when the round of day is done, 
Outshoots the arrows of the sun, 
Changed for the thin, short line that slips 
Beneath the moving finger-tips. 



Nor all concealed from human thought 
How this celestial work is wrought 
They who see not have eyes that lend 
Their aid to guide and to defend. 



1870.] • MEMOIR OF NATHANTEL L. FROTHINGHAM, D.D. 385 

Aye, numberless. They sit immured 

In kindly offices ; secured 

By their strong helplessness. Who stem 

The boldest crowds make way for them. 

Mark, on the pavement, how the click 

Of their half-seeing, slender stick 

Is potent as a sultan's word 

Or marshal's staff or conqueror's sword. 

Close tended by the good and kind, 

They form the temper that they find. 

Does not that disposition bless, 

And good-will grow to happiness ? 

The new beatitude will prove 
The wonder of the Father-love, 
That bids such compensation wait 
On a calamity so great. 

With narrowing range of earth's ado, 
The field of strife is narrowed too ; 
The tents are struck, the flags are furled, 
That make a camp of half the world ; 
As feuds and provocations close, 
The unchallenged spirit tastes repose." 



Some years of that " repose " were vouchsafed to him when 
the blindness was complete ; some peaceful years of inward 
light in the body's darkness ; some fruitful years of prolonged 
intellectual youth in his " age's lateness." A mind so cultured 
and productive could not rest or fall asleep while enough of 
bodily strength remained to nourish mental action. The spirit 
was willing ; the flesh was constrained to execute its will. 
He continued to compose by dictation when the eye could no 
longer guide the pen ; fortunate in finding a well-cultured and 
competent amanuensis, who was literary coadjutrix, friend, 
and nurse, in one. Some of his best versions from the Ger- 
man were, if I mistake not, accomplished during this period. 
The friends who visited him found him uniformly cheerful, 
of good courage, with mind still girt and bow still bent, 
responsive to the best with his own best, enjoying conver- 
sation and bearing his part in it with scarcely perceptible 
abatement of the ancient fire. 

49 



386 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Sept. 

This until somewhat more than a year ago, when his 
strength at last gave way ; and, in the utter prostration of 
his frame, the mind refused to bring forth, the light flickered 
in its socket, and " all the daughters of music were brought 
low." From that time onward, bedridden, suffering at times 
extreme pain, he sunk from weakness to weakness, and from 
night to night, until the great night came whose morning is 
not of this world, and the sleep whose waking is no more ; 
as in these last years, into new darkness, but — so we trust 
— into new and unending day. 

And now, in bidding " Farewell ! " to what was mortal in 
our friend, I feel how imperfectly I have voiced our impression 
of the man. My consolation is that he speaks for himself more 
forcibly than I could speak, had time been allowed to speak as 
I would : speaks by his printed word ; speaks by his image 
in the mind. He is henceforth set as a star in our heaven 
of blessed memories ; a member of that trinal constellation, 
of which Everett and Prescott are the brother-lights. The 
orator, the historian, the poet, — beautiful in their combined 
effulgence, — each vivid with his peculiar ray ! 

For the earthly, now vanished from our embrace, we have 
no lament to make and no tears to shed. We will not pretend 
to mourn the going of one from whom what was best had 
already gone. Rejoice with me in his blessed release from 
darkness and bondage and pain ! In his own fit words, 
spoken at the funeral service in memory of Lafayette : " We 
come not to mourn that he died, but to thank God that he 
has lived." 

Mr. Deane communicated from our Corresponding Member, 
tke Hon. H. B. Grigsby, of Virginia, a photographic copy, 
four and a half inches in diameter, of the seal of Virginia 
during one period of its colonial history. One side represents 
the person of the king standing, with the sceptre in his right 
hand, receiving with his left hand, from a kneeling Indian, 



1870.] SEAL OF THE COLONY OF VIRGINIA. 387 

some leaves of tobacco. Beneath is, " en • dat • Virginia • 
quartam • " ; and encircling the two figures, is the following : 

" SIGILLUM * PROVINCE * NOSTRA ■ VIRGINIAS ■ IN ' AMERICA * " On 

the other side is represented the arms of England with the 
usual mottoes, encircled with the following : " georgius hi • 

D * G ' MAG • BRI * IR " ET " HIB ■ REX * D * G * MAG ■ F * D " BRUN * ET * 

lun • dux • s • r • i • ar • thes ■ et • el ■ " Concerning this seal 
Mr. Grigsby writes : — 

" Of course there was a change in the name of the sovereign 
given on the seal with every new sovereign. Remember, it is 
not the seal of the colony as such, but that of the king, who 
applies it by the hand of his viceroy, the governor. The 
colony proper, though it had a coat of arms, which the House 
of Burgesses always impressed upon the journals of its pro- 
ceedings, as appears from copies now before me, never en- 
graved the arms in the form of a seal, as the body never 
required a seal, — the office of a seal being executive and not 
legislative. This distinction is worth attending to ; for it is 
plain that none other than the immediate representative of the 
king would be authorized to use his seal." 



388 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 



OCTOBER MEETING. 

A stated meeting was held on Thursday, 13th October, at 
eleven o'clock, a.m. ; the President in the chair. 

The Recording Secretary read the record of the preceding 
meeting. 

The Librarian read his list of donors to the Library for the 
past month. 

The President presented, in the name of our associate, Mr. 
W. S. Appleton, a copy of a recently printed volume, entitled 
" Ancestry of Priscilla Baker," <fcc, compiled by the donor. 

A portrait of the late Bishop Griswold, in cabinet size, was 
presented by another member, Mr. W. H. Whitmore. 

Through our associate, Professor Wyman, recently returned 
from Europe, Mr. A. W. Franks, F.A.S., presented a number 
of pamphlets issued by the Society of Antiquaries of London, 
for which thanks were returned. 

The President referred to the presence of Professor Wash- 
burn, who had lately returned from abroad, and who, during 
his absence, had been elected a Yice-President of the Society ; 
and expressed the hope that the members might hear from 
him some account of his visit. 

Professor Washburn responded, thanking the Society for 
the honor done him, giving also briefly the result of some of 
his observations in Europe. In speaking of his visit to Cam- 
bridge, England, he gave the following description of a carica- 
ture which he saw there at the Bull Inn : — 

At the Bull Inn, Cambridge, England, in the entering hall, hangs, 
among many others, a picture about eight by fifteen inches. It repre- 
sents three persons. One of these stands partly kneeling under a 
gallows with a rope around his neck. His head is shaved, and he is 
covered all over with feathers. The man on his left wears a red coat, 
striped breeches, shoes with buckles, and a broad-brimmed hat turned 
up on one side, with a blue rosette. He holds the rope which is 



1870.] ANECDOTE OF GOVERNOR BROOKS. 389 

around the middle man's neck in one hand, and a club in the other. 
The man at the left of the picture has on a blue coat, striped breeches, 
shoes and buckles, a broad-brimmed hat turned up all around, and 
" 45 " inscribed upon it in two places in chalk. He holds what looks 
like a tea-kettle in his hand, from which he is pouring some liquid upon 
the feathered man. This middle man has a very cross and downcast 
look, while the other two seem to be enjoying the thing and laughing 
heartily. Under the picture is printed, — 

" A new method of Macaroni/ Making, as practised at Boston. 

" For the custom house officers landing the tea, 
They tarred him and feathered him just as you see, 
And they drenched him so well both behind and before 
That he begged for God's sake they would drench him no more. 

" Printed for Carrington Bowling at his map and print warehouse, No. 60, in 
St. Paul's Church Yard, London, published as the act directs, Oct. 12, 1771." 

Mr. John C. Gray related the following anecdote of the 
late Governor Brooks : — 

In the year 1815 I travelled to Niagara in company with Governor 
Brooks, then General Brooks, of Medford. He met one day with an 
old friend and brother officer of the Revolution, and related in my 
presence the following anecdote, to which, as may be supposed, I 
listened with the greatest attention and interest. 

Immediately after one of the battles of our Revolution (I think 
" White Plains "), Washington was informed that the Massachusetts 
regiment of which Brooks was major had fled from its post ; whereas it 
had sustained itself most gallantly in the thickest of the fight, and was 
one of the last to retreat. Washington mentioned on parade what he 
had heard, and added that nothing could have grieved him more than 
that a regiment on which he had relied of all others should have acted 
so unworthily. Brooks immediately asked who could have given such 

information. Some one quoted General as the author. " Sir/' 

said Brooks, " if General or any one else told your Excel- 
lency any thing of the kind, he is a " (adding a very strong epithet) 
" liar." Some comment being made, Washington said, " No matter ; I 
am not displeased to see a young officer sensitive on such an occasion." 
After a pause, Washington added, " Let the regiment march to the ex- 
treme left." " Your Excellency," said Brooks, " can march us nowhere 
where we shall not go willingly, except it be out of danger." 

The regiment took its position accordingly. In a short time the 



390 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

officers were informed that the commande -in-chief was approaching. 
Brooks rose and made his salute, with great stiffness, but in proper 
form. Washington then said that he was most happy to learn that 
he had been wholly misinformed, and that the regiment had behaved 
with its well-known gallantry. He added that it should take its 
former position, and that he trusted that the explanation would be 
entirely satisfactory. To this the colonel at once assented. Wash- 
ington then said, " Is this satisfactory to you, Major Brooks ? " — " Not 
at all, sir." — " Why not ? " — " Your Excellency may recollect that the 
charge was made in the most public manner. It would seem proper 
that the explanation should be equally public." After a moment's 
reflection, Washington said, " Will it be satisfactory in general orders?" 
" Entirely so," said Brooks. General orders were issued accordingly, 
and the whole matter settled in the most satisfactory way. 

I afterwards heard General Brooks refer to some of the most impor- 
tant incidents on another occasion; on which, however, he avoided 
mentioning his own name and that of his regiment, and mentioned the 
matter merely as an affair between Washington and an officer of the 
army. 

Mr. Ellis Ames remarked that, at a former meeting of 
this Society, in some discussion in which several members 
took part, it was incidentally questioned whether Copley, the 
portrait painter, and father of Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst, 
was engaged at all when in Boston in painting miniatures, 
and said that the late Joseph W. Eevere, a son of Colonel Paul 
Revere, informed him that this was the fact ; for that his 
father, then a goldsmith, made cases for Copley for his minia- 
tures. Mr. Ames then produced the day-book of Colonel Paul 
Revere from and including January 3, 1761, down to the com- 
mencement of the Revolutionary war, containing numerous 
entries of charges against and credits to Mr. Copley, begin 
ning January 7, 1763, the last entry but one being on Sept. 
17, 1767. Thus, under date of Feb. 7, 1763, is the follow 

ing: — 

Mr. John Copley, Dr. 

£ s.d. 

To a gold case for a picture for Mr Nel — n . 3. 0.0 
To one Ditto — weight 5 pennyweights. . . 2.14.8 



1870.] EXTRACTS FROM COL. PAUL REVERE'S DAY-BOOK. 391 

Under the date of Oct. 20, 1763 : — 

Mr. John Copley, Dr. 

& s.d. 
To glass for a picture and setting it . . . . 0. 5.4 

Under date of Feb. 18, 1765 : — 

Mr. John Copley, 

To a silver picture frame Mrs St gs . . 1. 0.0 

To a gold Ditto Gr f. . . 3.0.0 

4 

So under date of Feb. 20, 1765 : — 

Mr. John S. Copley, Dr. 
To a gold setting for a picture — weight, 4 

pennyweights 18 grains 1. 5.4 

to the making 1. 8.0 

to the glass 2.8 

Under date of 26 Feb. 1765 : — 

Mr. John Copley, 

pwt gt 

To a gold case for a picture W« 4. 8 Mrs 

E gs 1. 3.6 

To the making 1£ 8 — Glass $" 1.10.8 

ok pwt gr 

To one Ditto W.\ 0. 3. 18 1. 0.3 



To making £1. 8 & Glass f 1.10.8 

pwt 

To one Ditto Wl 0. 4. 16 1. 5.8 

To the making £1. 8 Glass § 1.10.8 

To one silver ditto 1. 0.0 

To one Ditto 1. 0.0 

To 8 glasses 1. 1.4 

Under date of Nov. 8, 1765 : — 

Mr. John S. Copley, 

To a gold picture frame 1. 8.0 

To the making 1. 8.0 

To the glass 0. 2.8 



392 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Oct. 



Mr. Deane exhibited a printed broadside containing the 
names of the " Protesters " against the Solemn League and 
Covenant ; and those of the " Addressers " to Governor Hutch- 
inson before leaving the country in 1774. The paper belonged 
to Mr. John K. Wiggin, of Boston, through whose kindness it 
was allowed to be exhibited to the meeting, and to be printed 
in the " Proceedings " : — 

Whereas a great Number of People have express'd a Desire that the Names of the 
Addressers to the late Gov. Hutchinson, and Protesters against the solemn League 
and Covenant might be made Publick, the following is a true List of the same, Viz. 

Those who Asteriz'd are not Natives of America. 



Names. 


Places op Business, &c. Occupations. 


Joseph Green 


South School Street 


Merchant. 


John Winslow 


South End 


Iron Dealer. 


Isaac Winslow, jun. 


King Street 


Distiller. 


Thomas Oliver 


Cambridge 


Farmer. 


Henry Lloyde 


Long Wharff 


Merchant, & Contractor for the 


Benjamin Davis 


Town Dock 


Huckster. (Troops. 


Isaac Winslow 


Roxbury 


Farmer. 


Lewis Deblois 


Dock Square 


Shopkeeper. 


*Thomas Aylwin 




Factor. 


William Bowes 


Dock Square 


Brazier. 


Gregory Townsend 




Crown Officer. 


Francis Green 


King Street 


Merchant. 


Philip Dumaresque 




Factor. 


Harrison Gray 




Treasurer. ! — ! 


Peter Johonnot 




Distiller. 


George Erving 


King Street 


Merchant. 


John Vassal 


Cambridge 


Farmer. 


Nathaniel Coffin 




Deputy Cashier to the Board of Corn- 


*John Timmins 


Market Square 


Merchant, (missioners. 


William Taylor 


King Street 


Dealer in small Wares. 


Thomas Brinley 




Distiller. 


Harrison Gray, jun. 




A Clerk in the Treasurers Office. 


John Taylor 


Cornhill 


Shopkeeper. 


Gilbert Deblois 


ditto 


Ditto. 


Joshua Winslow 


King Street 


Merchant. 


Daniel Hubbard 


Green's Wharf 


ditto. 


*Hugh Tarbet 




Rope-maker. 


Henry Leddle 




Uncertain. 


Nathaniel Cary 


Town Dock 


Merchant. 


George Brinley 




Ditto. 


Richard Lechmere 




Distiller. 


John Erving, jun. 


Kilby Street 


Merchant. 


Thomas Gray 


ditto 


Ditto, and Agent for the Transports. 


George Bethune 


King Street 


Ditto. 


Thomas Apthorp 




Crown Officer. 



1870.] A LIST OF " PROTESTERS" AND "ADDRESSERS, 



393 



Ezekiel Goldthwait 
Benjamin Gridley 
*John Atkinson 
Ebenezer Bridgham 
John Gore 
Adino Paddock 
Daniel Silsby 
"William Cazneau 

* James Forrest 
*Edward Cox 
*John Berry 
*Richard Hiron 
Ziphion Thayer 
John Joy 
Joseph Goldthwait 
Samuel Prince 
Jonathan Simpson 
*James Boutineau 
Nathaniel Hatch 
Martin Gay 
Joseph Scott 
Samuel Minot 
Benjamin M. Holmes 
*Archibal McNeil 
George Leonard 
John Borland 
Joshua Loring, jun. 
William Jackson 

* James Anderson 
*David Mitchelson 
Abraham Savage 
*James Asby 
*John Inman 
John Coffin 
*Thomas Knight 
Benjamin Greene, jun. 
David Greene 
Benjamin Greene 
Henry H. Williams 
*James Warden 
Nathaniel Coffin, jun. 
Silvester Gardner 
John S. Copley 
Edward Foster 
Colbourn Barrell 
Nathaniel Greenwood 

* William Burton 
*W T illiam Blair 
*James Selkrig 
♦Archibald Willson 
Jeremiah Green 
Samuel H. Sparhawk 



King Street 
ditto 

Queen Street 
Long Acre 
Market Square 
Dock Square 
King Street 
ditto 
ditto 

Cornhill 
School Street 

King Street 
Dock Square 

Dorchester 
Union Street 
ditto 

Fore Street 
Back Street 
Marlborough Street 

Cambridge 
Dorchester 
Corn hill 
Merchants Row 



King Street 
Green's Wharf 
South End 
Cornhill 
Green's "Wharf 
ditto 
ditto 

Noddles Island 
Green's Wharf 
Kilby Street 
Marlborough Street 

Bridges Lane 



Town Dock 
Treat's Wharf 
Town Dock 
ditto 

Purchase Street 
Kittery 

60 



and Clerk of the 
(Inferior Court! ! 



of Crockery 
(Ware. 



County Register 

Pettifogger. 

Merchant. 

A Retailing Factor 

Painter. 

Chaise-Maker. 

Shopkeeper. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

A late Ship Surgeon. 

Upholsterer. 

Carpenter. 

Crown-Officer. 

Merchant. 

Ditto. 

Formerly a Merchant. 

One of the Clerks of the Superior 

Copper Smith. (Cov-t. 

Brazier. 

Goldsmith. 

Distiller. 

Baker to the Army. 

Miller. 

Gentlemen. 

Unknown. 

Shopkeeper. 

Factor. 

Lapidary. 

Collector of Taxes ! ! ! 

Watch Cleaner. 

Clerk to John Rowe,Esq; ! ! 

Distiller. 

Toy-seller. 

Merchant. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Farmer. 

Merchant. 

Factor and Son to 

Apothecary. 

Portrait Painter. 

Blacksmith. 

Merchant and Sandemanian Preach- 

Mast Maker. (er. 

Merchant. 

Unknown. 

Factor. 

ditto. 

Tallow Chandler. 

NOTHING. 



the Deputy 
(Cashier. 



394 



MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 



[Oct. 



Joseph Turell 
*Roberts and Lee 
*John Greenlaw 
Benjamin Clarke 
*William McAlpine 
Jonathan Snelling 

* James Hall 
*William Dickson 
John Winslow, jun. 
Theophilus Lillie 
Miles Whitworth 
*James McEwen 
William Codner 
James Perkins 
John White 
Robert Jarvis 

* William Perry 

* James & Patrick McMasters King Street 



Cornhill 
South End 
Cornhill 

Marlborough Street 
Treat's Wharf 

Town Dock 
Long Wharf 
North End 
Wing's Lane 



Merchants Row 
Boston 
Fort Hill 



William Coffin 
Simeon Stoddard, jun. 
John Powell 
*Henry Laughton 
Eliphalet Pond 
M. B. Goldthwait 
Peter Hughes 
*John Semple 
Hopestill Capen 
Edward King 
Byfield Lyde 
George Lyde 
A. F. Phillips 
Rufus Green 
David Phips 
*Richard Smith 
George Spooner 
Samuel Hughes 



South End. 

King Street 
Cornhill 
Dedham 
Middle Street 
King Street 
Cornhill 
Union Street 
Fort Hill 

Casco Bay 

South End 
Cambridge 
King Street 
Treat's Wharf 
King Street 



Clerk of the Inferior Court, a relation 
Jewellers. (to Hutchinson. 

A Seotch Shopkeeper. 
Brazier. 
Book-Binder. 
Factor. 

Mariner who brought the first Cargo 
Factor. (of Tea 

Merchant. 
Shopkeeper. 
Surgeon. 

Mariner in George Bethune's Em- 
Clerk to William Bowes. (ploy. 
Merchant. 

Mariner, keeps Shop in Union 
Mariner and Wine-seller. (Street 
Unknown. 
Shopkeepers. 

Distiller, and Father to the Deputy 
NOTHING. (Cashier. 

Merchant. 
Shopkeeper. 
Farmer. 

Apothecary of little NOTE. 
Merchant. 
Scotch Shopkeeper. 
Carpenter, lately a Shopkeeper. 
Wharfinger. 
POWDER MONKEY. 
Custom-House Officer. 
NOTHING. 
Shopkeeper. 
Sheriff. 
Merchant, 
ditto. 
Clerk to Peter Hughes 



N. B. As the Occupation and Places of Business of some of the Persons in the above curious 
List are utterly unknown to the Editor, it is desired that, any Person or Persons who can give 
Intelligence thereof, would send it to the British Coffe-House, inclosed in a Letter directed to the 
true American, and due Notice will be shown to them in the next Edition 

Merchants 27 

Traders 36 

Others _60 

Total 123 

Protesters. 

Harrison Gray Francis Green Benjamin Gridley 

Joseph Green Nathaniel Coffin Benjamin Clarke 

George Erving Ezekiel Goldthwait William Taylor 

John Vassel Silvester Gardner Gilbert Deblois 

John Timmins Byfield Lyde John Taylor 



1870.] 



COMMUNICATION BY JUDGE METCALF. 



395 



Benjamin Davis 
Benjamin Greene 
Stephen Greenleaf 
Isaac Winslow 
Bichard Lechmere 
Joshua Winslow 
Daniel Hubbard 
John Erving, jun. 
James Perkins 
Isaac Winslow, jun. 
Richard Smith 
John Atkinson 
Nathaniel Cary 
Samuel H. Sparhawk 
Edward Foster 
Edward Cox 
Thomas Aylwin 
Ebenezer Bridgham 
John J arris 
George Spooner 
William Blair 
Harrison Gray, jun. 
James Anderson 
Phillip Demaresque 
John Cotton 
George Brindley 
Thomas Brindley 
John Coffin 
Colborn Barrel] 
James Forest 
William Apthorp 
John Gore 
Adino Paddock 
John Joy 
Joseph Scott 
A. F. Phillips 
Samuel Rogers 
Joseph Green 



Jonathan Simpson 
George Bethune 
Refus Green 
William Coffin 
Jeremiah Green 
James Boutineau 
Thomas Gray 
Henry Lloyd 
Samuel Fitch 
William Coffin, 3d. 
Joseph Taylor 
Archibald McNeil 
Robert Jarvis 
James Hall 
John Berry 
Hugh Tarbet 
Abraham Ellison 
Patrick McMaster 
Joseph Wilson 
Frederick Roberts 
John Agling 
Benja. M. Holmes 
Henry Leddel 
Jonathan Snelling 
Theophelus Lillie 
John Semple 
William Dickson 
Henry Laughton 
John Greenlaw 
John Winslow, jun. 
Edward Stow 
John White 
Nathaniel Hurd 
William Cazneau 
Martin Gay 
John Haskins 
William Jackson 
William M' Alpine 

Sold in Queen-Street. 



Benj. Green, jun 
Thomas Knight 
William Bowes 
Peter Johonet 
George Leonard 
Thomas Apthorp 
James Selkrig 
David Green 
Lewis Deblois 
James Asby 
John Inman 
Richard Sherwin 
Andrew Barclay 
William Knutten 
William Perry 
David Mitchelson 
Richard Hirons 
Nath. Coffin, jun. 
Samuel Minot 
Archibald Wilson 
Hawes Hatch 
William Codner 
Edward King 
William Burton 
Hopestil Capen 
Greg. Townsend 
Ziphion Thayer 
Henry Lee 
Peter Hughes 
Samuel Hughes 
Benjamin Phillips 
Nath. Greenwood 
John Burroughs, jun. 
George Lush 
William Hunter 
Samuel Greenwood 
William Hutchins 



Judge Metcalf made the following communication : — 

In the Journal of the House of Representatives of the Province 
of Massachusetts are the following entries: "April 9th, 1731. 
Whereas there are several expressions contained in a sermon (now 
in print) said to be preached at Southborough, the 21st of October 
last, by the Reverend Mr. John Greenwood, pastor of the Church at 
Rehoboth. at the ordination of the Reverend Nathan Stone, pastor of 
the Church in said Southborough, which the House apprehend may 



396 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

have a tendency to subvert the good order of the churches and towns 
within the Province, — Voted, that Mr. Cooke, Mr. Welles, Mr. Lynde, 
Captain Goddard, and Mr. Lewis, with such as the Honorable Board 
shall appoint, be a Committee to consider what may be proper for this 
Court to do thereon, and make report as soon as may be." 

"April 14th, 1731. Ordered that Mr. Wolcot go up with a mes- 
sage to the Honorable Board, to inquire whether they have passed 
on the vote of the House on the 9th instant, referring to Mr. Green- 
wood's sermon, — who returned he had delivered the message and was 
informed by Mr. Secretary that the Board Non-concurred the said 
vote." 

The sermon of Mr. Greenwood is not in the library of this Society, 
nor in that of the Boston Athenaeum, but is in the City Library. On 
examination of that sermon, it will be found to contain strong " ex- 
pressions " of the authority of clergymen as " rulers " of the church, 
and the members (" the fraternity," as he calls them) as " subjects," 
who have no right to decide who shall be admitted to the church, or 
be excommunicated, or be affected by other discipline ; but that all is 
exclusively under the authority of the " ruler." This, probably, was 
what was deemed by the House of Representatives to have the " ten- 
dency " alleged by them, and to render it " proper to do " something 
" thereon." 

If mention of the aforesaid vote of the House of Representatives is 
made in any historical or other publication, it has escaped my sight. 

Though, by a colony ordinance, " No injunction shall be put upon 
any church, in point of doctrine, discipline, or worship," — yet the prac- 
tice was for the magistrates to interpose for the preservation of uni- 
formity and peace in the church. 

Mr. Deane made the following communication respecting an 
original manuscript of Governor Bradford, of Plymouth, in the 
Library of this Society : — 

Governor Bradford's Dialogue between Old Men and Young Men, 
concerning " The Church and the Government thereof." 

The author of this Dialogue was William Bradford, for 
many years governor of the colony of New-Plymouth, and 
author of the History of Plymouth Plantation, published for 
the first time, by the Massachusetts Historical Society, in 



1870,] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 397 

1856. The original manuscript, written in the beautiful hand 
of Governor Bradford, in a small volume, five inches by three 
in size, of about one hundred and fifty pages, is in the Library 
of the Historical Society. 

This, it will be seen, is styled the " third conference." 
The first Dialogue, or Conference, was held or written in 
1648, and relates chiefly to the views of the Separatists ; and 
gives a most interesting and valuable sketch of those who 
were early and prominently engaged in the religious move- 
ment which marked the rise of that sect, with many of whom 
Bradford was personally acquainted. A few leaves only of the 
original manuscript of the first conference are extant, and 
these are in the Library of the Historical Society. The whole, 
however, was copied by Secretary Morton into the records of 
the Plymouth Church, and was printed for the first time by 
Dr. Young, in his Chronicles of the Pilgrims, in 1841. In a 
note at the conclusion of the Dialogue, Dr. Young says, " Brad- 
ford continued this Dialogue in two other parts ; one of which 
I have had in my possession, written with his own hand. 
The title is as follows : ' A Dialogue or 3d Conference,' " 
&c, citing in full the title of the volume before us. As to 
the second conference, I have never seen it, nor any reference 
to it. 

This Third Conference, as will be seen by the title, relates 
to " The Church and the Government thereof." The date, 
" 1652," on the first leaf of the book, probably indicates the 
year in which it was written. Though this must be regarded 
as mainly an ecclesiastical discussion, it cannot be wholly 
devoid of interest and value in 'an historical point of view. 
Correct opinions on this subject were considered as of the first 
importance by our Pilgrim ancestors ; and a knowledge of 
what one, with the experience, position, and character of Gov- 
ernor Bradford, thought and felt concerning the religious sects 
of his own day, will not be regarded with indifference by 
any student of our early history. Bradford was sweet-tern- 



398 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

pered and heavenly-minded in his youth. Forming his 
religious opinions at an early age, the sincerity of his con- 
victions was soon put to the test. The singular purity of 
his character received its seal in the ordeal of persecution 
through which he passed. He well knew what it meant to 
be compelled to leave his native land and the associations 
there dear to him, that he might worship God according to 
the dictates of his conscience. A firm opponent of all religious 
hierarchies and spiritual domination, he belonged to that sect 
of Christians sometimes nicknamed " Brownists," which had 
wholly separated from the Church of England. Brought up 
under the teachings of the famous Robinson (who, though a 
rigid Separatist at first, so far modified his views as to admit 
that good men might be found in all the reformed commun- 
ions), Bradford became a man of large and generous views, 
singularly forgiving, and tolerant in his judgment of others. 
In treating of the Papists, his language may seem severe : he 
has no qualifying words ; but probably his estimate of that 
stupendous hierarchy would not differ materially from that of 
the great body of Protestants to-day throughout the world, — 
and he cites abundant authority for his historical statements. 

Congregationalism was the central thought which animated 
the minds of the Pilgrims, and around which clustered their 
hopes of securing a pure faith and worship. Firm in his convic- 
tions »f the validity of that form of church government, Brad- 
ford ably defends it throughout this little treatise, as agreeing 
alike with the Word of God, and with the examples of the first 
Christians. The Protestant doctrine of the Sufficiency of the 
Scriptures is laid down at the beginning of the Dialogue, as a 
starting point in the discussion. 

Under the head of " The Independent or Congregational 
way," in which body Bradford would include his own com- 
munion (though the name " Independent," he says, was put 
upon them by way of reproach), it is worthy of notice that, 



1870.] ■ GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 399 

for his proofs and illustrations, he draws largely from a work 
of John Cotton, published in 1648. This shows how fully at 
this time the religious opinions of the founders of the Massa- 
chusetts Colony, composed chiefly of Puritans within the 
Church of England who never would admit that they had left 
her communion, harmonized with those of the Separatists of 
Plymouth. 

Bradford seems not to have been unmindful of the influence 
of his own colony in moulding the ecclesiastical constitution of 
the neighboring settlement. The good Plymouth physician, 
Deacon Samuel Fuller, had more than once been called pro- 
fessionally to administer to the necessities of the Massachu- 
setts colonists in times of sickness ; and on such occasions 
the opportunities for conferences on higher themes were not 
lost. He was in Charlestown in the summer of 1630, soon 
after the arrival there of Winthrop and his company ; and in 
one of his letters to Governor Bradford from that place, dated 
June 28th, he says : " I have been at Mattapan, at the request 
of Mr. Warham, and let some twenty of those people blood ; I 
had conference with them till I was weary. Mr. Warham 
holds that the visible church may consist of a mixed people, — 
godly, and openly ungodly, — upon which point we had all our 
conference, to which I trust the Lord will give a blessing. 
Here is come over with these gentlemen one Mr. Phillips (a 
Suffolk man), who hath told me in private, that if they will 
have him stand minister by that calling which he received 
from the prelates in England, he will leave them. The gov- 
ernor is a godly, wise, and humble gentleman, and very dis- 
creet, and of a fine and good temper. We have some privy 
enemies in the Bay, but, blessed be God, more friends. The 
governor hath had conference with me, both in private and 
before sundry others. Opposers, there is not wanting, and 
Satan is busy ; but if the Lord be on our side, who can be 
against us ? The governor hath told me he hoped we will not 



400 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

be wanting in helping them, so I think you will be sent for. 
Here is a gentleman, one Mr. Cottington, a Boston man, who 
told me that Mr. Cotton's charge at Hampton was, that they 
should take advice of them at Plymouth, and should do noth- 
ing to offend them. Captain Endicott (my dear friend, and 
a friend to us all) is a second Barrow." * Endicott's sym- 
pathy in Fuller's views had been secured the preceding year 
at Salem.f This letter shows the anxiety which existed in the 
minds of the Plymouth people respecting the then pending 
question of the ecclesiastical constitution of the new colony. $ 
In another letter from Fuller to Bradford, dated at Charles- 
town, August 2d, the writer mentions the entering into church 
covenant there of some of the principal persons of the settle- 
ment, according to the Congregational method. After citing 
this last letter in his History, Bradford concludes : " Thus out 
of small beginnings greater things have been produced by His 
hand that made all things of nothing, and gives being to all 
things that are ; and as one small candle may light a thousand, 
so the light here § kindled hath shone to many ; yea, in some 
sort, to our whole nation. Let the glorious name of Jehovah 
have all the praise ! " || I 

The original manuscript of this Dialogue, as I have 
said, is in the Library of the Historical Society. From a 
memorandum on one of the leaves at the beginning of the 
volume, made in 1826, it appears to have been " found among 



* See I. Mass. Hist. Coll. iii. 74, 75. 

f See Bradford's History, pp. 264, 265. 

J See Palfrey's History of New England, i. 316, 317. 

§ Prince, i. 250, cites this passage from Bradford's MS. History, and says: " Gov. 
Bradford adding this immediately after the article [letter] of Aug. 2, it seems uncertain 
whether hy here he meant Plymouth or Boston Church; though I am apt to think the 
latter." The following manuscript note, hy Judge Davis, is written in the margin of his 
awn copy of Morton's Memorial (penes me) against this citation: "I doubt the correct- 
ness of Mr. Prince's conjecture in reference to the meaning of Gov. Bradford's language 
in this instance. For many reasons, which might be suggested, it would appear proba- 
ble, that by ' here,' Gov. B., always a stanch Plymothean, had reference to Plymouth." 

II Bradford's History, p. 279. 



1870.] 



governor Bradford's dialogue. 401 



some old papers taken from the remains of Rev. Mr. Prince's 
collection, belonging to the Old South Church in Boston, and 
by consent deposited in Library of Massachusetts Historical 
Society." It was not in the list of books and manuscripts 
deposited by the pastors and deacons of the Old South Church 
in 1814, — subsequently reclaimed, — and may have been 
placed in the Library at the date of the memorandum above 
cited. 

A few years ago, the manuscript was copied with a view 
of publishing it in a volume of the " Collections " ; but other 
matter was substituted for it. Subsequently, the Society, at 
my request, granted me the privilege of printing it " privately," 
at my own charge.* Other engagements delayed the printing 
of it, agreeably to this proposal ; and its publication in the 
" Proceedings " has now been advised as a substitute for my 
plan, and with my entire concurrence. 

Some leaves placed at the beginning and the end of this 
little volume furnish additional evidence of Bradford's interest 
in the Hebrew and Greek languages. It will be remembered 
that Cotton Mather says of him that, " Notwithstanding the 
difficulties through which he passed in his youth, he attained 
unto a notable skill in languages ; the Dutch tongue was 
become almost as vernacular to him as the English ; the 
French tongue he could manage ; the Latin and Greek he had 
mastered ; but the Hebrew he most of all studied, because, he 
said, he would see with his own eyes the ancient oracles of 
God in their native beauty." Between the same covers which 
include the precious original manuscript History of Plymouth 
Plantation are some eight pages of Hebrew roots with Eng- 
lish explanations, in Bradford's hand, to which he has prefixed 
the following : — 

* See "Proceedings," for January, 1863. 
51 



402 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

" Though I am growne aged, yet I have had a longing 
desire to see, with my owne eyes, somthing of that most 
ancient language, and holy tongue, in which the Law 
and Oracles of God were write ; and in which God 
and angels spake to the holy patriarks of old 
time; and what names were given to things 
from the creation. And though I canot 
attaine to much herein, yet I am refresh- 
ed to have seen some glipse hereof; 
(as Moyses saw the land of Ca- 
nan a farr of.) My aime and 
desire is, to see how the words 
and phrases lye in the 
holy texte ; and to 
discerne somewhat 
of the same, 
for my owne 
contente." 

Two pages at the beginning of this Dialogue contain both 
the Hebrew and the Greek alphabet, in Bradford's hand, 
expressed in the original characters, with the names also of 
each letter spelled out in the Roman character, with some 
additional illustration as to long and short vowels to aid in 
pronunciation. Eight pages at the end (and possibly some 
leaves may be wanting) contain passages from the Old Testa- 
ment, in Hebrew, with the English translation written under- 
neath, from the Genevan version. 

To the late Joseph Hunter, F.S.A., an Assistant-Keeper of 
the Public Records in London, New-England History is 
indebted for much new matter relating to Bradford and his 
associates, and the location of the Pilgrim church in England. 
Since the publication of his little tract on the " Founders 
of New-Plymouth," in 1849, the villages of Austerfield and 
Scrooby have been regarded as almost sacred shrines by New- 
England visitors to the fatherland. Dr. Palfrey refers, in his 
History of New England (I. 134, 135), to a visit which he 
made to these places in 1856. 



1870.]. GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 403 

Ten years later, under the auspices of letters from Lord 
Houghton, whose family domains include Austerfield, Bawtry, 
and Scrooby, in company with my friend, Mr. Samuel F. Haven, 
of Worcester, I passed a delightful day in examining these 
most interesting remains. We were fortunately the guests of 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Lowther, of Bawtry Hall, who take a 
deep interest in these Pilgrim memorials, and who afforded us 
every facility in the examination of them. They earnestly 
wish that a New-England school could be established at 
Austerfield, the birthplace of Bradford, as an appropriate 
tribute to the memory of the Plymouth Governor. What 
more fitting memorial could his descendants erect to his 
honor than a Grammar School, on the New-England model, 
in the village of his birth ? 

The visitor looks with interest on the little church or 
" chapellerie," with its curious old side doorway of early Nor- 
man date ; its oaken rail before the chancel, at which Bradford 
received the waters of baptism, two hundred and eighty years 
ago ; * and at the ancient " Register Booke," where we read, 
" William sone of Willm Bradfourth baptized the XIX th day of 
March Anno dm, 1589." 

Mr. Hunter has shown, from various documents, that the 
family of Bradford was, at this time, among the most respect- 
able in that part of the country. " One thing is clear," he 
says : " that the Brad fords of Austerfield, during the eigh- 
teen years that he who was afterwards the governor of 
New Plymouth was living with them, associated with the 
best of the very slender population by whom they were sur- 
rounded." f 

In the village of Scrooby, near by, a farm house of curious 
construction is pointed out as the probable residence of Brew- 
ster, and the place where were held the meetings of the Sepa- 
ratists of that neighborhood, including the youthful Bradford, 

* See Palfrey's History of New England, I. 134, note. 

t Collections concerning the Early History of the Founders of New Plymouth, p. 49. 



404 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

before their escape into Holland. It may have been originally 
connected with the manor-house, which has long since passed 
away. 

Descriptions of Austerfield and Scrooby, in connection with 
Pilgrim history, have been made within a few years, from per- 
sonal observation, by W. H. Bartlett, in " The Pilgrim Fathers, 
or, The Founders of New England," London, 1853 ; by Dr. 
Palfrey in his " History of New England," Boston, 1858 ; and 
by the Rev. John Raine, vicar of Blyth, in " The History and 
Antiquities of the Parish of Blyth," London, 1860. 

I have fancied that there were many points of resemblance 
between the character of Bradford, the leading man in the 
Plymouth colony, and that of his friend Winthrop, the leading 
man of the Massachusetts colony. Certainly there was much 
in common in their public career, and in the estimation in 
which they were held by their contemporaries. Perhaps 
Bradford's popularity in Plymouth was even more firmly 
grounded than that of Winthrop in Massachusetts. From 
1621 to 1657, the year of his death, he had but five years' 
release from the office of Chief Magistrate. That is to say, of 
the thirty-seven years of his residence in the colony, he was 
its governor thirty years. He had no desire for the office 
except so far as it afforded him an opportunity for serving the 
colony. Up to 1624 he had had but one Assistant. At the 
beginning of that year he records : — 

" The time of the new election of their officers for this year being 
come, and the number of their people increased, and their troubles and 
occasions therewith, the Governor desired them to change the persons, 
as well as renew the election ; and also to add more Assistants to the 
Governor for help and counsel, and the better carrying on of affairs. 
Showing that it was necessary it should be so. If it was any honour 
or benefit, it was fit others should be made partakers of it ; if it was a 
burden (as doubtless it was), it was but equal others should help to 
bear it ; and that this was the end * of annual elections. The issue 

* That is, the purpose or object. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 405 

was, that as before there was but one Assistant, they now chose five, 
giving the Governor a double voice; and afterwards they increased 
them to seven, which course hath continued to this day." 

Bradford, however, was not suffered to retire, but was con- 
tinued governor by annual election till 1633; when, as Win- 
throp says, " by importunity lie gat off," and Edward Winslow * 
was elected for that year, f 

Bradford was not only the historian of the colony, but his 
pen was constantly employed in conducting the correspondence, 
in keeping for many years the public records, and in other offi- 
cial duties. If the original manuscript of the compact signed 
on board the Mayflower on the 11th (21st N.s.) of Novem- 
ber should ever come to light, we should expect to find it 
in Bradford's hand. His penmanship is most beautiful, the 
letters carefully formed, and the writing as easily read as the 
printed page. Such is the little treatise from which we here 
print, and such throughout is the condition of the manuscript 
History of the colony, which I had the pleasure, through 
the kindness of the Bishop of London, of examining in the 
Fulham Library four years since. Bradford's chirography is 
in singular contrast to that of Governor Winthrop, whose 
manuscripts are as sealed books, to be deciphered only by the 
initiated. 

In preparing this Dialogue for the press, I have been careful 
to preserve the original spelling of the author ; but I have 
taken some liberty in the punctuation and in the use of capi- 
tals. 

* In regard to Edward Winslow, one of the most accomplished residents of the 
Old Colony, and perhaps of New England, in his day, it should be remembered that his 
commercial and diplomatic duties kept him in almost constant employment, and often 
away from home. He visited England a number of times as well on service for the 
Massachusetts Colony as for his own government; and from his visit of 1646 he never 
returned to the colony. He died in 1655 in the service of the Protector. Winthrop 
(II. 2S3) speaks "of his abilities of presence, speech, courage, and understanding." 

t About this time a law was enacted, reciting that whoever refused to execute the 
office of Governor after election, unless he had held the place the foregoing year, should 
be amerced in twenty pounds sterling fine; and whoever refused the office of Assistant 
should be fined ten pounds. 



406 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

I may add that my desire to consult all the books used and 
cited by Bradford as proofs and illustrations in writing this 
treatise has not been gratified. Some of these I could not 
find in any public or private library in this neighborhood. I 
have referred, in a note on pages 409, 410, to one of them 
which I consulted in the British Museum. I had hoped to 
find, by the inventory of his estate, that the larger part of the 
volumes had been in the possession of Bradford ; but having 
had a list of the books there returned, and having also con- 
sulted the inventory of Brewster's estate, I can say that but 
few of the books are described in either. In Bradford's list 
one item is rendered, " three and fifty small bookes," which 
might have included some of those I was seeking. 

Following this little " composure " on church government, 
as here furnished, are two pieces of composition in verse by 
the same author, one of which, " A Word to Plymouth," I 
believe has never been printed. The other, entitled " Some 
observations of God's merciful dealing with us in this Wil- 
derness," &c, is now given entire for the first time. These 
are preserved here, not on account of their poetical beauties, 
— for to Bradford the Muses were not propitious, — but for 
the historical intimations which they contain. A foot-note, on 
pages 465, 466, will give the necessary information respecting 
these " sundry useful verses " of the Plymouth governor. 



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FAC-SIMIEE OF THE FIRST PAGE OF BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 407 



A DIALOGUE 

Or *3* Conference betweene some Tonge-men borne in New-England, 
and some Ancient-men, which came out of Holand and Old Eng- 
land, concerning the Church, and the Gouermente therof 

YONGE-MEN. 

Gentle-men, we hope you will pardon our bouldnes, in that we 
haue importuned you to giue vs meeting once more in this kind, for 
our instruction & establishmente in the truth. 

We find that many and great are the controuersies which haue 
risen in these later times, about the Church, and the Gouermente 
thereof; and much trouble and disturbance hath growne in the world 
therby, and doth still remaine to this day. That we may know, ther- 
fore, how groundedly the better to setle our judgments and practtise 
in so weighty a mater, we humbly craue your best judgment and 
aduise. We conceiue this controuersie lyes chiefly amongest '4' sorts of 
men. The Papists, 

The Episcopacie, 

The Presbiterians, and 

The Independants, as they are caled. 
And we doe entreat you, therfore, to speake some thing to these in 
order, for our information; that we may the better discerne wher 
the truth lyes, that we may be confirmed in the same, and the more 
inabled to oppose the contrary. 

ANCIENT-MEN. 

We shall in the first place comend this necessarie consideration 
vnto you, (which we desire you may carrie all along with you in this 
whole controuersie) that the true church and the proper gouermente * 
of the same, is to be knowne by the scriptures, and to be measured 

* At the top of the page over this hue, in the original MS., Bradford had subse- 
quently written: "In sacrosancta scriptura existat fundamentum ecclesiae dei." — Ed. 



408 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

only by that rule, the primatiue paterne ; which church & the 
gouermente of the same is sufficiently described and layed down in 
the writings of the apostles and euangelists. For which, take the 
testimonie of that reuerend-man, M r Jeuell.* Christ and his apostles 
" (saith he) appointed the church in their time in such sorte as no 
" beter could be deuised ; let vs therfore (saith he) compare the church 
" of the later time, with the originall ; as we vse in trying of measures, 
" by the standard ; for if ther be any fait, the standerd will bewray it. 
2 r ? Remember that Christ is the only king and lawgiuer of the 
church ; which is his house and kingdom. Extra bibliam non est 
Veritas infallibilis. 

YONG-MEN. 

Are ther any to be found, that are so impudent to denye these 
things ? It is not meete that any should vsurpe vpon the Lord's royall 
dignitie and prerogatiue, and impose their owne word & law instead 
of his. 

ANCIENT MEN. 

They ought not indeede to be thus presumptuous (as you well say), 
but you will find it otherwise. 

For the Papists hold, and bouldly affirme, that the church is not 
known by the word of God ; but the word of God is knowne by the 
church. And vpon this ground it was that in the Councill of Basell 
the Cardinall Cusanus (the pops legate) maintained that the church 
is not knowne by the gospell, but the gospell by the church. 

YOUNG MEN. 

How doe they describ this church, & what power & authority doe 
they giue thereto ? 

ANCIENT-MEN. 

They calle it the Roman- Catholick- Church, and say it is the only 
true church, out of which ther is no saluation. And that it is an vni- 
versall, visible-church, ouer whom the pope is visible head and Christs 
vickar. And that this Romane church is mother and mistres of all 
churches ; and (by the Lord's ordinance) hath principality of orde- 
nary power aboue all others, as being the mother and mistres of all 
Christian belieuers. And (say they) as Peter was the prince of the 
apostls, and head (and rock) of the church, to whom the keyes of the 



* John Jewell, Bishop of Salisbury, born 1522, died 1571 ; a learned prelate and most 
voluminous writer. — Ed. 






1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE, 409 

kingdom of heauen were giuen, (the rest of the apostls being (say 
they) as it were but legats, and in subordination vnder him), so the 
pope is the head of this church, (as Peter's succesor) ; to whom 
power is giuen ouer all Christian princes, and all their people, as 
being Christs vicar ouer all peopell, and the vniuersall church of 
Christ. See Triple-Cord, Fol : 181- & -211- 

2 ly . They hold that this church cannot erre in those things which 
are necesary to saluation ; and he that shall not follow her authority 
in faith & maners is as if he had denyed God and is worse than an 
Infidele. N See Triple-Cord, fol : 62- 

S ly . This church (viz. the pope and his councell) must define what 
the word of God is, & what they haue defined & determined herein 
you shall see at large in the councell of Trent, wher they make the 
Apocriphall bookes authentike, and of equall athority with the can- 
nonicall Scriptures, of Moyses, the prophits and apostls. Also, vn- 
writen traditions they make equall with the word written ; for so 
saith the aforesaid author, fol : 153* The pope and councell of Trente 
(saith he) receiueth and reueren[c]eth with like pietie the word 
writen and vnwriten, viz. traditions. 

40* And yet this is not all, for they hold it belongeth to this church 
only to judg of the true sence & interpretation of the holy scriptures ; 
vpon which they hold and affirme that the pope hath power to inter- 
pret^ declare, and lay forth, the holy scriptures, after his owne will ; and 
to suffer no man to expound it otherwise. & by the church (saith the 
former author) we vnderstand the (pope) the supreme pastor thereof, 
with a councell of other bishops & doctors ; and whatsoeuer they 
decree and propose to the whole church to be beleeued, that we 
firmly beleue to be most true & infallible. Fol : 23* 

5 ] r They weaken the authority of the scripturs very much, as may 
appear by many bould (if not blasphemus) assertions, as, that the 
holy ghoste did not comand or intend that the apostles and euanglists 
should write all needfull point of faith ; and that none, or all of them, 
euer did performe the same. See the Triple-Cord, fol: 165* (We 
aledge this author so often ; not but that we might produse many 
other for the like things ; but that it is a late worke sett out by some 
Jesuits, & dedicated to the gentrie & nobility of Great Britaine.)* 



* The title-page of this hook is as follows : — 

" The Triple Cord, or a Treatise proving the Truth of the Roman Religion, By Sacred 
Scriptures, Taken in the Literal Sense, Expounded by Ancient Fathers, Interpreted by 
Protestant Writers. With A Discover}' of sundry suotle Slights vsed by Protestants, 

52 



410 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Another assertion of this author is, that it is most certaiue that the 
originals are in some places corrupted. And no less certaine (saith 
he) that sundrie parts of the Scripturs are yet to this day wanting. 
Fol: 150- &-157- 

From whence they make this conclusion ; that it is the word which 
is placed in the moueths of bishops and preists, which shall neuer 
perish : alledging -1- Pet • 1- 25- & Mai ■ 2- 7- Isa ■ 59- Vlt- 

Which, certainly, saith the author, we no-wher find to be promised 
to the word writen. 

for euading the force of strongest Arguments, taken from clearest Texts of the foresaid 
Scriptures. Si quispiam praeualuerit contra vnum, duo resistunt ei : Funiculus triplex 
difficile rumpitur; Eccles. 4. 12. If any may prevayle agaynst one, two resist him: A 
triple Cord is hardly broken. Permissum Superiorum, m.dc.xxxiii." 

The running title is " The Triple Cord." On the leaf following the title-page is 
"The Epistle Dedicatory; To the Protestant Nobility of Great Britaine," signed 
" N. N." Then follows " The Preface to the Protestant Reader." The book is a thick 
quarto of 801 pp., besides the prefaces and " tables." 

All my attempts to find a copy of this book failed, until, in 1866, I inspected one in 
the British Museum. (I had previously learned, through the Rev. Henry M. Dexter, 
D.D., of Boston, the accomplished historical scholar and divine, that the author of " The 
Triple Cord " Avas Lawrence Anderton; and, subsequent!}' to this, from the same source, 
that a copy of the book was in the British Museum). On the title-page of this copy is 
this manuscript note : " b} r Lawrence Anderton : printed at St. Omers. See Dodd,* vol. 3. 
p. 100." Also, at foot: " 1634. The author died 17 April, 1643." On a blank leaf, at 
the beginning of the volume, is the following, written by a former owner, " John Egan : " 
" The author was Lawrence Anderton, born in Lancashire, learnt the rudiments of his 
education at Blackbourn, and was afterwards sent to Cambridge, where he was a great 
favorite, and from his sprightly genius and fluent eloquence was commonly called ' silver- 
mouthed Anderton.' Being much addicted to controversy he could not get over some 
difficulties regarding the Keformation, which at last ended in his being received into the 
Catholic Church. He afterward went to Rome, where he became a Jesuit, and was a 
great ornament to that illustrious body. He afterwards resided in his native country, 
Lancashire, where he was highly esteemed for his preaching, and admirable character. 
He was the author of, 2. ' The Progeny of Catholics & Protestants,' 4to, Rouen, 1632. 
3. A Treatise entitled 'One God, one Faith,' with the letters W B. prefixed, 8yo; 
1625." 

This note is continued on a leaf at the end of the volume : " The Rev. Dr. Oliver, in 
his Collections for the Biography of the Members of the Society of Jesus, states that the 
author had been a minister of the Protestant Church before his conversion. He became 
a novice in 1604, set. 28, and shone in the sequel amongst the most exalted names in the 
English Provence. He died on the 17th of April, 1643, aged 67. In speaking of the 
work, The Triple Cord, Dr. Oliver says: I suspect [the author of] this is the chaplain 
of the Earl of Essex, whom F. Gerard received into his house in London, and who 
assigned 3 reasons for adopting the Institute of St. Ignatius. 1. Because it was detested 
more than the other religious orders by Heretics and the wicked of all classes. 2. Be- 
cause it foreclosed all hopes of church preferment. 3. Because it especially cherished 
the practice of Obedience." — Ed. 

* Charles Dodd (pseud.), "Church History of England," &c, by Richard Tootle, 1737-42.— Ed. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 411 

6 1 ? We may add hereunto how they haue preffered the vulgar Latin 
translation aboue the originals, and made it authentick in the trials of 
all doctrins and controuersies, though it is bnowne to be very corrupte. 

And yet they thinke not themselues saue enough (by all this pro- 
uission) but they endeauor what they can to keepe the Scriptures 
shut vp in an vnknowne tongue ; so greatly are they affraid of the 
light of the same. 

YONGE-MEN. 

Alas, if these things be admited, what mischeefe will not follow ? 
This is to aduance man aboue God, a lye aboue the truth ; the word 
of a mortall & corrupte ma aboue the word of the eternall, liuing 
God, whose word is truth, wheras all men are lyers; for if this 
church be such a souraign lady to camand ouer all the Christians in 
the world, as the only spouse of Christ, and the pope her head (in 
whom lyes all the power, as Christ pretended vickar) which cannot 
erre ; and for this her owne testimoney, only, must be taken ; will not 
the great whor say as much? Reu: 17* 

Againe, if they may make such fables as Tobit, Judith, &c. canonicall 
scripture, and make a nose of waxe of the rest, to interprete them as 
they please, without controule ; and their vnwriten traditions, to pas 
for currente coyne ; and not the writen word of God, but the word 
that is in the mouthes of their bishops and shauen preists to be per- 
menent & neuer to perish ; they may make religion to be what they 
please, and make the blind world beleiue what they list ; and impose 
their owne lusts for laws ; and lead men hoodwinkte, whither they 
will. If ther were no more in poperie but what you haue here laide 
downe, it might be sufficent to make any to abhore this popish religion, 
or to looke towards the same, which is thus dirogatorie to the honour 
of God, and [h]is word. 

ANCIENT-MEN. 

You may well say so, when you shall see what they build on those 
foundations ; and what conclusions they draw from these principles. 

YONGE-MEN. 

We pray you to open the same further vnto vs, that we may see 
more into this misterie of iniquity, and may be strengthened against 
the deceits and errours of the same. 

ANCIENTE-MEN. 

We shall shew you what that great learned man, Du Plesis, hath 
noted in his booke called the Mistrie of Iniqvitie. The canonists & 



412 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

other magnifiers of the pope & church of Rome (saith he) affirme 
that Christ, whilst he liued, he was head of the church militante, but 
when he dyed, Peter was head, and since Peeter's death, the pops of 
Rome his successors. 

1. And the pope, (say they) is Christ's vickar, not only in earthly 
but celestiall and infernall things, euen ouer the angels, both good 
and bad ; he may excommunicate the angels them selues. 

2. All the whole world is his diocesse. God and he hath but one 
consistorie ; Christ and he but one tribunall. 

3. The pops will is the rule of justice ; what he doth God houlds it 
well done. The square, hee may make round ; right, of that which is 
wrong, and some thing of that which is nothing. He is aboue all laws, 
aboue all decrees, cannons & counsels, and may be contrarie vnto them. 

4. Nay, (say they) the Lord should not haue been discreete had he 
not left such a vicar behind him that could doe all these things. Du 
Plessis. Mist. Iniq : fol : 454- * 

He further declares, out of some of their gloses, that they affirme 
and say that the pope is more then a man, and say of him, Thou greatest 
of all things, thou art neither God nor man, but some intermediant 
power. Yea, some call him our Lord God, the pope. Yea, (saith he) 
others recomend him for a God vnto vs, and that in essence. Would 
euer any haue beleeued such things (saith he) if the spirit of God had 
not foretould as much of antichrist. Fol : 454* 

And yet, as if they had not vttered blasphemie enough, they say he 
may dispence against the apostls as their superiour ; and against the 
Old Testament, in that he is greater then all the authors of the same. 

And least these things should be thought too much to be belieued 
of some pops that be wicked or vnworthy men (as many haue been 
knowne to be), they aledge a decree mentioned by Gratian, wherin it 
is affirmed that none are made pops but such as are worthy ; or if they 

* The edition of this work used by Bradford has the following title-page, as per 
copy in the Library of the Historical Society : — 

" The Mysterie of Iniquitie, That is to say, The Historie of the Papacie: Declaring by 
what degrees it is now mounted to this height, and what Oppositions the better sort 
from time to time have made against it. Where is also defended the right of Emperours, 
Kings, and Christian Princes against the assertions of the Cardinals Bellarmine and 
Baronises. By Philip Morney, Knight, Lord du Plessis, &c Englished by Samson 
Lennard. . . . London, Printed by Adam Islip, Anno Dom. 1612; fol. 662 pp." 

The work was published in French the year before, and also about the same time in 
Latin. The translator had a copy of each before him while engaged on his English 
version. The author, an illustrious French Protestant, and Privy Counsellor of Henry IV., 
was born in 1549, and died in 1623. — Ed. 



187Q.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 413 

be not, so soone as they enter into that seate, by vertu trasmited from 
Sainct Peter vnto them, it maks them worthy. Fol : 81* 

And amongst the dictats of Gregorie the •?• it is said, that a pope 
canonically ordained, is vndoubtedly made holy by the merit of S 1- 
Peter. Fol : 243* So, as you may see, these juglers prouid a salue 
for euery sore. 

But let vs add hereunto what Pareus hath noted on Reu : in Chap. 
9** The fathers of t^e Lateran councell (saith he) gaue this plasphemus 
applause to the pope : 

Thou art all things, and aboue all things ; to thee is giuen all power 
in heauen, and in earth. 

And againe by another in the same place. 

By thy vnerring -word, thou rulest ouer all ; 

And $tt it is a God on earth men should thee call." 

Hence is it that in the '40* Dist : " Si pape ", they call the pope a God 
vpon earth, ouer all heauenly, earthly, ghostly, & worldly things ; and 
he is all his owne, and no man may say, What doest thou ? And though 
he were so euill that he should lead innumerable heaps of men into 
hell ; yet may no man reproue him for it, and say, What dost thou ? 
From hence it is allso that they draw these conclusions : 

1. That the seat of Rome giues strength to all laws, but is subjecte 
to none. 

2. And Paule the '2' affirmed that the pope carries within the cir- 
cuite of his owne breste all deuine and humane laws. 

3. That no man may judge the pope, nor giue any sentence aboue 
his, but he shall judg all men vpon the earth. 

4. That he may depose kings and disanule the alegeance of their 
subjects, and set vp whom he pleases. 

5. That he hath authority to breake all oaths, bonds & obligations, 
made betweene man & man, of high or low degree. Doct Barns, 
fol : 186- 

6. The canonists hould that no man may dispute the pops power, 
and ther is a law amonge the pops decrees for that purpose. 



* The "work here cited is " A Commentary upon the Divine Revelation of the Apostle 
and Evangelist Iohn. By David Pareus : sometimes Professor of Divinity in the Uni- 
versitie of Heidelberg . . . Translated out of the Latine into English, by Elias Arnold. 
Amsterdam. Printed by C. P. Annocio id cxliv." (1644.) 

A copy is in Harvard College Library. The work was originally published in Latin, 
in 1628, six years after the author's death. Pareus was a celebrated divine of the Re- 
formed Religion, and was born at Silesia in 1548. — Ed. 



414 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

YONG-MEN. 

These things which you haue rehersed, maks vs almost to tremble 
that any mortall men should dare thus to lift vp them selues, and 
arrogate such things vnto them as canot belonge to any mortall creat- 
ure. Surely this is the very voyce of antichrist thus to aduance 
him selfe aboue all that is called God ; and that very mouth that 
speaketh great and blasphemus things. Reu : 13* 5* 

But let vs hear, (we pray you) how they haue improued this power, 
and carried, in the execution of the same. 

ANCIENT-MEN. 

They haue corrupted (hereby) all sound doctrine, and made the 
church to grone vnder the burthen of their traditions and vile cere- 
monies, which they have multiplied aboue measure ; and changed or cor- 
rupted (in a maner) all the ordinances of God ; and imposed the pops 
laws, canons, decrees & decretals, vpon the consciences of men, 
in stead of the word & law of God ; and made all, both high & low, to 
bow downe vnder the burden of the same ; establishing a lordly & power- 
ful hirarchie of Cardinals, Archbishop, Lord Bishops, Abats, & Arch- 
deacons ; preists, parsons, vicars, deans, canons, prebands ; and monkes 
& friers, &c. euen almost without number ; all of them the sworne vas- 
sals of the pope, bound to him by an oath of canonicall obedience, to be 
ministers vnder him, to execute this exorbitante power with all rigore, 
as he should please and coinand ; sending his legats and emissaries to 
all princes courts, and other places, with his bulls and mandats to 
signifie his pleasure, and requir obedience vnto the same. And if 
performance was not according to his mind & pleasure, then followed 
thundering threatenings of excommunications and intredictions, and 
execution of the same ; euen vpon kings and keisears & their whole 
kingdoms. Which not only made the world to wonder, but to quake 
& tremble at this stupendious power, and say, who is able to make warr 
with the beast ? 

He tooke the impire from the Grecias and gaue it to the French. 
And after from the French he transferd it to the Germans. Gregorie 
•2* excomunicated Leo, the emperour, & depriued him of his re- 
uenues. Pope Zacharie deposed Childrich, king of France. Leo the 
•3* depriued the Grecian emperour of the westerne impire. Alex- 
ander the *3- made Frederick the •!■ lye downe, and prowdly 
trampled on his necke, before he would be reconciled vnto him. 
Gregorie the -7* displaced Henerie the *4- He was twize excomuni- 



1S70.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 415 

cated ; and he and his empres, with their yong sone, made to waite at 
the pops gate, bare footed, in the sharp time of winter, fasting from 
morning tile night, humbly craueing absolution. Thus he continued 
for -3* days. The -4- day he gott admitance. But after all this, by an 
other pope, (Pascales the '2") he was deposed, who sent certaine bishops 
to dispoyle him of his crowne and emperiall ornaments. And, when 
they tooke them from him, he asked them the reason ; they said it was 
the pops pleasure. Afterwards he was by necessitie constrained to 
begg a prebands place of the bishope of Spire (whom he had aduancte 
and done much for), but he denyed him. So he, pore prince, went to 
Leige, and died for sorrow, after he had reigned '50* years. And yet 
this proud & cruell pope was not satisfied, but caused his body to be 
diged vp out of the graue, and to remaine *5* years vnburied. Inocent 
the *3' thrust out Otho the *4* Inocent the *4* tooke the empire from 
Frederick the *2* Clement the '6* excomunicated Lodowick the *4* 
and Julyus the *2* depriued the king of Nauar of his kingdom ; and 
our king John was forct to resigne his crowne and kingdom to Pan- 
dolfe, the pops legate, & become his vassal & fewderarie. Many more 
instances might be giuen, euen enough to fill a volume ; but we will 
only add, how Clement the *5-, to pacifie his furie, caused Francis 
Dandalus, the Venetion ambasadoure, to haue a chaine of iron tyed 
aboute his necke, and to lye downe vnder the pops table, ther, like a 
dogge, to catch the bones which fell from the table, vntill the pops fury 
was asswaged to absolue them. Now, surely, we beleeue they can 
neuer show that euer Peter did such a thing, or had kings & emperours 
to wait vpon him ; some to lead his horse, others to hold his stirupe, 
and all to fall downe before him & kise his feete. 

Yong-MeNc 

No verily, we beleeue (if we may credite the scriptures) these canot 
be Peters successors, but that antichrist, the man of sine, which ad- 
uanceth him selfe aboue all that is called God. But we pray you to 
proceed to some other points of this churchs doctrine. 

Ancient-Men. 

1. They teach their disciples and all their people to beleeue as the 
church beleeues ; and by an implicite faith to rest in what the pope 
and his councell dictats vnto them, which is coherente with the former 
grounds. If they tell them it is so and so defined, it is enough for 
them without further search. 

2 ,J [ In stead of ediffying them with sound doctrine from the word of 



416 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

God in the scriptures, they feede them with fabls out of their lying 
legends, filled with foolish fancies and lying miracles, and other such 
apocriphall stufe. 

S ly . They teach them to worship images, and fall downe before stocks 
and stons ; and tell them they are the layemens books, in ? or by which, 
they are to read & learn their Catholick doctrine & religion. Yea, 
the -8* generall councell, in An -87 1* not only allowed the worshiping 
of images, but comanded that the image of Christ shouldbe houlden 
in no les reuerence then the books of the gospell. And the author 
of the Triple-Cord saith, that images haue a more perfecte and nearer 
relation to God then the Arke (of his Couenant) had. Fol : 381* and 
that the image of Christ is the same to the eye, that the name of Jesus 
is to the eare -385* But aboue all they make an abhominable idole of 
the mass, and worship their breaden God ; the bearing witnes against 
which hath cost the blood of so many martires (which are still fresh 
in memory) in our fore fathers days. 

4^ They joyne other mediators with Christ, espetially the virgine 
Mary, whom they call the queene of Heauen. Ther is no fauor so 
great but is obtained of her, no necessitie so pressing which she taks 
not away. To her they sing this song of praise : 

Thou art the hope of comfortles, 
True mother of the fatherlesse, 
A comfort to the pore in thrall, 
The sick, a sure salue haue thee shall, 
To all things thou art all in all. 

Thus (saith Pareus, in Eeu : foil : 300-) they make Mary the hauen 
& helper of all men vnto saluation. 

Yea, they doe in a sort equall her milke with Christs blood. As, 

Thus in the mothers milke I will the Sone his blood infuse, 
Then which a beter antidote I cannot surely vse. 
O when shall I thy sweet breasts suck, and with thy wounds fed be, 
Injoy thy duggs, thy wounds, Christ, euen such felicity ? 

And they sing this antheme publicly in their churches 

O happy mother of that Sonne 
Which hast all our sinnes foredone ; 
Out of a mothers right we pray thee, 
Bid our Redeemer to obay thee. 

Yea, she is called the queene of mercy, who hath broken the serpents 
head. And Pope Leo the -lO* by his secretary, (saith Du Plesis) 
calleth her Deam, a goddesse. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD^ DIALOGUE. 417 

Yea (saith he), I fear & tremble at the consideration of her psalter; 
wherein all that which Dauid hath spoken of God the father, the sone, 
and the holy ghost, is applyed vnto her, and that without any maner 
of exception, throughout, euen from the begining to the end, changing 
Dominum, into Domina ; the lord into the lady ; as, Blessed is the 
man that loueth Mary, that feareth her, that praiseth her name, that 
trusteth in her, that hopeth in her, &c. Haue mercie vpon me O 
mother of mercie, and wash me from all my iniquities. Come let vs 
worship the Lady ; let vs praise the Virgin that hath saued vs ; let vs 
worship her, and let vs conffes our sins vnto her, &c. Du-Plessisse of 
the Mass, fol : 333-* 

And for other their canonized saincts, they asscribe *7* things to be- 
long to them. 

First, to be publickly declared for saincts, by the pope. 

2. ly to be inuocated in the prairs of the church. 

3. ly to haue churches & altars. 

4. ly an office, & sacrifice in honour of them. 

5. ly a festifull day. 

6. ly an image with lights, in signe of glorie. 

The -7* reliks and shrines. 

These (with many others) they worship and inuocate, and vtter 
many blasphemies in their idolatrious praises. We shall only instance 
in two or '3- of them. And first in their St. Francis, who, (they say) 
is a more worthy person than John Baptist. John was a foreruner of 
Christ, but Francis both a foreruner & standerd bearer. John was the 
friend of the bridgroome, but Francis like vnto the bridgroome him 
selfe. Againe, (say they) though John was highly aduancte, yet, 
Francis was aboue him, for he was lift vp into the place from which 
Lucifer was throwne, & lodged in Christ's side, &c. Yea, (say they) 
he is better then all the apostls, for they forsooke nothing for Christ, but 
some little ship ; but he forsooke all, euen to his hosen. This man, (say 
they) is the image of Christ, as Christ is the image of the Father. 
He is via vitce, the way of life ; & he that dyeth in his habite, is a 
hapy man, yea if he haue but his hand in the sleeue of it. Bap- 
tisme doth wash away originall sinne, but the hoode of St. Francis 



* The English version of this work has the following title, as per Lowndes's Bibliog. 
Manual: " Fowre Books of the Institutions, Vse and Doctrine of the Holy Sacrament 
of the Eucharist in the old Church; as likewise how, when, and by what Degrees the 
Masse is brought in, in Place thereof. Translated by R. S., London, 1600, folio." The 
work first appeared in French, in 1598, and in Latin, in 1605. — Ed. 



418 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

much more. If you resolue to continue to wear it, it is worth as 
much to you as a new baptizing, yea, rather a new abolishment, not of 
originall sine only, but of all maner of actuall sines. Du-Plessis of the 
Mass e . fol : 337- 

And their St Dominick corns not much behind; for the Arch- 
bishop Antonine, (saith Du Plesis) poiseth his mirackles, not against 
St. Francis, but against Christs. Christ, (saith he) raised but *3* 
from death, at all ; but Dominick at Rome only raised as many ; and 
•40* more nere to Tholosa, which were drowned on horse-back in 
the riuer Garona, besids infinite others. All power in heauen & in 
earth is giuen vnto Christ, and this power was in no small measure 
bestowed on Dominick, ouer all things in heauven, earth and hell, & 
that euen in this life ; for he had angels to attend vpon and serue him, 
the elements obeyed him, and the deuils trembled vnder him. The 
Lord saith, I am the Light of the world, and the church singeth of 
Dominick, Thou art the Light of the world. Christ, after his resurec- 
tion, went into his disciples, the dores being shut ; but Dominick 
whilst he bare about this mortall body, which is much more, went into 
the temple, the dors being shut. Paul and the Apostls induced and 
perswaded men to beleeue ; but Dominick, to obserue the councels, 
which is a shorter course & cutt to saluation. Thus, (saith Du Plesiss,) 
they still giue him the better, both of Christ and the Apostles. Fol : 
336- 

The next that we shall name, was our St. Thomas Becket, who 
was canonized by Alexander the '3* ; an[d] in the derision of the 
blood of Christ, was praid vnto in these words, (with other blas- 
phemies :) That, by the grace & fauor purchased by the blood of Thomas, 
he would make vs ascend whither Thomas is ascended. 

And how his shrine was both adornd and adored, our histories do 
declare ; being flocked vnto by all sorts of persons, being more hon- 
oured and prayed vnto then God himselfe. Of Christ and all his 
apostls and prophets, are not writen so many great miracles as of this 
our Becket, (saith M r Bale,) ; as that* so many sick, blind, lame, croked, 
bedrid, leprouse, sorrowfull, excited, imprisoned, hanged, drowned, and 
dead, were by them deliuered, as by him. 

Yea, King Henery went as a humble penitent in pilgrimage to his 
toombe, and resigned his power vpon their high altar, and consented 
to their vsurped liberties ; and being all naked, saue a pair of lining 

* He means, " As that not so many sick, lame," &c. — Ed. 



1870.] governor Bradford's dialogue. 419 

breeches vpon his nether parts, receiued of the monks a disciplin with 
rods in their chapter house ; and was glad he scaped so. Bale, in his 
Acts of English Votaries.* 

By these few instances you may see how idolatrusly they worshiped, 
& prayed vnto their saincts ; not only equeliseng them with God & 
Christ, but often ascribing more honour vnto them then to the Lord 
him selfe. And yet of many of them, it may be justly doubted, they 
were rather miserable wretches in hell, then saincts in heauen. 

"We may also add, how they not only thus joyned them with God in 
their praires & inuocations, but also swore by their names, some times 
singly, and sometimes joyntly with God ; as, by God, and our Lady ; 
and, So help me God, & all saincts, &c. 

All which considered, made Lodouicus Viues, (an ingenuous Papist) 
confess, that he could find no difference betwixte the opinione that the 
Christians haue of their saincts, & that which the Pagans haue of their 
Gods ; when as they giue them the same honour, that is giuen to God 
him self. Yiues, in August : de Ciuit : Dei* !■ 8* C* vlf f 

o. ] : They rest not vpon Christ and his righteousnes & merits only 
for justification & saluation, but vpon their owne works & merits, (at 
least in part) and vpon the praiers & merits of saincts, and the pops 
pardons, &c. 

Nay, that which is more, by their works of supererrogation, to de- 
serue & merit for others ; which being added vnto the merits of 
Christ, doe augmente the treasurie of the church; which the pope, 
(as Lord Treasurer) doth, by his indulgences, so prodigally dispence, 
espetially for money. 

* John Bale or Baleus, Bishop of Ossory, in Ireland, a voluminous writer, was born 
in Suffolk, 1495, and died 1563. The work cited in the text is entitled: " Actes of Eng- 
lish Yotaryes, coinprehendynge their vnchast Practyses and Examples by all Ages, from 
the Worldes Begynnynge to thys present Yeare, collected out of their owne Legends 
and Chronycles. Wesel, 1546, 8vo." Black letter. This is probably the first edition. 
A later edition, in two parts, 16mo, printed, as appears by the last leaf of Part I, 
in 1560, is in the Library of the Boston Athenreum. It once belonged to the Rev. 
Thomas Prince, and bears his autograph, with " Sudbury, June 1. 1713." — Ed. 

f "De Civitate Dei." This, the most popular and famous of the works of Saint 
Augustine, was first printed in 1467. " Monasterio Sublacensi Conradus Sweynheym, 
et Arnoldus Pannartz die vero 12, mensis Julii, Mcccclxvii. fol." It went through 
numerous editions. In 1522 was printed the edition with the commentary of Joan : Ludo- 
vicusTives, which Bradford quotes in the text. An English translation was printed in 
1610; and a second, and the best, edition, in 1620. Vives was one of the revivers of 
literature, and famous for his learning. He was born at Valencia in Spain, in 1492, 
and died at Bruges, according to some accounts, in 1541. 'See Watt's Bibliotheca 
Britannica.) — Ed. 



420 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. «[Oct. 

As for their other doctrins, of purgatorie, penance, pilgrimages, 
crossings, censsings, praying vpon beads for the liuing & the dead, 
worshiping of relicks, and a number more (too tedious to relate), 
we refferr you to others who treate of them at large. 

Yet we may not forgett their forbiddings of mariage, and meats, 
which the scriptures call doctrines of diuels; and what horrible euils 
haue growen therby, to the dishonoure of God, & violation of his laws ! 

They count it sine for their clergie to marie, yea, they call it the 
heresie of the Nicolaitans ; that which the scriptures call honourable, 
they repute vile and impure, wresting that scripture against mariage : 
They which are in the flesh canot please God. And frame this goodly 
reason, that as the Lord would be concerned in the womb of a virgine, 
so would he be receiued at the altar with vnpoluted and virgins hands. 
And Vrbanus the Second was not contented to punish those that were 
maried, and force them to put away their wiues ; but ordained that 
their wiues should become slaues to the prince, or lord, whose subjects 
they were. 

Yonge-Men. 

We haue heard enough of their idolatrie and superstition, and allso 
of their hereticall and erronious doctrins, to make vs loath and abhore 
the same. We pray you to let vs hear something of their maners in 
their Hues & conuersations, espetially of their holy clergie, who seeme 
to pretend this virgine puritie, and in respecte of others are called 
spirituall, and religious, most holy, reuerend, venerable, &c. 

Ancient-Men. 

To satisfie your requeste we shall only mention a few things, of 
many, which graue-authors haue published to the world, and left in 
writing, to the view of all. 

And hear, in the first place, what Pareus hath noted in Reu : Chap. 
•6* fol: 125* Baleus, (saithhe) hath distributed these antichristian popes 
from Boniface vnto Julius the -2- (that is from the year '606* vnto the 
year '1513-) into fiue distinct classes or orders; who, for the most part 
(as Genebardus, a Popish writer of their owne conf [e]seth) were magi- 
cians, sorcerers, atheists, adulterers, murderers, wicked, perjured and 
impure ; not apostolicall, but apostatical and hereticall men. Thus 
farr he, being one of their owne. 

Againe, (saith Pareus) Rome is an abhominable warehouse of all 
spirituall and corporall fornications. In the citie it selfe, filthy lusts 
not to be named are comonly and freely comited, nourished, and com- 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 421 

mended, and gaine made therof. If any doubt, let him read histories, 
(saith he) or goe to Rome, and he shall find the truth of that which 
Petrarcha complaines of, viz. that deflowring, rauishing, incests and 
adulteries, are but a sporte to the pontificall lasciuiousnes. 

And he shall find that of Mantuan,* (one of their owne poets,) to be 
true. 



And again. 



& againe 



Goe shame into the villages, if they refuse 

Such loathsome beastlines: whole Rome is now a stewes. 



Roma vale, vidi, satis est vidisse, reuertar : 
Cum leno, meretrix, scurra cynaedus ero. 

Now farwell Rome. I haue thee seene, it was enough to see : 
I will come back when as I mean, bawd, harlot, knaue to be. 



Roma quid est ? Amor est, quern dat preposterus ordo, 
Roma mares : noli dicere plura scio. 

But what is Rome ? She is that love wch naturs rule doth break, 
For its at Rome 'mongst males ; I know much more, but will not speak. 

Pareus on Reu : fol : 234* 

Vnto which may be added that old verce applied by R. Grosthead.f 

The world was not enough to satisfie 
Their auerice, nor whores their luxury. 

Du-Plessise, in his Treaties of the Masse, fol: 188* sheweth that 
Auentine J reporteth that vnder the shadow of continencie & holines al 
sorts of incestes were comited (by them) without the sparing of any 
degree. 

And Vlrich B. of Ausbourg complaies, that they are not afraid of 
whordoms, adultries, incestes, buggeries and other vitiouse practices ; 
yea, of nothing of all that which the Scriptures call the abhominations 
of the Cananites. 

And likewise S t- Bernard saith that the diuell hath strewed the 
ashes of Sodome vpon the church (clergie) and that they are sham- 



* Baptist Spagnuoli Mantuan (sometimes Latinized " Mantuanus " ), an Italian poet, 
of much fame in his day, was born at Mantua, in 1448, and died in 1516. A full account 
of his writings may be seen in Brunet. Bradford quotes him here through Pareus. — Ed. 

t Robert Grosthead or Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, regarded as the most learned 
ecclesiastic of the 13th century, was born about 1175, and died 1253. His unpublished 
writings are more numerous than those that have been given to the world. — Ed. 

t John Aventin, author of the Annals of Bavaria, died in 1536. This work gained 
him a great reputation. See Watt, I. 57. — Ed. 



422 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

les, not careing to couer & conceale themselues, but take their swinge 
in the counting of all maner of villanie vnder the vaile of continencie. 

But, let vs repaire, (saith Du-Plesis) to the mother of fornications, 
and ther we shall see the cardinals carrying the curtizans about with 
them in their coaches, and the pope taking ordinarie tribute and 
yearly sumes of money of them ; and to keepe a stewes (I loth and 
abhore to speak of the worst) him selfe. Ther we shall find (saith 
he) Aretines,* not in painted shapes, but in their liuely persons ; John 
de-Casa, arch-bishop of Beneuento, deane of the Apostolike Chamber, 
and the pops nuncio, writing the praises of buggery in Italian verse, 
and causing the same to be imprinted at Venice. 

Mantuan, though a gray-friar, saith, 

Sanctus ager scurris, venerabilis ara Cinsedis 
Seruit, honorandse diuum ganymedibus aides. 

The afForesaid Johanes De-Casa placied the filthy Sodomite vnder 
the pops nose ; and he it was that caused Francies Spira to subscribe 
to a recantation, which brought him to that fearful desperation. 

It is said that Sixtus the •4* builded stews of both kinds, in Rome, 
and thereby got great rents and reuenus vnto the Church of Rome. 
And Peter Ruerius,f (an other pope) licenced the whole family of the 
cardinals, to play the Sodomits, the '3* hole months in the year, June, 
July and August. Abridg. of the Acts & Mon. fol: 151* 

Yea, it is openly knowne that in the popish cuntries comone stewes 
are alowed, vnto which youth and all sorts resorte to satisfie their 
fleshly lustes ; as vsually men doe to tauernes to quench their thirst. 

Peter Martire also shews in what pompe the : harlots in Rome 
liue. Their houses, (saith he,) be most statly & gorgious, (and 
comonly such as belong to the church). They ride openly in chariots 
appareled like princes, and sometimes vpon their fine foote-cloaths. 



* Reference is here made, I suppose, to some of the productions of Peter Aretin, an 
obscene and satirical writer of the sixteenth century, a native of Arezzo, who wrote 
verses to accompany the immodest engravings of Julio Romano. See Bayle's General 
Dictionary enlarged by many hands, under his name. — Ed. 

f- Peter Ruerius was not pope, but was one of the many cardinals made by Sixtus 
IV., who became pope in 1476. The true statement of Fox, quoting his authority, is, 
that Sixtus, " at the request of this Peter Cardinal, and of Jerome, his brother,*' 
" granted unto the whole family of Cardinal St. Lucy, in the three hot months of June. 
July, and August, free liberty," &c. Bradford here quotes the " Abridgment of the 
Acts and Monuments, fol. 151." The only edition of such an abridgment, existing in 
Bradford's time, known to me, is that of T. Bright, published in 1589, now before me; 
and the statements here made are found on pp. 386 and 387 of that volume. — Ed. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 423 

They haue in their company men wearing gould cheaines, and disguised 
persons, and sometimes cardinals, espetially in the night time ; and a 
most sumptuous traine of waiting women. P. Martyre. Com : places, 
fol : -472- -473* 

And Mr. Tindall affirmes, that it was permited to the ministers in 
Dutch-land, (to whom mariage was forbiden) that paying a gilder to 
the archdeacon, euery one might freely & quietly haue his whore, 
and put her awa) at his pleasure, and take another, as often as he list. 
And so it was in Wales, Scotland, Ireland, France and Spaine. Fol : 
262- 

It was found at the desolution of our abeis in England, that some 
of the friers had *6* some *7* some *10' and some *20 concubines. 
And many were detected of most infamous incests, whordoms, & filthy 
sodomitrie, &c, as doth appear by the records, saith Doctor Willett, 
on Jude, fol: 107* f 

And Dtr. Barnes saith, the pope and his prelats sell all things for 
money, for money they make vsurie lawfull, for money they make 
whoredome as lawfull as marriage, for money they make as good mar- 
chandise of womens .... as the gould-smith doth of gilded plate; 
and all this by the authority of the keys as they pretend. Barnes J on 
the Keies. fol : 265* And these verces of Alexander the Sixt verifie 
the same. 

Alexander sells crucifixes, Christ, & altars high, 

And reason good he should so doe, for first he did them buy. 

And this of Mantuan, 

— — Yenalia nobis 
Templa, sacerdotes, altaria, sacra, coronae, 
Ignis, thura, preces, coelum est venale, deusq. 

Temples, preists, altars, sacred things, and crovraes renowed too, 
Fire, frankincense, prayers, Heaven and God here sell we doe. 

* This is Peter Martyr, " Vermilius," not he of Angleria, with whom he was some- 
time contemporary. The former was a distinguished divine, born at Florence in 1500, 
Professor of Divinity for a time, at Oxford, and dying at Zurich in 1562. The " Com- 
mon Places " of this author were translated into English by Anthony Marten, London, 
1583. Wood has perpetuated his memory in his " Athena?." — Ed. 

t Dr. Andrew Willett, a learned English divine, was born in the city of Ely, in 
1562, and died in 1621. He wrote many commentaries on different parts of the Scrip- 
tures. — Ed. 

X Dr. Robert Barnes was Professor of Divinity, and Chaplain to Henry VITI. He 
suffered as a Protestant martyr in 1540. A collection of his works, including those of 
William Tyndall and John Frith, made by John Fox, was published in 1573, fol. This 
may have been the volume used by Bradford. — Ed. 



424 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

And Cardinall Morton (that great politician) for money, got a licence 
ibr '14* to studie negromacie, him selfe being one. Tind : 367* 

And what is it that the pope doth not dispence with, for money ? It 
is knowne, (saith Peter Martyre,) how by the pops licence, Emanuell, 
the king of Portingaile, maried with tow sisters; and Catherine, 
Queene of England, maried with tow brothers. Ferdinand, the King 
of Naples, maried his owne aunte. And it is affirmed, that Martine 
the -5- gaue licence to one to marie his naturall sister. Peter Martier, 
fol : 453* Com : places. 

But to conclude. We will giue you an instance in tow or -3* of these 
holy vicars of Christ, who haue this plenarie power to dispence with 
and pardon whom they please. 

And first in Pope John the -13- He was a libidinus beast, a mon- 
strous varlet ; he comited inceste with *2* of his sisters ; he caled on 
the diuell to help him in his play, &c. ; he was deposed, but by the 
whores in Rome he was restored ; but after, he was taken in adultrie 
& slaine by the womans husband. Abridg. Acts & Mon : fol : 39* & 
Simson of the Church, fol : 347* 

Siluester the *2* was a sorcerer, and was exalted to the papacy by 
the deuill vpon condition he should giue him selfe to the deuill after 
his death. Fol : 48- 

Hildebrand, a firebrand, a most wicked man, a manifest nigro- 
mancer, a sorcerer, infected with a pithonicall spirite, condemned by 
the councell of Brixia.f 

Benedict the -9* aspired to the papacie by magicke, & practized 
inchantments, and conjurations, and alured women to his lusts by 
magicall arts. He was vnlearned and most vitious; and at length 
sould his dignitie for 4500" waight of gould. And it is said he ap- 
peared after his death in a monsterous shape, more like a beast than 
a man. 

Sergius the *3- caused the body of Formosus to be taken out of his 
graue after it had been buried -8* years, and beheaded it, (as if he had 
been aliue) and then cast it into Tiber, as vnworthy of buriall. And 
besides his cruelty, he was a vile whoremonger. He had a sone by 
Marozia, the wife of Guido, a famous harlot, who afterwards was 



* " The Historie of the Church since the Days of our Saviour Jesus Christ until this 
present Age, by Patrick Symson. London 1624," folio. The author was minister at 
Stirling. — Ed. 

t Brixen, a fortified town of Tyrol, south of the Alps. — Ed. 



1870.] 



governor Bradford's dialogue. 425 



pope, calico* John the •12** This Marozia was an incestuous harlot, 

and maried tow breetheren, Guido & Hugo, of whom this verse was 

made. 

Nubere Germanis satagens Herodia binis. 

This was a judgment of God, (saith the author) vpon the Romans , 
they were guided by the popedome, and the popedome was guided by 
harlots. 

Julius the -2- was full of iniquitie and a great warier. As he was 
going to ware, he cast the keies of St. Peter into Tiber, saing, seeing 
the keyes of Peter would not serue his turne, he would take him selfe 
to the sword of Paule ; and by his means in •7* years time, -200,000* 
Christians were destroyed with cursing and warr. 

But we will ende with Alexander, the *6* that monster of men. It is 
said of him, (in the French historie,) that he was very dishoneste, 
hauing no sinceritie, no shame, no trueth, no faith, nor no religion, 
&c. Serres, fol: 314-f 

He had # 2* sons, one he made Duck of Candia, the yonger Cardinale 
of Valence. He had also a daughter, (a very bewtifull woman). 
The father, and both these breethrern, made her their whore in corn- 
one ; but the cardinall conceiueing that the duck, his brother, had the 
better share in her loue, and that he was raised to higher state then 
him selfe, he caused him to be murdered secretly in the night, as he 
ride in the streets, and had his body thrown into Tiber. Guiccirdin, 
fol: 138-4: 

After this he cast of his cardinall habite, and became a great 
warrier. And such a wicked couple were these tow, that it grue to be 
a prouerbe, that the pope neuer did that which he said, nor his sone 
seldome speake what he ment. 

But obserue the righteous judgment of God vpon them ; when they 
were ariued almost to the tope of their greatnes, and the hight of their 
hopes, they were throwne downe; for, on a time, haueing prepared a 
banket, and inuited some cardinals, & great ones (which stood in their 

* More properly John XL, who became Pope, anno. 931. — Ed. 

t Jean de Serres. Generall Historie of France, translated by Edward Grimeston, 
London, 1624, folio. —Ed. 

\ Francis Guicciardini, a nobleman of Florence, and a well-known writer, was born 
in 1482, and died in 1540. His History of the Wars of Italy was first published at 
Florence (the first sixteen books only) in 1561, fol. The remaining four books were 
published three years later. The work was first translated into English by Geoffrey 
Fenton, 1579, fol., entitled " The History of Guicciardin " ; yet I doubt, on examination, 
if this is the edition used by Bradford. — Ed. 

54 



426 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct 

way,) whom they mente to dispatch with poyson, they had for that end 
prepared some bottels of wine mixed for the turne ; but by a mistake 
in the serueters, the pope had giuen him wine out of the wrong bottle, 
of which both he and his sone drounke ; so as he dyed shortly after ; 
and his sone being yonge and more vigorus, with the help of antidots 
scaped narowly, and lay sicke a longe time vpon it, and all their de- 
signes were ouerthrowne therby. — Qualis vita, finis ita. 

When the pope was dead, (saith Guiccardine) all Rome rane to 
see him, and rejoyced to see such a serpent destroyed ; who with his 
imoderate ambition and poysoUed infidelity, togeather with all the 
horible examples of cruelty, luxurie and monstrus coueteousnes, seling 
without distinction both holy and prophane things, had infected the 
whole world. Thus Guiccardine, a writer of ther owne, in his His- 
toric of Italie fol: *234* & "236. — Quae bona si non est, finis tamen 
ilia malorum est. 

Yong-Men. 

It is aparente by what you haue declared touching both their 
spirituall and corporall whordomes, and filthy polutions, that this is 
not the chaste-spouse of Christ, but that TtOQvrjg ^ydlr]g, the great 
whore, that mother of whordomes and abhominations of the earth. 
Reu. 17* And it may be admired they should so long delude the 
world and attaine this hight of greatnes. 

Ancient-Men. 

This is that misterie of iniquitie which begane betimes, and wrought 
by degrees. One great steppe to this aduancmente was when Con- 
stantine out of his godly zeal bestowed ritches & honours vpon the 
church, espetially vpon the bishops, & aduanced Siluester the first, 
bishop of Rome, in an eminent maner (because Rome was the imperiall 
seat) and caused a miter besett with presious-stons to be put vpon his 
head ; which afterwards made them swell with prid & ambition, & 
could neuer be satisfied, but sought to be vniversall bishope, and rule 
ouer all others. But yet rested not ther, but vsurped the ciuill power 
also, and lift vp them selues aboue kings & emperours, and then were 
they come to the hight of exaltation, as in the time of Boniface, &c. 
when they could say, behould both swords. Ego sum pontifix, Ego 
sum Caesar. I am the high priest, I am Caesar. And then they sett 
vp whom they would, and threw downe whom they pleased, and the 
highest were faine to fall downe before them. According to that of 
Mantuan : 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 427 

Great Ccesar with victorious kings, 

Who goulden crownes doe wear; 
They doe adore his footsteps, who 

The double sword doth beare.* 

Paschalis the '2' when he was chosen pope, put on a purple robe 
and a diadem vpon his head, with a scepter in his hand, and a girdle 
tyed about him, haueing •?• seales and *7 # keyes hanging therat, to 
signifie his plenarie-power to bind & lose, to open & shut ; and of seal- 
ing, resigning, and judging. He excomunicated the noble emperour 
Henerie the *4* and stirred vp his owne sone to make warr against 
him. 

Bonifacie the *8- when he kepte his jubile at Rome, the first day he 
shewed him selfe in his pontificall garments with Peters keyes ; but the 
•2* day he shewed him selfe in royall apparell, with a naked sword 
carried before him, and a harold proclaming, Ecce potestas vtriusq 
gladij : behold the power of both swords ; claiming to him selfe 
soueraine authority in all things, both ciuill & ecclesiasticall. And 
he excomunicated Philip, the King of France, and his posteritie, to 
the -4* generation ; because he made an ordinance that no money should 
be carried out of his countrie to Rome. 

When Albert the "l* came to the pope (after he was chosen) and 
desired (in a humble maner) his blessing, and to be crowned by him, 
the pope tould him he was not worthy, but put the crowne on his 
owne head, and a sword by his side, and said, I am Csesar. 

They would pretend diuine athority from the scriptures ; , as, Thou 
art Peter, to the will I giue the keies of the kingdom of heauen, &c. 
Mat* 16* But it is euidente that Phocas, that murderer, was he of 
whom Boniface the -3- first obtained the title and power of Vniuersall 
Bishop, ad the Church of Rome to be the head of all churches ; which 
was that they had long gaped for ; and which being once obtained they 
rested not till they trode the emperours & their power vnder their 
feete. — Esto procul Roma, qui cupis esse pius. 

Yong-Men. 

These things which you haue related doe make it clear vnto vs that 
this Roman-Church is not the true Church of Christ, but that scarlet- 
coloured whor, that great Babylon, that mother of whordoms and 
abominations of the earth. Reu "IT* And her popes, &c. that man 
of sine, that anti-christ, that sone of perdition, which shall be de- 

* See Pareus above cited, page 174. — Ed. 



428 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

stroyed. The Lord keepe vs farr from her iniquitie, that we may be 
kept from her plagues. But we pray you let vs hear your judgment 
of the Episcopacie, as it hath been in England for many years, therin 
differing from other reformed churches. 



OF THE EPISCOPACIE. 



Ancient-Men. 

It will be needfull before we speake to this poynte that some thing 
be premised to preuent mistakes. And first, we accknowledg that 
bishops, such as are mentioned in the holy scriptures, are of deuine 
institution and the ordinance of God. 2'r But lord bishops, inuested 
with sole spirituall power and gouerment, and exerciseing sole au- 
thority, power, and gouerment ouer the churches, without their choyse 
or consent, is Strang from the scriptures, no institution of Christ, 
but a humane deuise and intrusion. 

S l ? Though this lordly hirarchie, consisting of primates, metro- 
politans, archbishops, lord-bishops, deans, arch-deacons, with all 
their subordinats, and inferior-dependents, in regard of their places, 
callings, power, and juridiction, were vnlawfull and Strang from the 
rules of holy scriptures, and according to the popish patterne, yet 
wee acknowledge that many of their persones were men of worth for 
vertue & learning, for pietie & godliness, and many exelent parts ; 
yea, some of them blessed martires, who gaue their bodyes to the fire 
for the trueth of Christ. 

4 1 ? For the maine (in charitie) we beleeue they saw not the euill 
in these things, but had their minds more intente vpon the puritie of 
doctrine in the cheefe foundations of religion, and purging of the same 
from popish-leauen ; espetially the first & most sincere reformers. 

5'r Though they saw some thing amise, yet they could not doe all 
things at once ; the times would not beare it ; they thought to gaine 
vpon them by degrees, as the times would suffer ; and so might haue 
done had men remained faithfull, and prid and ambition had not hin- 
dered and blinded the eyes of sundrie. 

&Y and lastly. The casting out of the pope & his supremasie, and 
the supressing of the worst part of the hirarchie, abots, munks. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 429 

and friers, those swarmes of locusts which did eat vp and defile the 
land ; and pulling downe of their strong foundations and firme cor- 
porations, which they thought to be indesoluble ; it did cause such an 
earth-quake in the land as did astonish the minds of men ; and in that 
junkture of time made the world to wonder, and after times to admire 
the same. No maruell therefore, though the greatnes of that work 
did not giue way to many other things which were to be the worke of 
time. 

We are therefore thankfully to acknowledg the great worke of God 
in the Reformation made in our dear, natiue-countrie, in which the 
tyranie and power of the pope was cast of, and the purity of doctrine 
in the cheefe foundations of religion restored ; and though she fell 
short in some things of other Reformed Churches, (espetialy in gouer- 
ment,) yet not in the grouth of the power of godlynes, but rather to 
exceede them in such as the Lord raised vp and inlightened amongst 
them. 

But herein was the great defecte, that this lordly hierarchie was 
continued (after the pope was cut of) in the same calings and offices, 
and ruled (in a manner) by the same lawes, and had the same power 
& jurisdiction ouer the whole nation, without any distinction ; all being 
compelled, (as members of this National! Church) to submite to the 
forme of worship established, and this gouerment set ouer them ; farr 
difering from the liberty of the gospell and the practiss of some other 
Reformed Churches, who only admited such into the church, and 
to partake in the holy things, as manifested repentance and made pub- 
licke confession of their faith according to the scriptures; and had 
such a ministrie sett ouer them as them selues liked & approued of. 

And of this Dtr. Ridley biterly complaines, (who was some times a 
" bishop, and after, a blessed martyre) How that the greatest parte of 
" all sorts, in King Edwards days, both magistrats, bishops, ministers, 
" lawyers, and people of all sorts & degrees, were neuer perswaded in 
" their harts (but from the teeth outward, and to please the king) of 
" the trueth of Gods word, & the religion they reciued, but did dis- 
" emble. 

" And pitifull and lamentable it was (saith he) to see the people so 
" loathsomly and ireligiously, to come to the holy-communion and the 
" seruice of God, which they vnderstood neuer a whit, nor could be 
" edified any thing at all ther by. Acts & Mon : fol : 517" 

A very sad complainte, and shows vs the true face of things in those 
times, by him that was able to discern, who was neither Brownist, 



430 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

nor seperatist. He allso judged it to be a cheefe cause of Gods judg- 
ments which followed in queen-Marys dayes. 

Yong-Men. 

We perceiue then, that the cheefest agreemente and conformitie 
between other Reformed-churches & the Nationall Church of England, 
as it stood vnder the prelats and bishops, was more cheefly, in regard 
of the puritie and truth of doctrin, then in regarde of either the con- 
stitution of the church, or gouermente of the same, in w c h we per- 
ceiue they did mainly difer. 

Ancient-Men. 

You say right in that, for they neuer approued this gouerment, but 
bore it as a burden ; as appeares, not only in their generall practise, 
but also in their writings. For which take these few testimonies of 
many: 

By this you see (saith Mr. Beza) that the church is not to be taken 
for certaine of the worshipfull clergimen alone, but for an whole 
assemblie and congregation of Gods people ; with out whose consent 
neither excomunication nor election of ministers ought to be vsed. On 
Epeh *5.* 

And in his Confession, Art *7* Chap *14- he hath these words : My 
Lord-Bishop, M r . Officiall, M r . Vicar, their promoters, procurators, & 
the like ; it was not possible to haue brought them into the Church 
of God, till they had driuen Christ the maister out. And ther is 
neither holy scripture, neither councell, nor anciente doctors, which 
euer knew such monsters. And in the '12* Chap, of his Confessions, 
he saith: Concerning their suffragans, officials & proctors in the courts 
of the church, &c. and other such innumerable vermine, what can I 
say otherwise ? for one shall as soone find the diuell among the angels, 
as one word or mention of them in the Scriptures, or in the ancient 
councels, doctors, Greek or Latine, to approue them. I say more, 
that it is as possible to accord these estates, with the true form of the 
church, as to accord light and darknes, truth and lyes. So he. 
Through the ambition of Bishops (saith Gualter) it is come to pase 



* Theodore Beza, an eminent and voluminous French writer and promoter of the 
Reformation, was born in 1519, and died in 1606. A large number of his works were 
translated into English in his own day. Many of these are now very rare. — Ed. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 431 

that the libertie of the church is troden vnder foote, and chosing of 
ministers dependeth on them. Gualter on Acts. Horn : 104** 

Now where the ambition of prelats hath disturbed and broken this 
order, and haue chalenged vnto them a lordship ouer the inheritance 
or church of Christ, the congregations are euery day molested with 
new contentions ; and ther appeareth no end, either of errours, or most 
bitter debates. Gualter, Horn : 104* 

I thinke, verilie, (saith Mr. Wheatonhall) Gualter, in these words 
pointed with his finger espetially at England ; for no nation of Chris- 
tendome, that is caled a Reformed-Church, hath had, or is like to haue, 
such endless contentions and continuall errours, only through the 
lordship and magnificent estate of lord-bishops ; which no Reformed 
Church in all Europe hath retained but England. Whetenhall, pag : 
127- f 

Danasus $ saith, they do perfidiously depriue the church of her right, 
who thrust a pastor on a people without their knowledg or consent ; 
for they doe the church the greatest injurie when they spoyl her of 
her judgment and voyce giueing ; who are therefore truly to be called 
sacrilegious or church-robers. Vnto which he addeth : By all this it 
appears, how that calling of ministers is none, or not lawfull, which is 
made by the authority, letters, commandment and judgment of the 
king alone, or queene, or the patrons, or bishope, or archbishop, 
&c, as is vsed in England ; which (saith he) I speake with greefe. 
M r Jacobs Attestation, § pag : 42* Mr. Caluin hath the like. 

Truly (saith Mr. Caluin) this is a foule example, that out of the 
court are sent bishops to possess churches ; and it should be the worke 

* Rodolph Gualter, one of the early Swiss Reformers, was born at Zurich, 1529, and 
died 1586. He wrote many works on Scripture, History, and Grammar, some of which 
were early translated into English; among which is the one cited by Bradford, "An 
hundred, threescore, and fifteene Homelyes or Sermons, vpon the Actes of the Apostles 
written by Saint Luke; made by Rodulphe Gualthere Tigurine, and translated out of 
Latine into our tongue for the commoditie of the English reader. By John Bridges, 
London, 1572," foL (See Watt.) — Ed. 

t Thomas Whetenhall wrote a Discourse on the Abuses in the Church of Rome, 
1606, 4to. — Ed. 

% Lambert Danaeus was a French Protestant Divine, born about the year 1530, and 
died 1596. Many of his writings were translated into English in his time. Bradford 
is here citing Danaeus through Jacob — Ed. 

§ The author quoted is Henry Jacob, an English divine, who founded the Inde- 
pendent Church, in London, in 1616. He wrote a number of works, among which is the 
one cited in the text: " An Attestation of many Learned . . . Divines justifying this Doc- 
trine, viz., that the Church-government ought to be always with the peoples free 
consent." 1613. 8vo. Jacob is said to have died in Virginia, in 1624. — Ed. 



432 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

of a godly prince to abstaine from such corruption ; for it is a wicked 
spoyling of the church, when ther is thrust vpon any people, a bishop 
whom they haue not desired, or, at least, with free voyce alowed. And 
againe, it is tyrannous for any one man to appointe or make ministers 
at his pleasure. Therefore (saith he) this is the most lawfull way, 
that those be chosen by comone voyces, who are to take vpon them 
any publick function in the church. Caluin on the '14* of the Acts, & 
the *6- of the Acts. Whetenhall, page -144- 

Francis Lambart saith, maruell not that I said ther be many 
bishops in one city ; for verily euery city hath so many bishops as 
it hath true preachers. 

And againe he saith, euery parish (or congregation) ought to haue 
their proper bishop, which should be chosen & confirmed by the people 
& comunallitie of the church, of euery place. And to doe this, they 
haue no need of letters, rings, seales, tokens, and such other things of 
this kind, very much vsed, clean contrary to the word of God. And 
so long they should be accounted for bishops, as they preach most 
purely the gospell of the kingdom of God, from w c h if they swarue 
and teach Strang doctrine, they ought to be deposed and put out of 
them by whom they were chosen, euen of the comunality of the church 
aforenamed. 

And againe he saith, all the canons of the world canot lawfully 
chose one bishop of the church of Jesus Christ ; and that the church 
of God hath no ministers besides these, bishops and deacons. Wheten- 
hall, pag # 87* 

And Zuinglius saith, a church is taken for the seuerall congregations, 
which conueniently meete togeather in some one place for the hearing 
of the word, and receiuing of the sacraments. The Grecians call these 
Parikias. And of this maner of church, Christ speaketh, Mat # 18* 
Tell the church. And the Apostle Paull to the Corinthions. Whet : 
pag «88 * 

Peter Martire saith, we confesse the kies are giuen to the whole 
church ; and by the kyes, he meaneth gouerment and ecclesiasticall 
power. 

He allso saith, without the consent of the church not any one can 
be excomunicated. This right belongs to the church ; neither ought it 
to be taken away from it. Jac. Attestation, page 'B4r He allso 



* Bradford evidently here quotes Lambert (probably the author of "The Summe 
Christianity," 1536), and Zuingli, through Whetenhall. — Ed. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 433 

affirmeth that gouermente is a notable portion of the gospell, and not 
the least part of Christian Religion ; and that the gospell seemeth 
to be neclected of them, who put away from them so excelente a part 
thereof. In his Epist : to the Lords of Polonia. 

Also Caluin saith, in that forme of the church which the apostls 
set downe we haue the only pattern of a true church ; from which if 
any bend aside neuer so litle, he erreth. Epis : to Sadolet.* 

Chemnicius saith, that Paul & Barnabas did not thrust ministers on 
the church without their consent ; and that the election & vocation 
of ministers by the historie of the apostles & their examples, appears 
deadly to belong to the whole church ; and that this is the judgmet 
& way of the apostolike, primitiue, and ancient church, concerning the 
lawfull election & calling of ministers ; which way hath place in those 
churches which are constituted according to the word of God. 

Junius saith,t it is manifest that that way of chosing & calling min- 
isters is most approued by the testimonie of holy scriptures, which 
the apostles in old time kept in the churches. And when the bishops 
did arogate that power to them selues, and depriue them of it, it was 
the churches damage, injurie and shame. And what that way was, he 
shewed before ; how that the whole church did chose, (that is, the 
body, consisting of the eldership & people or comone sort) by equal & 
comone voyces. Jacobs Attestion, pag '44* 

Then he answereth some obiections : But some will say, the people 
are ignorant of their duty and right herein. Let them be taught 
(saith he) and they will vnderstand it. But they know not how to vse 
it aright. Ans ; they will not know it euer, if they vse it neuer. But 
they are factious often, and deuided into parts. Let them be redused 
to peace by wholsome counsell, and let them be ruled by the authority 
of the word, and the endeours of good men ; that their minds being 
ordered, they may do that which is their right to doe. Page *46' 

We might add many more (for the whole current of all those exel- 



* " During his [Calvin's] stay at Strasburgh, he contiuued to give several marks of 
his kind affection to the church of Geneva, as. appears, among other things, by the 
answer he wrote in 1539 to the beautiful but artful letter of Cardinal Sadolet, Bishop of 
Carpentras." " That letter is to be found in the volume which contains Calvin's small 
works {opuscules)"; dated Sept. 1, 1539. (Bayle's Diet, enlarged, TV. 46.) — Ed. 

j Chemnitius and Junius are here cited through Jacob, a copy of whose book, 
belonging to the American Antiquarian Society, T have consulted. Mart. Chemnitius 
wrote a number of theological works, published at Frankfort on the Maine. Francis 
Junius was Professor of Divinity at Leyden, and a writer of distinction. He was born 
in 1545, and died of the plague, at Leyden, in 1602. — Ed. 

55 



434 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

ent deuines and first lights and guids of the Reformed Churches, rune 
in one stream this way). But these shall suffice. By which you may 
see how, from the scriptures, they shew what a church is ; what power 
it hath, both in chosing & ordaining or confirming their owne officers ; 
and in deposing them, if the case so require ; as also to receiue the 
worthy, and to excommunicat the guilty, when need requires. And 
that it is not only an injurie and damage for any to depriue them of 
this their right & libertie ; but that it was no lese then sacriledge and 
tyranus vsurpation in the lordly hirarchie so to doe. 

Yong-Men. 

We see plainly these testimones are very full against the power 
and vsurpation of the prelacie ; and as clear for the approbation and 
lawfullnes of the Congregationall way. 

But it is objected, wheras you seeme to lay so much waight on the 
name or terme lord-bishope, that it is but a title of reuerence, and 
may as well be giuen to bishops now, as the Hebrew Adoni, the Greeke 
xvQiog, the Latin Dominus, and the Dutch Here ; [&] may sometimes, 
and haue been giuen in way of honour vnto them, without offence. 

Ancient-Men. 

It is not so much the name, as the thing, that is stood vpon. They 
are called spirituall-lords, and chaleng spirituall power and sole 
authority ouer the churches ; which belongs only to the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the only law-giuer of his church. Neither is the consequence 
good, for our English terme Lord, & Lordship, vsually and properly 
implies power and authority, and sole rule & gouerment ouer others ; 
wheras these forain terms, ">:;%> avgwg, Monsieu r , Dominus, Here, 
&c, doe not alwaies so signifie, but often and more vsually importe no 
more but M r or Sir, in our sense and phrase and maner of speaking. 

It is obserueable what Socrates (that famouse historian) saith in the 
proeme of his -6- booke. # The fauorers of prelats (saith he) will blame 
vs for not entitling bishops, most godly, most holy, and such like epi- 
thetons, &c. But I will lay asid, (saith he) these swelling titles and 
tye my selfe to the truth of historic So farr was he from those 
flatering titles of your grace, your lordship, your honour, &c. the 



* Socrates (Scholasticus) an ecclesiastical historian, born about the middle of the 
fifth century. His " Church History " is probably the book here cited. It was trans- 
lated into English as early as 1585. — Ed. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 435 

name of lord was scarce giuen to kings and emperours in those days, 
much less to bishops & prelats. 

Yong-Men. 

But our bishops would seeme to deriue them selues and callings 
from deuiue authority of the scriptures, as the apostles successors. 

Ancient-Men. 

So doth the pope from Peter, (as you heard before) but they will 
neuer be able to proue their lordly power, nor metropolitan or diocesan 
jurisdiction, from the scriptures. Their pedigree will be found to be 
of much later date. Our owne late lawes will sooner show the founda- 
tion a rise of our late bishops, and their callings and jurisdiction, then 
the scriptures. 

It was inacted by a statute made in the 'I* year of the raigne of 
queene Elizabeth, that all jurisdiction, priuiledges, sup[e]reorities, & 
prehemiencs, spirituall or ecle>iasticall, as by any spirituall or ecclesi- 
asticall power or authority hath heretofore been (understand by the 
popes decrees, or prelats canons) or lawfully may be exercised or 
rsed for the vissitation of the ecclesiastcall state & persons, & for 
reformation, order and correction of the same ; and of all maner of 
errores, heresies, schismes, abusses, offences, contemptes & enormities ; 
shall for euer by authority of this present-parlemente, be anexed to 
the crowne of this realme. 'I* of Eliza: Chap *1* fol:1001* 

2 ly By vertue of this statute the queen was to assigne shuch per- 
sons by her letters patents as she thought fitt, to exercise this ecclesi- 
asticall jurisdiction. 

3 ly - By the same power comited vnto her, she did and might cause 
such as she thought fitt, to be elected & ordained for bishops, arch- 
bishops, &c. And in the •■8* of her raign, because some doubts were 
and might be made about the proceedings therin, she had power to 
dispence (and did) with all causes or doubts of any imperfection or 
disabilitie that can or may in any wise be objected against the same. 
The -8- of her raige, fol : 1068- 

Also it was by an acte of parlement prouided, in the '2o* of Henery 
the -8- that the archbishop of Canterbury, for the time being, and his 
successors, should haue power & authority fro time to time, by their 
discretions, to giue, grant & dispose, to the king, his heires & successors, 
all maner of such licences, dispensation, &c. as heretofore had ben 
vsed and accustumed to be had & obtained, &c. from the Sea of Rome, 



436 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

And also the aforesaid archbishop, he or his sufficent deputies, might 
grant all maner of licences, dispensations, faculties, &c. for any such 
cause or mater, &c. as hath bene accustumed (to any of the kings 
subjects) to be had at the Sea of Rome, or by authority of the same. 
An°: 25- of Hen- 8- Chap- 18- 

Thus you may see from what botome and foundation their power, 
callings, and jurisdition did arise, whatsoeuer else is pretended or 
pleaded otherwise. 

And togeather with these functions & callings, they did retaine 
their commissarie courts, courts of faculties, &c. with all their officers, 
as chancelors, comissaries, officalls, doctors, proctors, registers, aparitors, 
&c, in which they did examene causes, pase excomunications, punish 
or absolue at their pleasure, grant licences, lay censures vpon persons, 
& take them of againe for money. Yea, they had allso their prisons to 
comite men too when they pleased, (in which they were neither like 
the apostells, or their true successors). Their courts were vsually full 
of bawdery, bribery, tiranie & oppression, and a continuall snare and 
vexation to the godly. They followed more the pops law then the 
rules of the gospell ; as one of their cheefe procters (in his answer to 
the Abstracte, . . . . ) * affirmes, that the canon-law, is the commone- 
law ecclesiasticall. 

They would needs haue the pontificall and preistly apparell con- 
tinued, and held vp, to the great offence of the godly at home and 
abroad ; as copes, four-cornerd-capps, surplisses, albs, canonicail coats, 
& such like trash, fitter for the whore of Rome, then the Church of 
Christ. 

Also they stood stifly to maintaine a company of vaine ceremonies, 
profitable for nothing (excepte to maintaine their courts, and fill their 
catch-pouls purses,) ; such as the crose in baptisme, kneeling at the Lords 
Supper, wearing the surplise, keeping of holy-days, bishoping or con- 
firming] of children, &c. These & a number more, with stricte con- 
formitie to the coinone-seruice, were more vrged and looked too, then 
ether the powerfull preaching of the word of God & sound doctrine, 
or holines of life & conuersation. Nay, it is notoriusly knowne, (to 
the dishonour of God & the Gospell) that painfull and zelous ministers 
were silenced, and godly professers reproched with nic-names of 
Puritanes, Browists, precissions, and shuch like contumelies, for these 
things. 

* Blank in the MS. — Ed. 



1870.] GOVERNOR BRADFORD'S DIALOGUE. 437 

Yong-Men. 

We beleeue these things which you haue related, concerning the 
maner of their callings and grounds of their proceedings, haue not 
been so comonly knowne, or at least, considered by many. We confess 
we haue been ignorante in many of these things, and now doe not 
maruell they found such oppossition, but rather that they were so long 
forborne. But we find that many plead, and are of opinion, that 
diocesan-bishops haue been from the apostles time, and that Timothy 
& Titus were such, and some of the apostles them selues were such. 

Ancient-Men. 

The apostles were ouer all churches, and had a larger commission; 
Mat. 28. and euangelists (such as Tim : & Titus) were also extraor- 
dinary men, & imployed by the apostles for the preaching of the 
gospell & establishing of the churches. And it should be dirogatorrie 
to their callings to be tyed to a perticuler flocke, as ordinary bishops 
were. Acts '20* 

But the truth is, ther were no proper diocesan-bishops in the world 
till the Councell of Nice, (which was in the *4* centuarie,) nor any 
diocesses deuided, till then ; that patriarchs were deuised, and other 
sup[e]reorities, for good ends, to watch against, and supress erours & 
heresies ; but it being but a humane deuice, and wanting warrent from 
the word of God, it proued fruitles, and was a meanes to pufe vp the 
bishops with prid, & make them swell with ambition, and serued to 
aduance antichrist vnto his seat. 

And yet it was a long time after, ere that they did assume such 
lordly power, to exclude their presbitors in their adminstrations, or 
the people from their voyces in elections and other rights ; as those 
that are aquainted with histories doe well kowe ; and as came to pass 
in after times, espetially after the exaltation of antichrist to his hight. 

It is not denied but that many churches before these times might 
grow too bulkie, like vnweldy bodyes ; and many bishops that were of 
eminent parts for gifts, and in eminente places, were much resorted to 
for counsell and help in many cases,* and they gaue them honour and 
respecte, as their merits did well deserue. But that ther were any 
proper diocesan bishops, with sole power & jurisdiction ouer others 
before these times of Constantine, they will neuer be able to proue ; 
what soeuer florishes they or any for them may make or pretend. 

* & sometimes tooke too much vpon them. — Bradford's note. — Ed. 



438 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Yong-Men. 

Some thinke the Presbiteran gouerment (which is by Classis, and 
Sinods) to be as oppressing and burthensome as this of the prelats. 
We pray you shew vs in what they differ. 

Ancient-Men. 

We shall shew you what M r Gillespie, a Scotch-minister, saith 
herin. The prelate (saith he) was but one, yet, 'l ly - he claimed the 
power of ordination and jurisdiction as proper to him selfe in his owne 
diocesse. But we giue the power of ordination & church censures 
not vni, but vnitai, not to one, but to an assemblie gathered into one. 

2 ly - The prelate assumed a perpetuall precedancy and priuiledge of 
moderating sinods, which we deney to any one man. 

3 ly - The prelate did not aske or receiue aduice from his fellow pres- 
biters, but when he pleased. 

4 ly - He made him selfe pastor to the diocesse (consisting it may be 
of some hundreds of congregations) holding that the ministers of per- 
ticuler congregations did preach and administer sacrements in his 
name by verue & authority from him, as his vicars, because he could 
not acte in euery congregation. But the Presbiterall gouerment ac- 
knowledged no pastoriall charge of preaching and ministring the 
sacraments to more congregations then one. 

5 ly - As the prelats deney ed the power & authority of pastors, so 
they vterly deney the very offices of ruling elders and deacons for 
taking care of the pore in perticuler congregations. 

6 ly - They did not acknowledg congregationall elderships, nor any 
power of discipline in perticular congregations, which the Presbiterians 
doe. 

7 ly - They intrude pastors ofttimes vpon churches against their con- 
sente, which the Presbiteriens doe not. 

8 ly " They ordaine ministers without any perticuler charge, which the 
Presbiteriall gouerment doth not. 

9 ly - In sinods they doe not allowe any but the clergie alone. 

10 ly - The prelats declined to be accountable to, and censurable by, 
either chapters, diocessan, or nationall sinods ; but in Presbiteriall 
gouer* all are called to accounte, in presbiteries, provinciall, and 
nationall assemblies ; and none are exempted from sinodicall censures 
in case of scandalle and obstinacie. 

1 l ly - The prelats power was not merely ecclesiasticall ; they were 
lords of parlemente and held ciuill places in the state, which we 
condem. 



1870.] governor Bradford's dialogue. 489 

12 ly - The prelats were not chosen by the church ; presbyters are. 

13 ly - The prelates did presume to make lawes binding the con- 
science, euen in things indiferent ; and did persecute, imprison, fine, 
depose, excommunicate men for certaine rites & ceremonies acknowl- 
edged by themselues to be indifferent (seting the will and authority of 
the law-makers asside). This the Presbiteriall gouerment abhoreth, 
saith he. 

14. The prelats did excomunicate for monie-maters, for trifles, w c h 
the Presbiteriall gouerment condemneth. 

15. The prelates did not alow men to examene by the judgmente 
of Christian & priuate discretion, their decrees & canons, so as to 
search the scriptures and looke at the warrents, but would needs haue 
men thinke it enough to know the things to be coinanded by them 
that are in place and power ; but Presbyterall gour* : (saith he) doth 
not lord it ouer mens consciences, but admiteth & comendeth the 
searching of the scriptures, whether these things it holds forth be not 
so ; and doth not presse mens consciences with sic volo, sic jubeo, but 
desire they may doe in faith what they doe. 

1 6. The prelates held vp pluralities, non-residences, &c, which the 
Presbyteriall gouer 1 . doth not. 

17. As many of the prelates did them selues neclect to preach the 
gospell, so they kepte vp in diuerse places a reading-non-preaching 
ministrie, which the Presbyteriall gouerment suffereth not. 

18. They opened the dore of the ministrie to diuerse scandalous 
arminianized and popishly affected men, and locked the dore vpon 
many worthy to be admited. The Presbyteriall gouerment, (saith he) 
herein is as contrary to theirs, as theirs was to right. 

19. Their officiall-courts, comissaries, &c, did serue them selues as 
heires to the sones of Eli ; thou shalt give it me now, and if not, I will 
take it by force. The Presbyteriall gouerment (saith he) hatteth such 
proceedings. 

20. The prelates and their high-comission-court (saith he) did 
assume potestatem utriusq gladij, the power of both the temporal an[d] 
civill sword ; the Presbyteriall gouerment medleth with no ciuill nor 
temporall punishments. Arons-Rod. fol: 179.* 

Thus we haue giuen you many of the differences between these tow 

* George Gillespie was a minister at Edinburgh, and a member of the celebrated 
Westminster Assembly of Divines. Among his many books was the one cited by Brad- 
ford: "Aaron's Rod blossoming; or. the Divine Ordinance of Church Government 
vindicated " ; London, 1646. — Ed. 



440 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

gourments, by one of them selues, and in his owne words. And 
sundrie more might be made ; neither will we now skane the practise 
of the Presbyterieans, how answerable it is in all things to some of 

these grounds. 

Yong-Men. 

These are very deepe charges and wound sorely this National! 
Gouermente by prelates and lord bishops & their substitutes. And it 
is like if the head be thus corrupte and distempred the body cannot be 
sounde, but ill-affected. We desire to hear something thereof, and 
then that you will proceede to speake some thing of the Presbiterians, 
«uid their gouermente. 

Ancient-Men. 

We shall not say much herein, because it hath bene obuious to 
euery mans eyes and eares, and some testimonies might T)e thought 
partiall. Take therefore only these tow ; first, Archb. Whitgift 
saith, now the church is full of hypocrites, dissemblers, drunkards, 
whoremongers, ignorant-persons, papistes. atheistes, and such like. 
Ans : to the Admoition, pag -44- 45- # 

And Doctor Bilson saith, to our churches comes all sortes, atheistes, 
hypocrites, &c, all which filth, (saith M r . Jacob,) ought verily to be 
imputed to non-residents and pluralists ; and that a diocesan bishop 
must needs be a great pluralist and non-resident him selfe, for he hath 
the proper charge of soules, ouer all his cirquite ; that is, ouer many 
hundred congregations, and for the most part is neuer with them, nor 
so much as euer saw their faces. Jacobs Attestation, fol : 181* 

And M r Caluin saith, that it is a prodigious and monstrous mish- 
cheefous wickednes, vtterly against God, against nature, and against 
the ecclesiasticall gouerment, that one arrante theefe should sitt ouer 
diuers churches-together, and that he should be called their pastor, 
which cannot be present with his flock though he would. Wetenhall, 
pag *145' 

Thus you see the complection of this Nationall-Church ; and the 
causes therof, in a great measure ; and what just ground ther hath 
been of complainte and bearing witnes against the same,- by those who 
haue suffered hard measure for so doing, from men ; but their reward 
is with the Lord. 



* John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote a number of books, among which 
was " An Answere to a certan Libell, entitled, An Admonition to the Parliament," Lon- 
don, 1571. He died at Lambeth, 1604. — Ed. 



1870.] governor bradford 3 dialogue. 441 

Yong-Men. 

We must acknowledg you haue giuen vs more light in these things 
then we in many things saw before, and we doubt not but such as haue 
been faithfull to the Lord & his truth shall reap the fruit of their 
labours. But we pray you to procceed to speak of the Presbiterian 
gouermente. 



OF THE PRESBYTERIANS. 



Anciente-Men. 

The Reformed Churches, vnder the Presbyterian gouerment, we 
esteeme and reuerence the as the true churches of Christ ; being for 
the maine rightly constituted and reformed according to the word of 
God ; at least in those grounds and principles laid downe and held 
forth bv those excelente men and shining lightes which the Lord 
reaised vp in the first times of Reformation ; as we haue allready seen 
by the testimonies of sundrie of them, & by many more may appeare. 
But it were to be wished that many things had been better examined 
and mended according to the true standard and right patterne of the 
word of God, as we doubt not but many of them selues were of the 
same minde, and were contented to beare with, and suffer many things 
which, in regard of the condition of the times and places in which they 
liued, they knew not how to help or mende. And what hath been 
left vnreformed at first hath seldom been mended affterwards, but 
rather grown worse, as too much experience hath showne. And this 
that excelent and holy man Peter Martyre well kewe, when he write 
to the ministers of Polonia. Who seeth not (saith he) that when 
" a mater is defered, desired occations are lost. Wherfore bestire 
" your selues with speede, Breethreji, pluck vp by the rootes all 
"'superstition, and false opinions ; let the euill seeds & rotten roots be 
" cut vp euen in the verie begining, for if they be neglected at the 
" first (I know what I say) they are with dificulty taken away after- 
" ward I haue seene some (saith he) which haue pared away the 
" leaues, flowers & fruits of superstition, but haue spared the roots, 
" which haue afterward sprunge vp againe, to the great hurt of the 
" Lords vinyeard. Epis : to the Ministers of Poland, pag -87- Well 
had it bsen had this good and holsom counsell bene better followed, 
both by them and others. 

56 



442 MASSACHUSETTS HISTORICAL SOCIETY. [Oct. 

Yong-Men. 

We desire to know how them selues describe or speake of the 
church ; and how the same may be knowne and discerned. 

•Ancient-Men. 

Vsually they distinguish betweene the Catholick-church and a per- 
ticuler- church. The Catholick church is some time taken by them 
for all the electe of God, that euer haue been, or shall be, euen all the 
saints that euer haue been or shall be in the world ; and some time, for 
all the faithfull that liue disperced through the whole world in any 
present age. 

But of a perticuler church (which most concernes our mater in hand) 
you haue heard before, how that Zuinglius & others say, the church 
is take